The paper presents the results of research aimed at preliminary analysis of the students’ assessment of environmental conditions in selected university buildings in Poland. The study was conducted using questionnaires designed for this study. The questionnaire-based interviews were conducted in five university buildings in a few academic centres; the respondents were students attending classes in the buildings (N = 184) under study. The data were analysed both quantitatively and
Architecture, Civil Engineering, Environment , ISSUE 4, 41–53
The main goal of the Task 4 “Development of thermal diagnostics of buildings” of Strategic Research Project “Integrated System for Reducing Energy Consumption in the Maintenance of Buildings” was to develop new tools for thermal diagnostics of different types of buildings, including development of the rapid method of a cooling sources diagnostics. The paper presents a method for assessing the cooling sources based on on-site measurements. The cooling capacity of the cooling sources and the
Architecture, Civil Engineering, Environment , ISSUE 2, 157–163
Public utility buildings are formally, structurally and functionally complex entities. Frequently the process of their design involves retroactive reconsideration of energy engineering issues, once a building concept has already been completed. At that stage minor formal corrections are made along with the design of the external layer of the building, satisfying or even exceeding applicable standards. Architecture students do the same when designing assigned public utility buildings. It can be
Marek A. WOŁOSZYN
Architecture, Civil Engineering, Environment , ISSUE 2, 37–43
Energy consumption is gradually increasing due to the increase in user-oriented comfort requirements besides the continuously growth in population and building stock. According to the 2010 AR5 Report (Fifth Assessment Report) by IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change), globally 32% of the total energy consumption and 19% of the greenhouse gas emissions belong to the buildings . The energy data of EU in 2016 shows that these rates increased to 40% and 36
Architecture, Civil Engineering, Environment , ISSUE 1, 5–18
This article describes the approach of experts of the National Research Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) to the construction of modern operating systems in buildings using BIM-technology. This article was performed within the Russian State tasks MGSU project “Methodology of ideas, design and verification of energy-efficient engineering systems conventionally abstract objects (on formal models of buildings)”.
International Journal of Advanced Network, Monitoring and Controls , ISSUE 1, 25–28
The methodology for inspecting the ventilation system and on-site measurements for office buildings has been proposed under the project “Development of thermal diagnostics of buildings”. The inspections of the ventilation system in two office buildings were conducted. The design documentations were compared with the existing state of the installations. The measurements of the air flow volume, of the temperature of ventilation air and of the volume flow of the heating medium and its temperature
Architecture, Civil Engineering, Environment , ISSUE 2, 145–156
International Journal of Advanced Network, Monitoring and Controls , ISSUE 3, 30–35
The paper presents a humanistic approach in investigation of people-environment relations within university buildings. Architecture of the university buildings is considered to be a learning environment from the position of “critical pedagogy of place”. It emphasizes the importance of the place itself expressed by the specific link between building and its location understood mainly in environmental terms – not only as a functional node but also as a vital element of cultural and also
Architecture, Civil Engineering, Environment , ISSUE 4, 31–40
effect of resistance and heat capacity of the elements of the building envelope. The obtained results were verified by comparing the average monthly heat demand for heating calculated based on the determined total heat transmission coefficient and measured value. The presented way of total heat transmission coefficient determination in the event of a careful choice of measurement days and the experience of the user in estimating the number of air changes (especially in natural ventilated buildings
Architecture, Civil Engineering, Environment , ISSUE 1, 103–115
of life and resource efficiency through the productive use of innovation and new technologies. The “Smart City Vienna” strategy aims to successfully meet the challenges of the 21st century: by 2025, 2030 and even 2050, a total of 38 specific tasks have been defined .
Smart City Vienna 2050 objectives
Reducing energy consumption, using renewable energy
Low energy building standards and necessary renovation of existing buildings
Reduction of environmental pollution by CO2 reduction
Architecture, Civil Engineering, Environment , ISSUE 3, 5–12
The Polish National Centre for Research and Development has been coordinating the implementation of a strategic research project “Integrated System for Reducing Energy Consumption in the Maintenance of Buildings”. The main goal of the project is to support Poland's efforts to reduce energy consumption in buildings, which is a strategic goal of the European Union. Within the scope of the aforementioned project, Task 4, “Development of thermal diagnostics of buildings”, was realized. Silesian
Architecture, Civil Engineering, Environment , ISSUE 2, 125–132
In the last ten years, numerous Sustainability Assessment Systems have been developed worldwide to provide construction stakeholders tools that help in achieving better sustainable development. Jordan developed its own Green Building Guideline in 2013 for new buildings but unfortunately, the guideline hasn’t included any criteria for existing or traditional buildings. The main objective of this study is to develop a sustainable Assessment Method for existing and traditional buildings to assist
Rana Tawfiq MATARNEH
Architecture, Civil Engineering, Environment , ISSUE 4, 15–31
An innovative method of shaping free architectural forms of buildings and their morphological systems roofed with complex shells made up of folded steel sheets transformed from plane into shell shapes is presented. An interdisciplinary character of the paper results from the diversity and complexity of the considered issues. Complex morphological systems of the buildings formed of integrated multi-segment shell roofs and plane-walled elevations are achieved with the help of the geometrical
Architecture, Civil Engineering, Environment , ISSUE 1, 29–40
possibility of its use for relaxation purposes, facilitated by the appropriate distances between the buildings creating the interior . Due to the price of the land, especially in the city centres, the distances between the buildings are small, and thus the building development is compact. It is characteristic for both old town and modern buildings in the city centres.
Too high intensity of the development is accompanied by the small social spaces – the neighbourhoods. Moreover, unfavourable shading of
Architecture, Civil Engineering, Environment , ISSUE 1, 37–42
In the modern world it is increasingly referred to the concept of intelligent building. Intelligent building referred to above all energy-efficient building, using alternative energy sources, as well as equipped with modern energy efficient technologies that reduce the energy consumption of the building in general. But for all the time and does not set forth a definition of intelligence buildings, which leads to different opinions and approaches to the understanding of the term.
International Journal of Advanced Network, Monitoring and Controls , ISSUE 1, 115–119
the “fire” part of the equation is the traditional area of Fire Safety Engineering discipline, while architecture is most often taken as it is. This paper explores the influence of the building itself, on the flow of smoke, and tries to answer a question if a change in the architecture can alter the requirements for smoke exhaust, and efficiently alter the safety of a building.
FLOW OF SMOKE IN LARGE VOLUME BUILDINGS
A flow of smoke in an undisturbed plume may be considered the simplest case
Architecture, Civil Engineering, Environment , ISSUE 1, 155–164
middle and high-rise multi-family buildings must be equipped with passenger lifts, which provide access to each floor for disabled people ( §54 section 1 and section 2). In the absence of a lift, access to flats on the ground floor ( § 55 section 1) is required. One may get the impression that the problem has been resolved, but after a more thorough analysis, it should be noted that we are dealing with a very “literal” and surface treatment of this issue. The building accessibility zone is
Architecture, Civil Engineering, Environment , ISSUE 3, 7–21
Adaptive reuse of buildings is the process of renovating, or rehabilitating existing buildings, or structures to fulfill a use other than their current use . Adaptive reuse of buildings can provide economic, social and environmental benefits to societies. The economic benefits can be achieved through reductions in the time and cost of realizing functional buildings . Rehabilitated buildings can be configured quickly, in comparison to constructing new buildings, provided
Mohammad B. HAMIDA,
Mohammad A. HASSANAIN
Architecture, Civil Engineering, Environment , ISSUE 1, 29–40
The requirements involving the maintenance of buildings are defined in Poland by the Construction Law  and technical and construction regulations in the form of regulations [2, 3]. They ensure that the buildings are used in accordance with their intended purpose and environmental protection requirements and are maintained in a proper technical and esthetic condition. The above regulations specify the requirements for buildings and building envelopes, including such aspects as
Architecture, Civil Engineering, Environment , ISSUE 4, 73–85
As reported by Central Statistical Office of Poland (GUS), it is estimated that the number of dwellings in Poland amounts to 13.5 millions . Until 1985 the erected buildings had been extremely energy consuming and often without thermal insulation. The time had been characterized by the lack of strict requirements concerning the maximum heat transfer coefficient in outdoor walls: during 1960s – (1.16÷1.42 W/(m2K)) and 1980s (0.75 W/(m2K)). Pursuant to Journal of Laws Dz.U
Architecture, Civil Engineering, Environment , ISSUE 3, 121–130
The need to ensure healthy and comfortable environmental conditions for city residents is one of the assumptions that define the concept of sustainable urban development. Factors, such as feeling the temperature, air movement, air smell or humidity, contribute to the quality in use of urban space and, indirectly, also the buildings themselves. Modern cities, especially the largest cities, face problems of air pollution, insufficient air exchange rate and overheating, all of
Architecture, Civil Engineering, Environment , ISSUE 4, 51–58
Experiences of past earthquakes show that some designed and constructed buildings by engineers have been damaged during earthquakes because of negative effects of infill walls. The main aim of this paper is to prevent the amount of overall detrimental effects of infill walls such as torsion and soft story in a conventional residential building based on seismic codes of some countries and to use the maximum potential of walls. The results show that building in construction condition may suffer
Mohammad Reza TABESHPOUR,
Fatemeh Mehdizadeh SARADJ
Architecture, Civil Engineering, Environment , ISSUE 2, 77–92
The indoor environment determines the occupants’ comfort and significantly affects the energy consumed for heating and ventilating the building premises. Therefore, the proper complex thermal diagnostics of existing buildings requires a fair assessment of indoor environment conditions. The method for measuring and assessing the quality of the thermal environment and the quality of the indoor air is demonstrated through the example of two single-family houses and one apartment in a multi-family
Architecture, Civil Engineering, Environment , ISSUE 4, 163–171
The paper describes the issue of ventilation and air quality in buildings with reference to regular tightening of heating standards. The purpose of the work is to show the risks related to excessive insulation of buildings, which is thought to have a negative influence on users’ well-being and health. The development of issues related to thermal comfort has often led to erroneous solutions. As a result, problems such as “Sick Building Syndrome” and “Building Related Illness” has developed in
Architecture, Civil Engineering, Environment , ISSUE 2, 29–36
Nowadays public buildings are changing constantly, often people have to take different routes to reach known destinations. At the same time, new services and places are made available to attract more people to the shopping center. This dynamic environment is usually signalled and labelled with visual marks and signs which are not appropriated for blind persons. Therefore, blind users are unintentionally deprived of a full participation in the society. With the purpose of equalize the access to
Jorge Sa Silva,
International Journal on Smart Sensing and Intelligent Systems , ISSUE 5, 1–4
constructed in the early stages of construction development were carried out by arranging several or more horizontal (or inclined) beams between the supporting walls. Such laid beams were covered with various types of material that isolated the building from precipitation. Such a roofing structure had two main drawbacks: it limited the permanent (undisturbed) covering of naves with wider spacing and poorly drained rainwater.
Buildings in which an ever larger group of people lived, and these were mainly
Architecture, Civil Engineering, Environment , ISSUE 3, 7–11
Buildings with a large open space are popularly called atriums. Atria are part of modern architecture. The architects design them as separate objects or they form a part of a building complex. It is a big challenge for engineers to create appropriate conditions for people to stay in such facilities. This applies to maintaining the right temperature and air quality. However, the biggest challenge is to ensure the safety of people in the event of a fire. When a fire breaks out
Architecture, Civil Engineering, Environment , ISSUE 4, 135–144
Architecture, Civil Engineering, Environment , ISSUE 3, 143–151
S. K. Palit,
International Journal on Smart Sensing and Intelligent Systems , ISSUE 1, 118–134
Mohammad Reza TABESHPOUR
Architecture, Civil Engineering, Environment , ISSUE 4, 105–122
The Alto Douro Wine Region, a region located in the northeast of Portugal, presents an abundant building heritage which consists of tabique constructions, a vernacular construction technology. This technology uses raw materials such as stone, an earth-based material and wood, besides metal nail sensure the timber connections and the required structural safety. Previous research works have shown that most of the existing tabique buildings, in this region, present signs of marked deterioration
João Carlos Lanzinha
Architecture, Civil Engineering, Environment , ISSUE 1, 59–70
aging-related professionals and experts. Then, the resulting data were imported into SPSS22 software and analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. FINDINGS: The results indicated that, among 8 indices of age-friendly city including open spaces and buildings, transportation, housing, social participation, respect and social inclusion of the elderly, citizen participation and employment of the elderly, communication and information facilities, as well as health and local services
Farzaneh SALEHI KOUSALARI
Architecture, Civil Engineering, Environment , ISSUE 3, 35–51
Architecture, Civil Engineering, Environment , ISSUE 3, 5–18
potential directions for development of these types of buildings.
Architecture, Civil Engineering, Environment , ISSUE 3, 33–46
The paper presents the analysis of selected Christian sacral buildings realized in Germany since 2000. Because of the wide range of the question, mostly the aesthetical aspects was discussed. However, in particular cases some important symbolical and functional determinants need to be emphasized. Tendencies that are recognizable in contemporary composition of ecclesiastical architecture were also confronted with the traditions, that are characteristic for German modern architecture. This
Architecture, Civil Engineering, Environment , ISSUE 4, 43–52
Architecture, Civil Engineering, Environment , ISSUE 1, 5–10
It is difficult to organize urban transport in the city center. Existing buildings, narrow streets and working infrastructure make it difficult to use the oldfashion transport means such as trams or buses. The new idea consists in elevation of the transport in the very city above ground level (typical PRT systems cover rare areas like airport or fairgrounds). The study analyzes the hierarchical, layered system consisting of a ring light rail and PRT (Personal Rapid Transit) serving as commuter
Wiktor B. DASZCZUK
Transport Problems , ISSUE 4, 5–14
buildings in Songyuan. At the same time, PHP, HTML and dynamic cutting technique were used to evaluate the disaster in 10 minutes after the earthquake. This system will provide technical support for the prevention of earthquake damage in Songyuan.
International Journal of Advanced Network, Monitoring and Controls , ISSUE 2, 1–5
vehicles. The model of aerodynamic interaction of vehicles in traffic on a straight section of road in tunnels allows an arbitrary number of vehicles in each sub-region, along with an arbitrary, periodically repeating configuration of vegetation and buildings on the side of the road to be considered.
Transport Problems , ISSUE 2, 133–142
measured metrics. The research findings have demonstrated that Well Index can be a valid indicator to characterize proportion for assessing daylight at individual floors in buildings. This methodology improves the existing research method by proving that spaces with the same Well Index will have very close dynamic daylight metrics under the same condition, assumptions and material properties.
Architecture, Civil Engineering, Environment , ISSUE 2, 109–114
spaces and is less influenced by outdoor environmental condition . Furthermore, the use of decentralized installation results in reduced operating costs. However, there are also some disadvantages: possibility of location in buildings and compliance with standards  in terms of air inlets and outlets location. This is the reason that sometimes they technically cannot be used .
Nowadays, the world attaches great significance to the saving of energy. Energy-efficient construction focuses mainly
Architecture, Civil Engineering, Environment , ISSUE 4, 109–114
In this paper, we proposed to use the Efficient Indoor Thermal Time Constant (EITTC) to characterize the indoor thermal response in old buildings. Accordingly, a low cost, energy-efficient, wide-applicable indoor thermal modeling solution is developed by combining Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) and Artificial Neural Network (ANN). Experiments on both prototype and building room showed consistent results that the combination of WSN and ANN can provide accurate indoor thermal models. A linear
International Journal on Smart Sensing and Intelligent Systems , ISSUE 2, 869–895
operation of the installation, for determining the energy performance of the building and executing the energy audit of the building for thermomodernization purposes. The paper describes the methodology of comprehensive inspection and diagnostics of heating and DHW systems and outlines the scope of basic activities that should be performed. The practical application of such diagnostics in several buildings is also presented.
Architecture, Civil Engineering, Environment , ISSUE 2, 165–173
elements produced have become very common thanks to this technology. As an example, a k-span manufactured with this technology and produced in the United States of America is shown in Figure 1 (M.I.C. Industries Inc., Gençler Metal Ltd. Inc.). The precise process of construction of RFM arch steel roofs and buildings is described in Refs.  and . The corrugated members are formed by themselves while giving a belt shape to the flat hair panels [3–4]. Thus, the inertia is increased at a high degree
Abdulkadir Cüneyt AYDIN
Architecture, Civil Engineering, Environment , ISSUE 2, 105–116
buildings that have not been enlarged the door is located in the penultimate section of the nave” ; and another, coinciding with what is now the threshold of the Chapel, under the shelter of a sturdy bell tower.
Hypothetical plant of the church of Algemesí in the thirteenth century. Source: authors
Paragonizing the discovered vestiges with other parishes of the same typology and historical period, even having modified its physiognomy, the structural organization of the space was shown in
J. García SENTAMANS,
I. Fernández PLAZAOLA,
J. V. Ferrandis MONTESINOS,
A. Sáez LANDETE
Architecture, Civil Engineering, Environment , ISSUE 4, 37–50
conditions with dense development and preservation of historical buildings in the city.
Transport Problems , ISSUE 1, 81–92
The planned directions for development in space management within the commune are indicated by, among others, a study and a document drawn up mandatorily for the entire municipal area. The analysis of the study record for the Kutno and Opoczno show that municipalities determine areas for newly urbanized housing sites. The use of new buildings would involve a dramatic increase in local community. The number of the inhabitants is decreasing and these trends are likely to remain. The results of
Architecture, Civil Engineering, Environment , ISSUE 3, 13–20
Environmental noise is a major problem that affects citizen’s health and comfort mainly in densely populated urban areas. There are some ways to reduce environmental noise pollution through the use of materials with good acoustic insulation properties in buildings envelope. Recent studies have shown that green surfaces, e.g. in the form of green roofs and green walls, can contribute to decrease noise levels. The aim of this research is to identify how factors such as substrate and plants
João Paulo CASTRO-GOMES,
Architecture, Civil Engineering, Environment , ISSUE 2, 99–108
architecture, which is not characterized by the form of buildings, their style or technology, but a design process based on a model in a digital environment. According to his interpretation, the virtual prototype allows “simulating visual, functional, structural, environmental and even economic properties (...), modifying them until such point as the required result is achieved” . Elizabeth Grosz calls virtual reality a parallel world and notes that it always existed, it is a place for potential
Architecture, Civil Engineering, Environment , ISSUE 3, 35–40
Leila HAJ NAJAFI,
Architecture, Civil Engineering, Environment , ISSUE 2, 77–98
generated by FDTD simulation for UWB radar detection of two trapped victims under debris at an earthquake site of collapsed buildings.
International Journal on Smart Sensing and Intelligent Systems , ISSUE 5, 258–
certain technical characteristics, taking into account a set of real urban and architectural conditions of the building and the location in design of new or reconstruction of old buildings.
Jasna ČIKIĆ TOVAROVIĆ,
Jelena IVANOVIĆ ŠEKULARAC,
Architecture, Civil Engineering, Environment , ISSUE 3, 55–70
Economic development of a country as well as growing consumption causes a rise in the amount of wastes, mainly municipal wastes. Basic sources of the municipal wastes are households and public buildings. When Poland joined European Union, it was necessary to introduce many changes related to the waste management. Gradually implemented actions aim at limiting the amounts of municipal wastes deposited in landfills and reducing biodegradable fraction of wastes. Production of fuel from the
Architecture, Civil Engineering, Environment , ISSUE 3, 113–121
The paper deals with the modernization and adaptation to the new features of existing objects in the urban fabric. In the twenty-first century the digital design tools, which are interfaced with the production of computer technology, have opened the new opportunities that not only are shaping the architectural objects, but also interferencing in the buildings’ structures. The selected objects are examined, which have been implemented in the European cities centers, and the new design approaches
Karol G. KOWALSKI
Architecture, Civil Engineering, Environment , ISSUE 2, 5–11
The natural smoke removal is a common way of protection of the escape routes in Poland. The operation of such systems is based on the phenomenon of buoyancy. The intensity of this effect depends on the temperature difference between smoke and ambient air. The second factor influencing the natural smoke flow inside a building is wind. The wind influence is significantly important for buildings equipped with smoke removal windows. However, also the other natural smoke removal systems could be
Architecture, Civil Engineering, Environment , ISSUE 3, 119–126
Rural areas, similar with the amount of produced sewage to urban areas, are rarely parts of agglomerations. Because of dispersed buildings and often poor infrastructure, sewage management regulation in rural areas can be difficult. Caring for the environment include aquatic environment protection. Sewage economy regulations, especially in rural areas, is a key issue in water contaminations counteracting. Often inappropriate sewage disposal and treatment methods choice could cause
Architecture, Civil Engineering, Environment , ISSUE 4, 179–184
economically unjustified .
Assumptions of passive construction
In Poland, promotion and certification of passive buildings is carried out by the Polish Institute of Passive Construction and Renewable Energy named after Günter Schlagowski . Research on passive housing is carried out by the Passive House Institute in Darmstadt . The first passive building constructed, metered and tested is a residential building Kranichstein Darmstadt .
Passive construction is the term used to describe
Architecture, Civil Engineering, Environment , ISSUE 1, 19–32
flamboyant artistic figure of the chimney.
In modern times, as a result of economic advances and the modernization of every-day life and consumerist mentality, man has slowly started to lose sight of the beauty of traditional buildings.
TRADITIONAL MATERIALS AND MODERN FORMS
New materials, modern building techniques and the rise in needs of the populace have confused the modern man, who used to build houses for the most basic of needs using the materials he had within reach. It is evident that, in
Architecture, Civil Engineering, Environment , ISSUE 3, 23–34
buildings and environments (Ling, 2015; Sovacool and Rio, 2020; Aman and Anitha, 2017).
Several phenomena are exploited in detecting motion such as the optical, microwave, and acoustic (Khan et al., 2019; Micko, 2008; Lvov et al., 2018; Bakhsheshi et al., 2019; Moghavvemi and Seng, 2004). One of the very commonly used sensors is the pyroelectric infrared-based motion detector (PIR sensor), which is a passive sensor, its technology mainly based on detecting the heat energy emitted from the moving object
International Journal on Smart Sensing and Intelligent Systems , ISSUE 1, 1–9
Garden city is an idea regarded as one of the reasons for the spontaneous sprawl of buildings around the city. The paper compares the assumptions described in the book “Garden Cities of Tomorrow” with the way of the investment implementation on the outskirts of Łódź, in the buffer zone of the Łagiewnicki Forest. The analysis of the spatial structure of the newly urbanized open areas, made on the basis of aerial photography and introduction of geodesic division shows that the emerging housing
Architecture, Civil Engineering, Environment , ISSUE 2, 13–19
De-privatising teaching and working collaboratively with fellow teachers in purposively designed school buildings requires effective leadership. The principal is situated amongst those closely affiliated to their school such as teachers, parents and students, and yet they need to work alongside the wider school community, the school’s governing Board of Trustee members and national educational policy-makers and administrators. This article uses a single case study of a school leadership
Journal of Educational Leadership, Policy and Practice , ISSUE 1, 70–83
The global trend of organic materials application for the construction low rise residential accommodation in the context of the sustainable development concept results in growing interest towards the usage of both known natural materials and their combinations as well as the search of new technological decisions. The trend of eco-buildings is starting to play an important role. The concept of eco-buildings means construction of low-energy buildings  that cause less harm to
Architecture, Civil Engineering, Environment , ISSUE 3, 55–67
for ordinary buildings, 2) obtained by using information included in standards [1, 2]. This was to answer the question of many constructors, which approach in design will be better to obtain the required parameters of thermal comfort. Prior to this work, the boundary conditions have been determined based on the results of measurement ,, or assumed values in computational simulations . The information included in standards was not taken into account.
VENTILATION AND AIR
Architecture, Civil Engineering, Environment , ISSUE 4, 125–133
planning policies that were considered destructive to the local communities. Jacobs also pointed several important conditions for the implementation of urban regeneration: mixed of use, small walking distance urban blocks, mixing of ages and types of buildings, and dense concentration of people (ap.100 apartments per acre 247 apartments per hectare). The idea of compact city exist in many variations in many theories including the idea of smart city, but all of them lead to discussion about the urban
Architecture, Civil Engineering, Environment , ISSUE 1, 19–27
scheme in light of technical requirements relating to access to and use of buildings. In assistance the original documents submitted for planning permission by John Simpson Architects, Historic Royal Palaces’ annual reviews formed the base of this paper. The regeneration scheme proved to be successful as after completion HRP noted significant increase in visitors’ numbers. As a result this project is an interesting insight of design criteria on how to balance potential impact on historic
Bartłomiej Gloger, MSc Eng. Arch.,
Jan Rabiej, Prof. DSc PhD Eng. Arch.
Architecture, Civil Engineering, Environment , ISSUE 1, 5–10
and evaluated against existing solutions in the literature. A novel adaptive algorithm then chooses the best weighting scheme based on a similarity error to ensure the best performance of the attention model in a given context. Finally, a neural network is trained to predict the set of weights provided by the best weighting scheme for the context of the image in which buildings are to be detected. The solution provides encouraging results on a set of 50 satellite images.
International Journal on Smart Sensing and Intelligent Systems , ISSUE 4, 742–766
The aim of this study was to use AHP method to analyze seven types of windows in terms of cost-effectiveness of their designing in building partitions. The analysis referred to price as well as thermal and acoustic insulation for various construction and material solutions of window glazing. Using the analysis it was verified what windows are profitable to be used for various structural solutions in the existing buildings and how the thermal and acoustic coefficient is shaped at given
Architecture, Civil Engineering, Environment , ISSUE 3, 95–104
readability of the communication system within the large-scale medical units. Most hospital buildings operate on the base of the corridors system. Complex spatial system of combined medical unit’s long pathways causes a spatial disorientation of its users. A visual information system that is based on graphic signs and specially developed colors constitutes an attempt preventing this phenomenon. The Wayfinding System, established primarily on the interior’s design diversification, makes it easier for users
Architecture, Civil Engineering, Environment , ISSUE 2, 13–24
stage by using modern thermoinsulating materials and execution technology, with increased financial outlays. Building heat protection translates into energy efficacy of buildings which can be evaluated by their users based on building heating costs. According to Laskowski, building heat protection is the sum of the practical application of heat physics based on algorithms and resulting in empirical quantification, on the knowledge of the properties of building materials and – in many cases – on
Architecture, Civil Engineering, Environment , ISSUE 2, 25–37
degradation would ensue. For “Prussian walls” that are 12 cm thick and insulated on the inside we observe exceeding the level of 20% water content, which is critical for wood durability.
These results present elementary problems that occur when buildings with “Prussian walls” construction undergo thermo insulation. Restoration process must be a compromise between the need to retain the historical aspect of a building and the need to bring them to modern heat and usability standards. On the basis of
Architecture, Civil Engineering, Environment , ISSUE 4, 123–134
, the knowledge of urban planners today has to be extended to the living environment ecology: the reduction of the negative impact of buildings on the environment, protection of natural resources, adaptation of the layout of buildings to the topography of the terrain, adjustment of technical infrastructure to the use of renewable energy sources in order to save energy and water. Considering that the most frequently mentioned features of sustainable design are energy efficiency and the use of
Architecture, Civil Engineering, Environment , ISSUE 1, 15–22