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Case report

Molecular analysis of patients with weak D and serologic analysis of those with anti-D (excluding type 1 and type 2)

Whether or not patients whose red blood cells (RBCs) carry certain weak D types  produce anti-D, and if they do whether it is  allo- or autoanti-D, remains controversial. The aim of this study was to determine the serologic features of anti-D in individuals expressing a weak D other than type 1 or type 2 and to assess whether the anti-D was an allo- or autoantibody. Serologic D typing and molecular analyses were performed on 748 individuals. Serologic characterization of anti-D

Bach-Nga Pham, Michèle Roussel, Dominique Gien, Maryline Ripaux, Carine Auxerre, Pierre-Yves Le Pennec, Christine Andre-Botte

Immunohematology , ISSUE 2, 55–62


Use of LOR-15C9 monoclonal anti-D to differentiate erythrocytes with the partial DVI antigen from those with other partial D antigens or weak D antigens

Historically, red blood cells (RBCs) with partial D antigens have been defined serologically by their pattern of reactivity with polyclonal and monoclonal anti-D. Although numerous variants have been described in tests with well-characterized monoclonal anti-D, definition remains difficult to ascertain serologically. RBCs of known partial D type were tested with LOR-15C9 (a monoclonal anti-D) and commercial anti-D by the tube indirect antiglobulin test (IAT), by micro typing system IgG gel

Marion E. Reid, Gregory R. Halverson, Francis Roubinet, P.A. Apoil, Antoine Blancher

Immunohematology , ISSUE 3, 89–93

Case report

Alloimmunization to the D antigen by a patient with weak D type 21

Antibodies of apparent D specificity may be found in D+ patients. We report a D+, multi-transfused Caucasian woman with myelodysplasia who exhibited several alloantibodies. One antibody was a moderately strong (2+) anti-D that persisted for 9 months, until the woman died. Molecular analysis of the patient’s RHD gene identified the rare weak D type 21 (938C>T) allele. D alloantibodies do not occur in patients with most weak D types, but some patients with a weak D phenotype, including

Heather McGann, Robert E. Wenk

Immunohematology , ISSUE 1, 27–29


Incidence of weak D in blood donors typed as D positive by the Olympus PK 7200

The incidence of weak D has been reported to be between 0.23 and 0.5 percent in Europe and 3.0 percent in the United States. All studies were performed before the introduction of monoclonal anti-D reagents. Using current commercial reagents, this study evaluated D+ samples for the presence of weak D. D+ donors, typed by the Olympus PK 7200, using diluted monoclonal blend anti-D and diluted polyclonal anti-D, were selected by sampling batches of 100 to 200 samples from the previous day’s

Candace Jenkins, Susan T. Johnson, Daniel B. Bellissimo, Jerome L. Gottschall

Immunohematology , ISSUE 4, 152–154


Reactivity of FDA-approved anti-D reagents with partial D red blood cells

Individuals whose RBCs are characterized as having a partial D phenotype may make anti-D if exposed to normal D+ RBCs;thus it is desirable that they be typed as D– should they require blood transfusion or Rh immune globulin (RhIG) prophylaxis. Further, use of different anti-D reagents by blood centers and transfusion services can account for FDA-reportable errors. For this study,antiD reagents for use in tube tests were obtained from three U.S. manufacturers. They included three examples

W. John Judd, Marilyn Moulds, Gloria Schlanser

Immunohematology , ISSUE 4, 146–148

Case report

Serologic and molecular characterization of D variants in Brazilians: impact for typing and transfusion strategy

Rh discrepancies are a problem during routine testing because of partial D or weak D phenotypes. Panels of monoclonal antibodies (MoAb) are being developed to identify D variants such as partial D and weak D when there are anomalous D typing results; however, molecular characterization offers a more specific classification of weak and partial D. The weak D and partial D phenotypes are caused by many different RHD alleles encoding aberrant D proteins, resulting in distinct serologic phenotypes

Débora Castilho Credidio, Jordão Pellegrino Jr., Lilian Castilho

Immunohematology , ISSUE 1, 6–11

Case report

Weak D type 42 cases found in individuals of European descent

Patient samples were referred to our immunohematology reference laboratory to investigate the presence of a weak D antigen. In the last 3 years, 26 samples were received. Serology and molecular analyses were performed to identify the weak D variant. RHD mRNA from all patients was reverse transcribed, and cDNA was sequenced. The results were compared with a normal RHD sequence to identify the polymorphisms causing the weak D phenotype. Five different already known RHD variants were observed

Maryse St-Louis, Martine Richard, Marie Côté, Carole Éthier, Anne Long

Immunohematology , ISSUE 1, 20–24

Case report

Discrepancies in Rh(D) typing of sensitized red blood cells using monoclonal/polyclonal anti-D reagents: case report and review

Instructions included with monoclonal Rh(D) typing reagents do not require routine use of an Rh control as immunoglobulin-coated red blood cells (RBCs) rarely yield falsely positive results with low protein reagents. However, the American Association of Blood Banks (AABB) Technical Manual recommends a concurrent control be performed on patients’ RBCs that type as group AB, D+. Proficiency testing surveys presented sensitized AB, D– RBCs, which resulted in a positive direct

Beverly J. Padget, Judith L. Hannon

Immunohematology , ISSUE 1, 10–13


Prevalence of DEL phenotype in D– blood donors in India

Since the identification of the Rh factor more than seven decades ago, individuals are categorized as either D+ or D– depending on the presence or absence of D. D, in the Rh blood group system, is the most immunogenic of all blood group antigens. As little as 0.1–1 mL of D+ red blood cells (RBCs) can induce anti-D formation in D– recipients, which is responsible for severe transfusion reactions and hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn.1 Antigen expression in the Rh system is influenced by

R. Chaudhary, S. Verma, A. Verma

Immunohematology , ISSUE 4, 133–136

Case report

Autoanti-D in a patient after cladribine treatment for lymphoplasmocytic lymphoma

We report the case of a 62-year-old woman who developed an autoanti-D after cladribine treatment. In May 2000, the patient underwent splenectomy for a stage IV-B lymphoplasmocytic lymphoma. She was transfused with ABO- and Rh(D)-matched blood. A month later, she received chemotherapy with cladribine. In February 2001, blood grouping showed her to be AB, D+ and the direct antiglobulin test was positive for IgG. An autoanti-D was identified in the eluate. Genotypic analysis confirmed the Rh

Joan Cid, Victor Beltran, L. Escoda, Enric Elies, Carmen Martin-Vega

Immunohematology , ISSUE 1, 16–18

Case report

Two cases of the variant RHD*DAU5 allele associated with maternal alloanti-D  

Rh is a complex blood group system with diverse genotypes that may encode weak and partial D variants. Standard serologic analysis may identify clinically significant D variants as D+; nevertheless, individuals with these D variants should be managed as D– patients to prevent antibody formation to absent D epitopes. Variant identification is necessary during pregnancy to allow for timely and appropriate Rh immune globulin (RhIG) prophylaxis for hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn

Jennifer A. Duncan, Susan Nahirniak, Rodrigo Onell, Gwen Clarke

Immunohematology , ISSUE 2, 60–63


Weak D types 38 and 11: determination of frequencies in a Brazilian population and validation of an easy molecular assay for detection

D antigen is very important in transfusion practice because of its high immunogenicity and involvement with post-transfusion hemolytic reactions and hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn.1 The RHD locus is complex, and diverse gene variations (point mutations, insertions, deletions, and gene conversions) can affect the RhD phenotype and lead to variant antigens.2–4 RhD variants may explain red blood cell (RBC) alloimmunization in the case of partial antigens or can result in

M.R. Dezan, V.B. Oliveira, M. Conrado, F. Luz, A. Gallucci, T.G.M. Oliveira, E.C. Sabino, V. Rocha, A. Mendrone, C.L. Dinardo

Immunohematology , ISSUE 2, 47–53

Case report

Weak D type 67 in four related Canadian blood donors

Correct donor D typing is critical to prevent recipient alloimmunization. No method can detect all variants, and the immunogenicity of many variants is unknown. Routine ABO and D serologic typings are performed in our laboratory by automated microplate testing. Until 2011, routine confirmation of D– status of first-time donors was performed by the manual tube indirect antiglobulin test (IAT); this was replaced by automated solidphase testing including weak D testing by IAT. Selected

Philip Berardi, Emma Bessette, Michiko Ng, Nancy Angus, Debra Lane, Lise Gariepy, Katerina Pavenski, Gorka Ochoa-Garay, Jacqueline Cote, Mindy Goldman

Immunohematology , ISSUE 4, 159–162


Moderate hemolytic disease of the newborn due to anti-Hr0 in a mother with the D––/D–– phenotype

Hemolytic disease of the newborn (HDN) due to anti-Hr0 antibody is typically severe and often fatal. We report a case of moderate HDN due to anti-Hr0 in a woman with the D––/D–– phenotype. A 33-yearold woman delivered her second child who was mildly jaundiced. The highest level of bilirubin was 26.1 mg/dL on the third day postpartum and the hemoglobin concentration was 14.0 g/dL. The newborn recovered after phototherapy and no mental retardation was noticed after 1 year

Barbara Żupańska, B. Lenkiewicz

Immunohematology , ISSUE 3, 109–111

Case report

Case report: passively acquired anti-D in a D+ pregnant patient

A sample was submitted for serologic evaluation from a pregnant patient with immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) for possible transfusion in the future because of a decreased platelet count. Anti-D and -E were identified in the patient’s serum using several antibody identification techniques, and anti-D was recovered in an acid eluate prepared from the patient’s red cells. It was discovered that WinRho™ had been administered to treat the ITP. This product has been licensed

Marie P. Holub, Kirk D. Kitchen, Eugene Mensinger

Immunohematology , ISSUE 2, 69–70


Laboratory management of perinatal patients with apparently “new” anti-D

Despite the existence of long-standing, well-organized programs for Rh immune globulin (RhIG) prophylaxis, immune anti-D continues to be detected in the D– perinatal population. Between 2006 and 2008, 91 prenatal patients, found to have a previously unidentified anti-D, were followed up with a survey to their treating physician and with additional serologic testing where possible. The physician survey requested pregnancy and RhIG history information, including recent or distant potential

Judith L. Hannon, Gwen Clarke

Immunohematology , ISSUE 3, 108–111


A successful delivery of a baby from a D––/ D–– mother with strong anti-Hr0

We describe the first reported case in Korea of a woman with a D––/ D–– phenotype, a high-titer anti-Hr0, and the successful delivery of her newborn. The mother had a history of spontaneous abortion and artificial termination. In her third pregnancy, a live infant was delivered, but died of severe hemolytic disease of the newborn due to anti-Hr0 in spite of intensive medical intervention. In her fourth pregnancy, at 22 weeks gestation, the titer of anti-Hr0 was 1024

Dong Hee Whang, Hee Chung Kim, Mina Hur, Jung Hwan Choi, Joong Shin Park, Kyou Sup Han

Immunohematology , ISSUE 3, 112–114


Detection of anti-D following antepartum injections of Rh immune globulin

Antepartum prophylaxis using Rh immune globulin (RhIG) at 28 weeks of gestation is routine in unsensitized Rh-negative women. As various sources state that anti-D may be detected up to 6 months after administration, we reviewed the medical and laboratory records of all Rh-negative women who delivered at our institution during 1995. For 385 evaluable women, only 137 (35.6%) had anti-D demonstrable in their sera at delivery; 97.8 percent of these delivered within 75 days after administration of

Melanie S. Kennedy, Jamie McNanie, Abdul Waheed

Immunohematology , ISSUE 4, 138–140


Immunoprophylaxis using intravenous Rh immune globulin should be standard practice when selected D-negative patients are transfused with D-positive random donor platelets

A 67-year-old female developed excessive bleeding and thrombocytopenia following cardiovascular surgery. Her blood type was group A, D–. The only platelet products available in the transfusion service were random donor platelet concentrates from D+ donors. She was transfused with a pool of 6 D+ random donor platelet concentrates. Anti-D undetected in her pretransfusion serum by solid-phase antibody screen was present 11 days later. Retrospectively, the patient provided a history of having

Clinton A. Ewing, Dawn H. Rumsey, Albert F. Langeberg, S. Gerald Sandler

Immunohematology , ISSUE 4, 133–137


Identifying D-positive donors using a second automated testing platform

Because of the variability of D expression, one method may be inadequate to correctly classify donors with variant RHD alleles. We evaluated the use of a solid-phase automated platform (ImmucorGamma Galileo) to confirm D– test results obtained on first-time donors on the Beckman Coulter PK7300 automated microplate test system. Samples with discordant results were analyzed by serologic tube methods, RHD genotyping using the BLOODchip platform (Progenika), and, if necessary, sequencing. We

Mindy Goldman, Ilona Resz, Jacqueline Cote, Gorka Ochoa, Nancy Angus

Immunohematology , ISSUE 3, 97–100


Immunosuppressive protocols for transplantation and certain hematologic malignancies can prevent the primary immune response to the D blood group antigen

A review of the published literature on Rh alloimmunization reveals that its incidence varies with the volume of infused D+ red blood cells (RBCs), the probable Rh genotype of the RBCs, and the immune competency of the D– recipient. Among the reports of Rh alloimmunization in different clinical circumstances, we identified five studies in which a combined total of 62 D– recipients of hematopoietic stem cell or solid-organ transplants were transfused with D+ RBCs and none (0%) formed

Adair Seager, S. Gerald Sandler

Immunohematology , ISSUE 3, 110–114

Case report

Blocked D phenomenon and relevance of maternal  serologic testing

A blood requisition for double-volume exchange transfusion was received for a 2-day-old male child born to a 29-yearold multiparous female (P2002) referred to our institute having neonatal jaundice with encephalopathy; no maternal sample was received. The neonatal blood sample was typed as group A, D–, and the direct antiglobulin test (DAT) was strongly positive (4+) using the gel method. Mono-specific DAT showed the presence of IgG antibodies on neonatal red blood cells (RBCs). Acid

Ashish Jain, Vijay Kumawat, Neelam Marwaha

Immunohematology , ISSUE 3, 116–118

Original Paper

EEG characteristics of déjà vu phenomenon

Introduction. Déjà vu (DV, from French “already seen”) is an aberration of psychic activity associated with transitory erroneous perception of novel circumstances, objects, or people as already known. Aim. Investigation of clinical and diagnostic significance of derealization episodes in epilepsy. Materials and methods. The study involved 166 individuals (mean age 25.2 ± 9.2 yrs; 63.2% women). DV episodes were characterized and compared in groups of healthy

Alexander V. Chervyakov, Victor V. Gnezditskii, Pavel N. Vlasov, Galina V. Kalmykova

Journal of Epileptology , ISSUE 1, 27–35

Case report

Case report: immune anti-D stimulated by transfusion of fresh frozen plasma

FFP has occasionally been reported to generate an immune response to RBC antigens (e.g.,anti-D and anti-Fya). The Council of Europe requires that each unit of FFP have less than 6 ×109/L RBCs. However, there is considerable variation internationally in the method of production and the level and assessment of RBC contamination of FFP . This study reports the case of a 63-year-old group B, D– man who received multiple transfusions of D– blood products over a 4-month period

Marian Connolly, Wendy N. Erber, Dianne E. Grey

Immunohematology , ISSUE 4, 149–151


Comparative testing for weak expression of D antigen: manual tube testing vs. a semiautomated IgG gel system

Donor RBCs nonreactive in initial tests for D must be tested further for evidence of weak expression of D antigen. Performing this test in test tubes is labor intensive and prone to inconsistencies in readings (relative strength of agglutination) and interpretation (positive versus negative). These inconsistencies can lead to repeat testing, additional documentation, and delay in releasing units. We evaluated use of the Tecan MEGAFlex-ID™ pipettor to perform this test in anti-IgG gel

Bill A. Martinez, Liz A. Crews, Arlene M. Dowd, Melissa McMahan

Immunohematology , ISSUE 1, 7–9


ABO and Rh(D) blood typing on the PK 7200 with ready-to-use kits

The performance of ready-to-use kits was evaluated on the PK 7200 blood grouping system. The Olymp Group (kit 1) and Olymp Group II (kit 2) containing anti-A, -B, -AB, and -D reagents were tested for first and second determinations of A, B, and D antigens. More than 500 RBC samples, including several variant ABO and D phenotypes, were evaluated for specificity, repeatability, reproducibility, and sensitivity. Specificity was tested with wellcharacterized reagent RBCs. Repeatability was

Pierre Moncharmont, Annick Plantier, Véronique Chirat, Dominique Rigal

Immunohematology , ISSUE 2, 54–56

Case report

A case of autoimmune hemolytic anemia with anti-D specificity in a 1-year-old child

Although antibodies to antigens in the Rh blood group system are common causes of warm autoimmune hemolytic anemia, specificity for only the D antigen is rare in autoimmune hemolysis in pediatric patients. This case reports an anti-D associated with severe hemolytic anemia (Hb = 2.1 g/dL) in a previously healthy 14-month-old child who presented with a 3-day history of low-grade fevers and vomiting. Because of his severe anemia, on admission to the hospital he was found to have altered mental

Rachel S. Bercovitz, Margaret Macy, Daniel R. Ambruso

Immunohematology , ISSUE 1, 15–18

Short Communication

Betaine Improves Polymer-Grade D-Lactic Acid Production by Sporolactobacillus inulinus Using Ammonia as Green Neutralizer

The traditional CaCO3-based fermentation process generates huge amount of insoluble waste. To solve this problem, we have developed an efficient and green D-lactic acid fermentation process by using ammonia as neutralizer. The 106.7 g/l of D-lactic acid production and 0.89 g/g of consumed sugar were obtained by Sporolactobacillus inulinus CASD with a high optical purity of 99.7% by adding 100 mg/l betaine in the simple batch fermentation. The addition of betaine was experimentally proven to

Guoping Lv, Chengchuan Che, Li Li, Shujing Xu, Wanyi Guan, Baohua Zhao, Jiansong Ju

Polish Journal of Microbiology , ISSUE 2, 273–276


Health Assessment Based on D-S Evidence Theory of Equipment

comprehensively represent the status of propelled artillery, and use the normalized quantization method to Process the data. Then employ the D-S evidence theory to make the integrated decision on the membership of each health parameter after treatment, finally, determine the ultimately health status of self-propelled artillery. II. HEALTH ASSESSMENT SYSTEM AND HEALTH CLASSIFICATION A. Analysis of health indicators To evaluate the health status of self-propelled artillery, the health status parameters of

Tanghui Sun, Bailin Liu

International Journal of Advanced Network, Monitoring and Controls , ISSUE 4, 15–26

Research paper

High-dose 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D supplementation elongates the lifespan of Huntington’s disease transgenic mice

Huntington’s disease is an autosomal dominant progressive neurodegenerative disease, which results in a decreased quality of life and an early death. A high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency was first described in a 2013 study in patients with manifest Huntington’s disease, where serum vitamin D level was found to be associated with motor capabilities of the patients. Objectives: Our objective was to investigate the effect of a high-dose vitamin D3 supplementation on

Máté` Fort Molnár, Rita Török, Evelin Sümegi, László Vécsei, Péter Klivényi, Levente Szalárdy1

Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis , ISSUE 3, 176–181


Identifying obstetrics patients in whom RHD genotyping can be used to assess risk of D alloimmunization

The D antigen is different from many other blood group antigens in that the antigen is not derived from one or a few amino acids, but rather from the presence of the entire protein; thus it contains many epitopes. Genetic variation within the RHD gene can alter expression of the antigen both qualitatively and quantitatively. A D protein that lacks one or more of the epitopes is referred to as a partial D antigen, and loss of epitopes is associated with risk of alloimmunization from exposure to

T.N. Horn, J. Keller, M.A. Keller, L. Klinger

Immunohematology , ISSUE 4, 146–151


Intravenous Rh immune globulin prevents alloimmunization in D– granulocyte recipients but obscures the detection of an alloanti-K

Rh immune globulin (RhIG) has been used to prevent alloimmunization in D– recipients of apheresis platelet transfusions from D+ donors that may contain up to 5 mL of D+ red blood cells (RBCs). Granulocyte concentrates contain approximately 30 mL of RBCs and it has been necessary to give D– recipients granulocyte transfusions from D+ donors. Intravenous RhIG has not yet been demonstrated to be effective in preventing D alloimmunization with granulocyte transfusions. Four D&ndash

D.F. Stroncek, J.L. Procter, L. Moses, C. Bolan, G.J. Pomper, C. Conry-Cantilens, H.L. Malech, H.G. Klein, S.F. Leitman

Immunohematology , ISSUE 2, 37–41


D+ platelet transfusions in D– patients: cause for concern?

Patients whose RBCs are D– may produce anti-D if they are exposed to D on donor RBCs. Except in emergency situations, patients whose RBCs lack D are transfused with only D– RBCs. Platelets carry no Rh antigens, but platelet units may be contaminated by RBCs that could carry D when these units are collected from D+ donors. The purpose of this study was to determine whether our policy of allowing D+ platelets to be transfused to patients whose RBCs type as D–, without the use of

Angela N. Bartley, John B. Carpenter, Mary P. Berg

Immunohematology , ISSUE 1, 5–8


Autoimmune hemolysis following transfusion: a mimicking autoanti-D in a D- patient with alloanti-D

An 80-year-old group O, D- (rr) female with anti-C, -D, -E, and -Fya received four units of crossmatch-compatible red blood cells (RBCs). The direct antiglobulin test (DAT) was negative. Two weeks later, jaundice, dark urine, a 16% drop in hematocrit (Hct), a 20% reticulocyte count, and absent haptoglobin occurred. During the next month, her DAT was positive with anti-IgG and -C3d. Acid eluates, which repeatedly showed anti-D specificity, were nonreactive with enzyme-treated D- RBCs. Adsorption

Walter H. Dzik, Joyce Blank, Paula Lutz, Thomas G. Hirose, Christine Lomas-Francis, Marilyn Moulds

Immunohematology , ISSUE 4, 117–119


Application of the Inverness Blood Grouping System for semiautomated ABO and D testing of patients' samples

We evaluated the performance of the Inverness Blood Grouping System (IBG Systems, Inc., Laytonsville, MD) for the ABO and D red cell grouping of patients' samples. The IBG System is a semiautomated microplate device for blood grouping and antibody detection. We tested 2,051 samples using the IBG System and by manual grouping techniques. In no instance did the IBG System give a final ABO interpretation different from the final manual technique. For three samples, the IBG System's ABO

Paul D. Mintz, Garth Anderson, Christine Barrasso, Elizabeth Sorenson

Immunohematology , ISSUE 2, 60–63

Original Paper

Emodin Reduces the Activity of (1,3)-β-D-glucan Synthase from Candida albicans and Does Not Interact with Caspofungin

Abstract Candidiasis is the most common opportunistic yeast infection, with Candida albicans as a paramount causative species. (1,3)-β-D-glucan is one of the three main targets of clinically available antifungal agents used to treat Candida infections. It is one of the most abundant fungal cell wall components. Echinocandins represent the newest class of antifungals affecting cell wall biosynthesis through non-competitive inhibition of (1,3)-β-D-glucan synthase. Therefore, treatment with


Polish Journal of Microbiology , ISSUE 4, 463–470

Short Communication

Identification and Localization of β-D-Glucosidase from Two Typical Oenococcus oeni Strains

β-D-glucosidase (βG) gene from Oenococcus oeni SD-2a and 31MBR was cloned, sequenced and analyzed, also intracellular βG of the two strains was further localized. The results showed that βG gene of the two strains was in high homology (> 99%) to reported βG gene, con­firming both strains possess βG activity at the molecular level. Intracellular βG of SD-2a is a mainly soluble protein, existing mostly in the cytoplasm and to some extent in the periplasm

Yahui Li, Yanhong Ma, Kaihong Huang, Hongzhi Zhang

Polish Journal of Microbiology , ISSUE 2, 209–213



(CDSSMPC) and a Decentralized PI-D (DPI-D) controller. These both techniques are designed by using respectively the Laguerres functions and the static decoupler approach. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the two methods, an implementation on an aerothermic process is performed. This pilot scale is fully connected through the Humusoft MF624 data acquisition system for real time control. The results show satisfactory performance in closedloop of the DPI-D controller compared to the CDSSMPC and the

M. Ramzi, H. Youlal

International Journal on Smart Sensing and Intelligent Systems , ISSUE 4, 1830–1849

Case report

Molecular RH blood group typing of serologically D–/CE+ donors: the use of a polymerase chain reaction–sequence-specific primer test kit with pooled samples

The known presence of RHD blood group alleles in apparently D– individuals who are positive for C or E antigens leads to an appropriate investigation for the RHD gene on the red blood cells (RBCs) of D– blood donors, thus preventing their RBCs from immunizing D– recipients. Ready-to-use polymerase chain reaction–sequence-specific primer (PCR-SSP) typing kits are available and allow single-sample results. The need to perform this testing on a large number of donors

Donatella Londero, Mauro Fiorino, Valeria Miotti, Vincenzo de Angelis

Immunohematology , ISSUE 1, 25–28



annul the effect of this interaction, this paper presents an experimental comparison between three forms of the PID controller: the conventional PID controller, the PI-D controller and its decentralized version. A multi-variable continuous state space model is obtained from on-line experimental data. The outcome of the experimental results is that the main control objectives, such as set-point tracking and interactions rejection, are well achieved for the temperature and the air flow simultaneously.

M. Ramzi, N. Bennis, M. Haloua, H. Youlal

International Journal on Smart Sensing and Intelligent Systems , ISSUE 4, 1003–1018


Transfusion of D+ red blood cells to D– individuals in trauma situations

To conserve D– red blood cells (RBCs), our facility developed a policy for transfusion of D+ units to D– patients, particularly in trauma situations. To our knowledge, this is the first study looking at D-mismatched RBC transfusion in trauma patients. We developed guidelines for the transfusion of D-mismatched RBCs. Patients were followed by antibody screening and direct antiglobulin testing. Twenty-six patients were identified, and 57.7 percent of the cases were the result of

Amanda Tchakarov, Rhonda Hobbs, Yu Bai

Immunohematology , ISSUE 4, 149–152


Likelihood of D heterozygosity in Mestizo Mexicans and Mexican Americans

Norman D. Means, Nicholas Bandarenko, Kenneth J. Moise, Jr., Mark E. Brecher

Immunohematology , ISSUE 1, 22–23


Comparison of gel test and conventional tube test for antibody detection and titration in D-negative pregnant women: study from a tertiary-care hospital in North India

Conventional tube testing was used for antibody screening and titration in D– pregnant women in our hospital until the recent introduction of the gel test. In this study we assessed the sensitivity of the gel test in our setup and tried to establish a correlation between these tests for determining antibody titer. We collected 652 blood samples from 223 antenatal D– women during a span of 1 year. The samples were tested separately by the conventional tube technique and the gel test

Manish K. Thakur, Neelam Marwaha, Praveen Kumar, Subhash C. Saha, Beenu Thakral, Ratti Ram Sharma, Karan Saluja, Hari Krishan Dhawan, Ashish Jain

Immunohematology , ISSUE 4, 174–177



applications in automated vehicle inspection, cleaning, and security screening. In order to efficiently navigate the robotic manipulator along the vehicle’s surface within regions of interest that are selectively identified, an efficient and accurate integration of information from multiple RGB-D sensors and robotic components is proposed. The main components of the proposed approach include: automated vehicle category recognition from visual information; RGB-D sensors calibration; extraction of specific

Danial Nakhaeinia, Pierre Payeur, Alberto Chávez-Aragón, Ana-Maria Cretu, Robert Laganière, Rizwan Macknojia

International Journal on Smart Sensing and Intelligent Systems , ISSUE 2, 419–447

Case report

Posttransplant maternal anti-D: a case study and review

Plasma from a 35-year-old, D– woman was found to have anti-D, -C, and -G at 5 weeks’ gestation and again at 8 weeks’ gestation, when she presented with a nonviable intrauterine pregnancy. The anti-D titer increased with a pattern that suggested it was stimulated by the 8-week pregnancy. Six years before this admission, the patient’s blood type changed from group O, D+ to group O, D– after a bone marrow transplant for aplastic anemia. Three years after transplant

Lisa Senzel, Cecilia Avila, Tahmeena Ahmed, Harjeet Gill, Kim Hue-Roye, Christine Lomas-Francis, Marion E. Reid

Immunohematology , ISSUE 2, 55–59


Comparison of estimation of volume of fetomaternal hemorrhage using KleihauerBetke test and microcolumn gel method in D-negative nonisoimmunized mothers

In this study we assessed the efficacy of the microcolumn gel method in the detection and quantification of the volume of fetomaternal hemorrhage (FMH) in comparison with the Kleihauer-Betke test (KB) in nonisoimmunized D– mothers. We collected blood samples from 80 D– indirect antiglobulin test–negative mothers over a span of more than 1 year. FMH was determined by KB and microcolumn gel method, and the results were compared. FMH was recorded as less than 4 mL by KB if no

Kshitija Mittal, Neelam Marwaha, Praveen Kumar, Subhash C. Saha, Beenu Thakral

Immunohematology , ISSUE 3, 105–109


Lactobacillus fermentum JX306 Restrain D-galactose-induced Oxidative Stress of Mice through its Antioxidant Activity

vegetables were screened to isolate the probiotic strains with antioxidant activity. After the characterization of the antioxidant properties of the LAB strains in vitro, L. fermentum strain JX306 with high antioxidant activity was selected, and these properties were further studied in vivo using a D-galactose-induced aging mice model. Experimental Materials and Methods Bacterial strains and culture conditions. A total of 481 isolates (Table SI) were used in this study, which were obtained from 35


Polish Journal of Microbiology , ISSUE 2, 205–215

Case report

Quantitating fetomaternal hemorrhages of D+ red cells using an FITC-conjugated IgG monoclonal anti-D by flow cytometry: a case report

Several methods for quantitating fetomaternal hemorrhages (FMHs) have been described; these include the Kleihauer-Betke and red cell rosetting tests, and flow cytometry that uses an indirect antiglobulin technique, employing either FITC-conjugated IgG/unlabeled anti-D or streptavidin conjugates with biotinylated anti-D to enumerate D+ red cells in maternal blood. We have used a recently described directly conjugated FITC anti-D for direct flow cytometric (direct FC) quantitation of FMH in a

Anatole Lubenko, John Raymond Collier, Mark Williams, Damien Hindmarch, Sally Rosemary Wilson, Julie Pluck

Immunohematology , ISSUE 1, 12–14


Development of a flow cytometric test for the detection of D-positive fetal cells after fetomaternal hemorrhage and a survey of the prevalence in D-negative women

A sensitive test for the presence of D-positive fetal red blood cells (RBCs) in the maternal circulation of D-negative women has been developed. It was used to investigate the possibility that the occasional failure in preventing alloimmunization might be due to the administration of inadequate amounts of prophylactic anti-D Rh immune globulin. The standard dose in Australia contains 125µg of antibody, and can suppress immunization by an estimated 6 mL of packed D-positive RBCs. A

Margaret Nelson, Hazel Popp, Kathy Horky, Cecily Forsyth, John Gibson

Immunohematology , ISSUE 2, 55–59

Case report

Case report: reporting anti-G as anti-C+D may have misleading clinical implications

Four months after a D– male was transfused with four units of D– red blood cells (RBCs), the results of a standard pretransfusion antibody screen and alloantibody identification panel detected anti-C+D in his serum. This report was interpreted by his physician to be evidence of alloimmunization to the D antigen, which triggered concern that the patient had been transfused previously with D+ RBCs as the result of an error in blood typing or personal identification. After a review of

Archiaus L. Mosley, Jr., Mary Beth Trich, Nanette C. Thomas, S. Gerald Sandler

Immunohematology , ISSUE 2, 58–60


DEL phenotype

DEL red blood cells (RBCs) type as D– by routine serologic methods and are transfused routinely, without being identified as expressing a very weak D antigen, to D– recipients. DEL RBCs are detected only by adsorption and elution of anti-D or by molecular methods. Most DEL phenotypes have been reported in population studies conducted in East Asia, although DEL phenotypes have been detected also among Caucasian individuals. Approximately 98 percent of DEL phenotypes in East Asians

Dong Hyang Kwon, S. Gerald Sandler, Willy Albert Flegel

Immunohematology , ISSUE 3, 125–132

Short Communication

Effects of Selected Herbicides on Growth and Nitrogen Fixing Activity of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (Sb16)

A study was carried out to determine the effects of paraquat, pretilachlor and 2, 4-D on growth and nitrogen fixing activity of Stenotropho­monas maltophilia (Sb16) and pH of Jensen’s N-free medium. The growth of Sb16 and pH of medium were significantly reduced with full (X) and double (2X) doses of tested herbicides, but nitrogen fixing activity was decreased by 2X doses. The nitrogenase activity had the highest value in samples treated with 1/2X of 2, 4-D on fifth incubation day

Armita Nahi, Radziah Othman, Dzolkhifli Omar, Mahdi Ebrahimi

Polish Journal of Microbiology , ISSUE 3, 377–382


A confusion in antibody identification:anti-D production after anti-hrB

It is well known that certain combinations of alloantibodies are frequently found together. Patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) are mostly of African ancestry, and they may make anti-hrB. A transfusion of hrB– blood is often achieved by using e– (R2R2) RBCs; it is generally believed that hrB– patients readily make anti-E or a “broad-spectrum” anti-Rh34 (-HrB). We describe two multiply transfused D+ patients with SCD and a history of anti-hrB who subsequently

Christine Lomas-Francis, Rosyln Yomtovian, Claire McGrath, Phyllis S. Walker, Marion E. Reid

Immunohematology , ISSUE 4, 158–160


Loss and reappearance of RhO(D) antigen on the red blood cells of an individual with acute myelogenous leukemia

Complete loss of Rho(D) antigen from red blood cells (RBCs) of individuals with hematologic disorders, though not frequent, has been reported. This case reports the loss of D antigen on the RBCs of a patient with acute myelogenous leukemia and its reappearance when he was in remission. Loss of D antigen expression coincided with worsening clinical and cytogenetic disease. At the time of D antigen loss, the patient also had cytogenetic abnormalities in the bone marrow cells. When he was in

Kala Mohandas, Vesna Najfeld, Harriet Gilbert, Penny Azar, Donna Skerrett

Immunohematology , ISSUE 4, 134–135

Research Article

Description and Distribution of Three Criconematid Nematodes from Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province, China

Populations of Criconemoides parvus, Discocriconemella hengsungica, and Discocriconemella limitanea, isolated in Hangzhou, China from the rhizosphere soil of woody perennials were characterized morphologically and molecularly. The morphometric data of the Chinese populations were compared with populations from other regions of the world. DNA barcoding with the mitochondrial COI gene confirmed conspecificity of Chinese and Costa Rican populations of D. limitanea. Phylogenetic assessment using a

Maria Munawar, Thomas O. Powers, Zhongling Tian, Timothy Harris, Rebecca Higgins, Jingwu Zheng

Journal of Nematology , ISSUE 2, 183–206


Donor origin Rh antibodies as a cause of significant hemolysis following ABO-identical orthotopic liver transplantation

A group A, D-positive patient underwent orthotopic liver transplantation from a group A, D-negative (cde/cde) donor. Anti-D and -E were eluted from the recipient’s red cells and were found in the recipient’s serum 13 days later, at which time significant hemolysis developed. These Rh antibodies appear to he secondary to passive transfer of sensitized donor lymphocytes, a rare finding following liver transplantation.

Brian K. Kim, Carolyn F. Whitset, Christopher D. Hillyer

Immunohematology , ISSUE 4, 100–101


Antibodies detected in samples from 21,730 pregnant women

Although anti-D is still the main cause of HDN, many other antibodies have been implicated. From September 1995 to April 2000,screening for RBC antibodies was performed on samples from 21,730 pregnant women regardless of RhD type. Standard tube and gel methods were used. Anti-D was identified in 254 samples;other antibody specificities were detected in 376 samples, for a total of 630 antibodies. For this study, 522 antibodies were considered clinically significant. The incidence of potentially

Snezana Jovanovic-Srzentic, Milan Djokic, Nenad Tijanic, Radmila Djordjevic, Nada Rizvan, Darko Plecas, Dejan Filimonovic

Immunohematology , ISSUE 3, 89–92


The r' gene is overrepresented in hrB-negative individuals

A screening program was implemented to identify hrB-donors. D-C+, D-C-, and D+C- samples from African-American donors were typed with multiple examples of anti-hrB and and-hrB-like, and one example each of anti-V and anti-VS. Of 75 D-C+ donors, 4 (5%) typed as hrB-, and 14 others had weak or variable expression of hrB. Of these 18 individuals, 15 were V-VS+, and 3 were V+VS+. No hrB- sample was found in 90 C- donors, 26 of whom were V+VS+, and 1 was V-VS+. A review of our records of 44 hrB

Connie L. Beal, Delores Mallory, Cindy Oliver, Peter D. Issitt

Immunohematology , ISSUE 3, 74–77


An algorithm to locate hrB – donors for individuals with sickle cell disease

Many African Americans with sickle cell disease (SCD) develop alloantibodies to antigens in the Rh blood group system.Others have shown that from D– individuals, those lacking the high-incidence hrB antigen (> 98% prevalence) may be found among r'r African Americans. We describe an algorithm to locate units for African Americans with SCD and anti-hrB and -D. From 46,539 donations, 5136 listed African American as race. Our primary reference laboratory performed Rh phenotyping (D, C

Richard R. Gammon, Norberto D. Velasquez Jr.

Immunohematology , ISSUE 3, 82–84


Use of the MAIEA assay to demonstrate that Fy3 is on the same glycoprotein as Fy6, Fya, and Fyb

tested using Fy(a+b+), Fy(a+b–), and Fy(a–b+) red cells. The MAIEA assay is a valid technique for detecting Duffy system antigens. By this technique, it was shown that Fy3 and Fy6 antigens are carried on the Duffy glycoprotein D and by extension that Fy3 is also located on the Duffy glycoprotein D.

Jaw-Lin Tzeng, Roger Dodd, Delores Mallory

Immunohematology , ISSUE 3, 113–116

Case report

Case report: mixed-field agglutination in a patient with a weak D antigen presenting as a possible fetal-maternal hemorrhage

hemorrhage. Thus, the finding of a mixed-field D typing could be explained best by a weak D antigen.

Phyllis J. Unger

Immunohematology , ISSUE 3, 77–78


A gel technology system to determine postpartum RhIG dosage

Failures of Rh immune globulin (RhIG) prophylaxis occur when the dose is too small. We report a test using a gel technology (GT) method to replace the Kleihauer–Betke (K–B) test to assess fetomaternal hemorrhage (FMH) and assist in determining the minimum necessary dose of RhIG. Cord blood (O, D+) was mixed with adult blood (O D–) to mimic an FMH of 10 mL, 20 mL, 28 mL, and 40 mL. Test samples were incubated with anti-D at known concentrations and centrifuged. The supernatant

John R. Fernandes, Ronny Chan, Ahmed S. Coovadia, Marciano D. Reis, Peter H. Pinkerton

Immunohematology , ISSUE 3, 115–119


Nematicide effects on non-target nematodes in bermudagrass

replicating a summer treatment program from June 7 to August 30 in 2016 and April 24 to July 18 in 2017. Sampling Samples were collected prior to the initial treatment, and 2 d, 14 d, 56 d, and 238 d after the final treatment application (DAFT) each year. Turf plugs were collected using a 3.81-cm diameter ball mark plugger (Turf-Tec International, Tallahassee, FL) to a depth of 6.35 cm. Eight plugs were collected from the data collection subplots and combined in plastic sampling bags for analysis. The

Benjamin D. Waldo, Zane J. Grabau, Tesfamariam M. Mengistu, William T. Crow

Journal of Nematology , 1–12

Case report

Case report:moderate hemolytic disease of the newborn due to anti-G

after birth until day of life 20. Anti-G was identified and anti-C and -D excluded in the mother’s serum. In contrast to the previous report, this report shows anti-G alone can cause moderate HDN and that fetal monitoring and treatment may be necessary.

Aaron R. Huber, George T. Leonard, Rita W. Driggers, Sakhone B. Learn, Colleen W. Gilstad

Immunohematology , ISSUE 4, 166–170


On the Performance of Some Biased Estimators in a Misspecified Model with Correlated Regressors

Abstract In this paper, the effect of misspecification due to omission of relevant variables on the dominance of the r − (k, d) class estimator proposed by Özkale (2012), over the ordinary least squares (OLS) estimator and some other competing estimators when some of the regressors in the linear regression model are correlated, have been studied with respect to the mean squared error criterion. A simulation study and numerical example have been demostrated to compare the performance of the

Shalini Chandra, Gargi Tyagi

Statistics in Transition New Series , ISSUE 1, 27–52


Nematicide efficacy at managing Meloidogyne arenaria and non-target effects on free-living nematodes in peanut production

rotation. Nematicide application is an important and widely used tool for nematode management in peanut production. Traditionally, growers have relied on fumigants, primarily 1,3-Dichloropropene (1,3-D), and older carbamate non-fumigants, such as aldicarb and oxamyl. Aldicarb and 1,3-D can help manage PRKN in peanut production, although efficacy varies by year and environmental conditions (Rodriguez-Kabana and Robertson, 1987; Kinloch and Dickson, 1991; Johnson et al., 1999; Kokalis-Burelle et al

Zane J. Grabau, Mark D. Mauldin, Alemayehu Habteweld, Ethan T. Carter

Journal of Nematology , 1–10


Red cell antigen stability in K3EDTA

strength to be 2+ (score 8). As expected, the A, B, and D reactions were very stable with red cells stored for 60 days. All antigens except Lea exhibited 2+ (score 8) or greater reactions at day 14, and at day 21 only the Lea, Fyb, and e antigens were less than 2+. On day 60, twelve of twenty-one antigens tested still exhibited 2+ or greater reactions. This study shows that antigen reactivity for red cells collected and stored in EDTA is at least equal to that for clotted specimens. These red

Connie M. Westhoff, Belva D. Sipherd, Larry D. Toalson

Immunohematology , ISSUE 4, 109–111


First example of Rh:-32,-46 red cell phenotype

The red cells of a white male blood donor typed as Rh:-1, -2, -3, w4, w5, 6, -17, w19, -31, -32, -34, and -46. Although the donor has no history of transfusion, his serum contains an alloantibody that is weakly reactive with most red blood cells (RBCs) tested. Only Rhnull and D-- RBCs are nonreactive. Reactivity is enhanced with ficin- or papain-treated RBCs and is unaffected by AET or DTT treatment of the RBCs. Previously described Rh:-46 RBCs have been of deletion types D--, D•&bull

Jill Storry, Michael Gorman, Nancy I. Maddox, Ella Toy, Peter D. Issitt, Delores M. Mallory

Immunohematology , ISSUE 4, 130–133



In this paper, we propose recognition method of the stacked objects for pick-and-place motion. The situation that the objects are stacked miscellaneously in the home is assumed. In the home, the equipment to arrange the objects doesn't exist. Therefore it's necessary to recognize the stacked objects respectively. In this paper, Information on the objects are measured by a laser range finder (LRF). Those information is used as 3-D point cloud, and the objects are recognized by model-base. A

M. Hikizu, S. Mikami, H. Seki

International Journal on Smart Sensing and Intelligent Systems , ISSUE 3, 1177–1188


The Brain on Fire: A Case Study on Anti-NMDA Receptor Encephalitis

Introduction Literature Review In 2005, Dr. Josep Dalmau described a condition in four young women with ovarian teratomas and precipitating antibodies generated against antigens highly expressed in the hippocampus called N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors (Dalmau et al., 2011). NMDA receptors are concentrated in the hippocampus and play a vital role in synaptic adaptation processes that affect learning, memory, personality, movement and autonomic regulation (Newcomer, Farber & Olney, 2000

Grissel B Crasto

Australasian Journal of Neuroscience , ISSUE 1, 1–8

Case report

Adolescent with acute psychosis due to anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis: successful recovery

Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (anti-NMDAR) encephalitis is a relatively new autoimmune disorder of the central nervous system. We report the first case of anti-NMDAR autoimmune encephalitis combined with anti-voltage-gated potassium channel (anti-VGKC) antibodies in Lithuania in a 16-year-old girl. The patient was admitted to psychiatry unit because of an acute psychotic episode. She was unsuccessfully treated with antipsychotics, and electroconvulsive therapy was initiated because of her

Dovile Jonuskaite, Paulius Kalibatas, Ruta Praninskiene, Asta Zalubiene, Aurelija Jucaite, Rimante Cerkauskiene

Scandinavian Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Psychology , ISSUE 3, 111–115


Severe intravascular hemolysis due to autoantibodies stimulated by blood transfusion

Autoantibodies may cause severe hemolytic anemia, but only rarely are they the cause of a hemolytic transfusion reaction due to the destruction of transfused allogeneic blood. In two patients, autoantibody was detected shortly after blood transfusion. The first case was a D-negative patient who produced an autoanti-Ce and subsequently developed hemoglobinuria and hyperbilirubinemia. The second case was a patient who developed an autoanti-Wrb that caused severe hemolysis that resulted in death.

D. Chan, G.D. Poole, M. Binney, M.D. Hamon, J.A. Copplestone, A.G. Prentice

Immunohematology , ISSUE 2, 80–83


Routine indirect antiglobulin testing of blood donors—a further step toward blood safety: an experience from a tertiary care center in northern India

selected as per the norms and criteria mandated by the Drugs and Cosmetics Act and Directorate General of Health Services, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India.4,5 Informed consent and the history of previous blood donation, blood transfusion, pregnancy, medication, and any significant medical illness were obtained through a blood donor questionnaire form. Immunohematology Workup At our center, IH workup of donor samples includes ABO and D blood typing with an autocontrol using

S. Malhotra, G. Negi, D. Kaur, S.K. Meinia, A.K. Tiwari, S. Mitra

Immunohematology , ISSUE 3, 93–98


RhoA/Rock2/Limk1/cofilin1 pathway is involved in attenuation of neuronal dendritic spine loss by paeonol in the frontal cortex of D-galactose and aluminum-induced Alzheimer’s disease-like rat model

bleomycin-induced pulmonary inflammation and fibrosis in mice through the inhibition of the MAPKs/Smad3 signaling (Liu et al., 2017), and alleviate nerve damage caused by intracerebral hemorrhage by activating the PI3K/AKT pathway (Li et al., 2018b). Our previous study shows that paeonol can attenuate D-galactose and aluminum-induced dendritic damage in the hippocampus (Han et al., 2017). In this study, we found involvement of Rho/Rock2/Limk1/cofilin1 pathway in paeonol’s attenuation of neuronal

Fei Han, Hui Xu, Jun-Xian Shen, Chuan Pan, Zong-Hao Yu, Jing-Jing Chen, Xiu-Ling Zhu, Ya-Fei Cai, Ya-Ping Lu

Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis , ISSUE 3, 225–244


Description of Deladenus gilanica n. sp. (Hexatylina: Neotylenchidae) isolated from wood of black pine in Northern Iran

The genus Deladenus (Thorne, 1941) belongs to the family Neotylenchidae (Thorne, 1941) with D. durus (Cobb, 1922; Thorne, 1941) as type species. It is characterized by the location of the esophageal-intestinal junction immediately behind the nerve ring, a median esophageal chamber sometimes present, and absence of a post-uterine sac. Two biological forms have been observed in this genus: the free-living form (mycetophagous stage) and the insect-parasitic form (infective stage). The

Parisa Jalalinasab, Mehrab Esmaeili, Weimin Ye, Ramin Heydari

Journal of Nematology , 1–10


Failure to detect a prozoning anti-Fya in the serum of a chronically transfused patient

A 78-year old white male presented to our facility with vascular occlusion. He was Group A, D-positive, with a negative indirect antiglobulin test (antibody screen). Records at our facility, 4 years prior to this admission, indicated a history of anti-Fya, and Fy(a-) units were provided. A referring hospital had transfused the patient for "chronic anemia" (1-3 units weekly for 2 years), and he had received eight units (untested for Fya) immediately prior to his transfer to our

Jody C. Sizemore, Teresa D. Sammons, Jerry N. Clanton

Immunohematology , ISSUE 2, 44–46


Trends of ABO and Rh phenotypes in transfusion-dependent patients in Pakistan

. Of these 242 patients, 146 (60.4%) were male and 96 (39.6%) were female. The prevalence of ABO and D phenotypes was as follows: group O, D+ (38.8%), group O, D– (2.5%), group B, D+ (32.2%), group A, D+ (17.4%), group A, D– (1.7%), and group AB, D+ (7.4%). Of the 242 patients, 232 (95.8%) were D+ and 10 (4.2%) were D–. The most prevalent Rh antigen was found to be e (97%), followed by D (95%), C (89.6%), c (62.8%), and lastly, E (22.6%). The prevalence of Rh phenotypes was: R1R1

Nida Anwar, Munira Borhany, Saqib Ansari, Sana Khurram, Uzma Zaidi, Imran Naseer, Muhammad Nadeem, Tahir Shamsi

Immunohematology , ISSUE 4, 170–173

Research Article

Molecular Characterization and Phylogeny of Ditylenchus weischeri from Cirsium arvense in the Prairie Provinces of Canada

Ditylenchus weischeri that parasitizes the weed Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop., 1772, (creeping thistle) was described in 2011 from Russia based on their morphology, ITS-RFLP analysis, and Hsp90 gene sequence of a few individuals and one field collection of the plant. More recently, we found C. arvense parasitized by D. weischeri in the Prairie Provinces of Canada. Plant host preference for D. weischeri was also distinct from D. dipsaci (Kühn) Filipjev, 1936. In the current study, a comprehensive

Mehrdad Madani, Mario Tenuta

Journal of Nematology , ISSUE 2, 163–182


Alloimmunization of patients by blood units harboring distinct DEL variants

The alloimmunization potential of many RHD variants is unknown, and it can be explored by lookback and traceback studies. Héma-Québec (HQ) investigated the RHD status of 3980 D– repeat blood donors. Thirteen were found to be RHD positive: 4 RHD*ψ, and 1 RHD*487delACAG, which show a D– phenotype; and 1 RHD*885T and 7 RHD*(93–94insT) causing a DEL phenotype when C antigen is present. Lookback studies were done to verify the alloimmunization potential of these

Maryse St-Louis, André Lebrun, Mindy Goldman, Marianne Lavoie

Immunohematology , ISSUE 4, 136–140


Prevalence of clinically significant red blood cell alloantibodies in pregnant women at a large tertiary-care facility

More than 50 red blood cell (RBC) alloantibodies are known to cause hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn (HDFN). Although Rh immune globulin (RhIG) prophylaxis has significantly reduced the incidence of pregnancies complicated by anti-D, the need to detect and monitor maternal alloantibodies capable of causing HDFN is still a concern. The prevalence and specificity of these alloantibodies were determined. In this retrospective study, the prevalence and specificities of unexpected RBC

Heather M. Smith, Rosetta S. Shirey, Sandra K. Thoman, Jay B. Jackson

Immunohematology , ISSUE 4, 127–130

Case report

RHD deletion in a patient with chronic myeloid leukemia

Anomalous expression of the Rh antigen, D, has occasionally been observed in patients with certain myeloproliferative disorders.  Indeed, this phenomenon led to the tentative assignment of RH to the short arm of chromosome 1.  PCRbased analyses were performed on DNA from an 82-year-old D+ Caucasian patient with chronic myeloid leukemia after her RBCs became D–.  For nearly 7 years, the patient’s RBCs typed as strongly D+, but in March 2006, they typed weakly D+ and in

Ann Murdock, Deborah Assip, Kim Hue-Roye, Christine Lomas-Francis, Zong Hu, Sunitha Vege, Connie M. Westhoff, Marion E. Reid

Immunohematology , ISSUE 4, 160–164


Characterization of Lilium longiflorum cv. ‘Nellie White’ Infection with Root-lesion Nematode Pratylenchus penetrans by Bright-field and Transmission Electron Microscopy

to multiply lilies and follow the nematode infection over time. Phenotypic reactions of roots inoculated with P. penetrans were evaluated from 0 to 60 d after nematode infection. Symptom development progressed from initial randomly distributed discrete necrotic areas to advanced necrosis along entire roots of each inoculated plant. A major feature characterizing this susceptible host response to nematode infection was the formation of necrosis, browning, and tissue death


Journal of Nematology , ISSUE 1, 2–11


Serologic aspects of treating immune thrombocytopenic purpura using intravenous Rh immune globulin

In patients with immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP), IgG autoantibody-coated platelets are phagocytized by mononuclear macrophages, primarily in the spleen. Intravenous Rh immune globulin (IV RhIG) has been used since 1983 to treat D+, nonsplenectomized patients with ITP. The beneficial therapeutic effect of IV RhIG is attributed to competitive inhibition of phagocytosis of IgG-coated platelets by IgG anti-D-coated D+ red blood cells (reticuloendothelial or Fc receptor blockade). Following

Can M. Savasman, S. Gerald Sandler

Immunohematology , ISSUE 4, 106–110


Reproduction and Damage Potential of Five Geographical Ditylenchus africanus Populations on Peanut

Ditylenchus africanus affects peanut quality, which leads to downgrading of consignments and economic losses for producers.This nematode is difficult to control and host-plant resistance may be the most effective way to control it. Recently, the peanut breeding line PC254K1 has been identified as resistant to a D. africanus population from Vaalharts and will be included into the peanut breeding program. The objectives of our study were to compare the reproduction potential of D


Journal of Nematology , ISSUE 2, 72–78


Reproduction of Meloidogyne incognita Race 3 on Flue-cured Tobacco Homozygous for Rk1 and/or Rk2 Resistance Genes

either gene alone. Greenhouse trials were arranged in a completely randomized design with Coker 371-Gold (C371G; susceptible), NC 95 and SC 72 (Rk1Rk1), T-15-1-1 (Rk2Rk2), and STNCB-2-28 and NOD 8 (Rk1Rk1 and Rk2Rk2). Each plant was inoculated with 5,000 root-knot nematode eggs; data were collected 60 d postinoculation. Percent galling and numbers of egg masses and eggs were counted, the latter being used to calculate the reproductive index on each host. Despite variability


Journal of Nematology , ISSUE 2, 79–86


Laboratory methods for Rh immunoprophylaxis: a review

The recommended dose of Rh immune globulin for postpartum Rh immunoprophylaxis is based on an estimation of the volume of the fetomaternal hemorrhage, if any, measured as the percent of fetal RBCs in a sample of the D– mother’s blood. Laboratory methods for distinguishing fetal from maternal RBCs have been based on their different blood types (D+ versus D–) or predominant hemoglobin content (hemoglobin F versus hemoglobin A). We conducted a review of the medical literature

S. Gerald Sandler, Srividya Sathiyamoorthy

Immunohematology , ISSUE 3, 92–103


Evaluation of fluopyram for the control of Ditylenchus dipsaci in sugar beet

Ditylenchus dipsaci (Kuhn) Filipjev, a migratory endoparasite with a worldwide distribution, is ranked no. 5 of the top 10 plant-parasitic nematodes worldwide (Jones et al., 2013). Although primarily infecting onion and garlic, D. dipsaci has a wide range of host plants, including sugar beet. All stages of D. dipsaci can infect sugar beet through stomata or wounds, followed by feeding on cell contents. Surrounding cells then start to divide and enlarge, resulting in malformation of tissue and

Alan Storelli, Andreas Keiser, Reinhard Eder, Samuel Jenni, Sebastian Kiewnick

Journal of Nematology , 1–10


Drug-dependent antibodies with immune hemolytic anemia in AIDS patients

We studied the presence of drug-dependent antibodies (D-DAbs) in 53 patients with AIDS who developed immune hemolytic anemia (IHA). We examined sera and eluates for the presence of D-DAbs. Drug antibodies were detected in 43.4 percent (23/53) of the patients with IHA. Antibodies to more than one drug were detected in 60.8 percent (14/23) of patients with drug-induced IHA (D-IHA). The DAT was positive by RBC-bound IgG in eight patients, RBCbound IgG/C3d in nine, IgG/IgA in three, IgG/IgA/C3d in

Carlos A. González, Liliana Guzmán, Gabriela Nocetti

Immunohematology , ISSUE 1, 10–15


Description of Deladenus brevis n. sp. (Sphaerularioidea: Neotylenchidae) from Iran: a morphological and molecular phylogenetic study

The genus Deladenus was erected by Thorne (1941) with D. durus (Cobb, 1922) Thorne (1941) as its type species. Compared to other genera in the family Neotylenchidae (Thorne, 1941), the genus is characterized by its low cephalic region, small stylet, pharyngo-intestinal junction anterior to nerve ring, excretory pore at the level with, or immediately behind the nerve ring, pharynx lacking a median bulb, long overlap of the glands, no post-vulval uterine sac (PUS), and males with bursa. The genus

Fariba Heydari, Joaquín Abolafia, Majid Pedram

Journal of Nematology , 1–13


Fluensulfone and 1,3-dichloroprene for plant-parasitic nematode management in potato production

registration cancellations or production interruption. Oxamyl and aldicarb have been important products for control of stubby-root nematodes and CRS as they have provided good control of these pathogens; often better control than fumigants (Weingartner and Shumaker, 1990a, 1990b; Weingartner et al., 1993). This has left growers reliant on a limited number of nematicides, particularly the fumigant 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D), or a combination of 1,3-D and ethoprop when CRS is present. Therefore, it is

Zane J. Grabau, Joseph W. Noling, Pablo A. Navia Gine

Journal of Nematology , 1–12

Case report

Blood group genotyping in a multitrauma patient: a case report

Currently DNA-based analysis of blood groups is mainly used to improve transfusion safety by reducing alloantibody formation in multiply transfused patients and by monitoring pregnancies at risk for hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn. We present a case in which genotyping was performed after massive transfusion with unmatched group O, D– blood in a trauma setting. Our patient was genotyped as O1A1 and predicted to be D–, and we therefore transfused group A, D– red

Joyce Curvers, Volkher Scharnhorst, Masja de Haas, Loes Warnier-Wandel, Daan van de Kerkhof

Immunohematology , ISSUE 3, 85–87


An example of anti-LWa in a 10-month-old infant

Blood samples from a 10-month-old male infant requiring transfusion were found to contain an allomtibody reacting at 37°C in saline, by indirect antiglobulin test (IAT), and with a manual polybrene technique. Preliminary results suggested anti-D and another weaker reacting antibody, but the patient had been previously transfused with only D- blood. His serum reacted more weakly by IAT against red cells treated with 0.2M dithiothreitol (DTT), and one D+, LW(a-) sample was nonreactive. The

Alan Devenish

Immunohematology , ISSUE 4, 127–129

Research Article

Microcontroller based Power Efficient Signal Conditioning Unit for Detection of a Single Gas using MEMS based Sensor

P. Bhattacharyya, D. Verma, D. Banerjee

International Journal on Smart Sensing and Intelligent Systems , ISSUE 4, 771–782


Update on HDFN: new information on long-standing controversies

from anti-D was a significant cause of perinatal mortality or long-term disability. Routine administration of RhIG to D– women during pregnancy and shortly after the birth of D+ infants effectively reduced the incidence of HDFN caused by anti-D. Maternal alloimmunization to other RBC antigens in the Rh, Kell, and other blood group systems can not be routinely prevented and these antibodies can also cause HDFN. Advances in prenatal care, noninvasive monitoring, and intrauterine transfusion

Anne F. Eder

Immunohematology , ISSUE 4, 188–195

Case report

Case report: IgG1 Rh antibodies causing moderate hemolytic disease of the newborn

A gravida 3, para 1, 32-year-old black female presented at 27 weeks gestation for routine prenatal serologic tests. She typed as group A, D positive, category DIII mosaic. IgG1 anti-D, -hrB, and -E were identified in her serum. Ultrasound revealed an apparently normal fetus with no evidence of hydrops or ascites. Amniocentesis, performed at 30, 33, and 35 weeks, showed some evidence of hemolysis that did not increase over time. At 36 weeks of gestation, she delivered a full-term infant who

C. Faye Kugele, Cindy K. Oliver, Maria A. Carney, Jayne Hollander

Immunohematology , ISSUE 4, 124–126


Effects of HCN channel blockade on the intensity-response function of electroretinographic ON and OFF responses in dark adapted frogs

is by recording electroretinogram (ERG). The most prominent ERG components in response to long-lasting stimuli are the b-wave (ON response) and the d-wave (OFF response). In the ERGs obtained with brief (flash) stimuli, the OFF response is small and merges with the preceding ON-response. The role of the HCN channels in generation of ERG responses to stepped light stimuli has been mainly assessed by studying the effects of pharmacological blockade or genetic ablation of HCN channels on the flash

Elka Popova, Petia Kupenova

Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis , ISSUE 2, 192–204

Case report

Severe hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn due to anti-C+G

Anti-G is commonly present with anti-D and/or anti-C and can confuse serological investigations. In general, anti-G is not considered a likely cause of severe hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn (HDFN), but it is important to differentiate it from anti-D in women who should be administered anti-D immunoglobulin prophylaxis. We report one woman with three pregnancies severely affected by anti-C+G requiring intrauterine treatment and a review of the literature. In our case, the

Riina Jernman, Vedran Stefanovic, Anu Korhonen, Katri Haimila, Inna Sareneva, Kati Sulin, Malla Kuosmanen, Susanna Sainio

Immunohematology , ISSUE 3, 123–127


Rh immune globulin: an interfering substance in compatibility testing

Introduction Rh immune globulin (RhIG) is administered routinely to Rh-negative,* pregnant women to prevent hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn (HDFN), to Rh-negative patients who have received Rh-positive blood components, and to patients as a treatment for immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP). The result of RhIG administration may be the presence of anti-D in the plasma of antepartum and postpartum Rh-negative women, occasionally in their newborns, and in patients with ITP. The number

T.S. Casina, S.G. Sandler, S.M. Autenrieth

Immunohematology , ISSUE 2, 51–60


The New Zealand rare donor program

D. Gounder

Immunohematology , ISSUE 2, 53–53


Rh antigens and phenotype frequencies of the Ibibio, Efik, and Ibo ethnic nationalities in Calabar, Nigeria

nationalities were c (100%), e (96.38%), D (96.38%), E (15.22%), and C (3.62%) for the Ibibios;c (100%),e (95.60%),D (96.70%),E (21.98%),and C (0%) for the Efiks;and c (100%),e (94.29%),D (91.43%),E (28.57%), and C (2.86%) for the Ibos. The overall frequencies of the Rh antigens in these 720 individuals were c (100%), e (95.56%), D (94.44%),E (18.89%),and C (2.78%). Forty (5.56%) were found to be D–, while all were found to possess the c antigen. The most frequently occurring Rh phenotype was Dccee

Z. Awortu Jeremiah, Chris Odumody

Immunohematology , ISSUE 1, 21–24

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