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Report | 14-March-2020

The significance of a positive DAT in thalassemia patients

The DAT is performed for the detection of antibody or complement on the surface of RBCs. Our institution previously performed DATs on all chronically transfused thalassemia patients before each transfusion episode to detect early alloimmunization. The medical records of all thalassemia patients treated at our institution from 2004 to 2007 were reviewed to determine the significance of the high rate of positive DATs (52.5% of 80 patients). The majority of IgG-reactive DATs were associated with a

Suzanne A. Arinsburg, Donna L. Skerrett, Dorothy Kleinert, Patricia J. Giardina, Melissa M. Cushing

Immunohematology, Volume 26 , ISSUE 3, 87–91

Report | 26-October-2019

Clinical and reference lab characteristics of patients with suspected direct antiglobulin test (DAT)-negative immune hemolytic anemia

Clinical evidence of warm autoimmune hemolytic anemia is present in 1 percent to 10 percent of patients whose direct antiglobulin test (DAT) is negative. The clinical underpinnings associated with DAT-negative immune hemolysis are poorly understood, and the current study aimed to further define the clinical characteristics associated with this form of anemia. A 19-question survey, requesting clinical information about each patient, was retrospectively mailed to all referring labs that had sent

Matthew S. Karafin, Gregory A. Denomme, Michael Schanen, Jerome L. Gottschall

Immunohematology, Volume 31 , ISSUE 3, 108–115

Article | 15-April-2020

Efficacy of murine monoclonal antibodies in RBC phenotyping of DAT-positive samples

Determining the phenotype of patient RBCs that are positive by the DAT may prove problematic. Antigen typing of RBCs coated with IgG requires direct agglutinating reagents or chemical treatment (such as chloroquine diphosphate [CDP] or citric acid) to remove sufficient IgG to permit testing with IAT-reactive reagents. The citric acid elution method is commonly used in the United States; however,antigens in the Kell system are altered to the extent that they may appear to be absent by this

Edmond Lee, Kevin Hart, Gordon Burgess, Gregory R. Halverson, Marion E. Reid

Immunohematology, Volume 22 , ISSUE 4, 161–165

Article | 14-October-2020

Murine monoclonal antibodies can be used to type RBCs with a positive DAT

RBCs with a positive DAT due to IgG coating require the use of directly agglutinating reagents or treatment with chemicals to remove sufficient IgG to permit typing of the RBCs with antisera that require use of the IAT. In this study we demonstrate that murine IgG MoAbs to human RBC antigens can be used as an alternative if the anti-mouse IgG is neutralized or affinity purified to prevent cross-reaction with cell-bound IgG. We performed DATs on RBC samples coated with IgG in vivo and in vitro

Gregory R. Halverson, Paula Howard, Harry Malyska, Edith Tossas, Marion E. Reid

Immunohematology, Volume 19 , ISSUE 3, 83–85

Article | 15-May-2020

The sensitivity, specificity, and clinical relevance of gel versus tube DATs in the clinical immunology laboratory

The DAT is a test used to demonstrate in vivo antibody and/or complement coating of RBCs. Typically, the DAT is performed in test tubes; however, recently a number of commercially available tests using gel-filled microtubes have become available. Few data comparing the sensitivity of these test media are available. To compare the rate of detection of a positive DAT performed in test tubes versus in gel-filled microtubes and to assess the clinical significance of the results in patients

Na’ama Paz, Dganit Itzhaky, Martin H. Ellis

Immunohematology, Volume 20 , ISSUE 2, 118–121

Article | 14-October-2020

The direct antiglobulin test in a hospital setting

To evaluate the current use of the DAT in our hospital,we reviewed the charts of all patients who had a DAT performed in our laboratory. The collected data included DAT results and a previously completed laboratory evaluation of suspected hemolytic anemia. Four hundred sixty-three DATs were performed in our laboratory from April 1999 to October 2001.The DAT was negative in 434 (93.7%) cases and positive in 29 (6.3%) cases. A complete laboratory evaluation of suspected hemolytic anemia was seen

Joan Cid, Xavier Ortín, Víctor Beltran, Lourdes Escoda, Enric Contreras, Enric Elies, Carmen Martín-Vega

Immunohematology, Volume 19 , ISSUE 1, 16–18

Article | 18-October-2020

A quick and simple method for phenotyping IgG-sensitized red blood cells

Positive (IgG) direct antiglobulin test (DAT) reactivity ranging from weakly positive to 2+ can be eliminated using a simple “blocking” technique with anti-IgG. This method can be used for antigen typing DAT-positive red blood cells that require the antiglobulin technique.

Thom S. Sererat, Douglas W. Veidt, Ann M. Dutched

Immunohematology, Volume 16 , ISSUE 4, 154–156

Report | 14-March-2020

Attempts to support an immune etiology in 800 patients with direct antiglobulin test–negative hemolytic anemia

Clinical and hematologic evidence of warm autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) is present in some patients whose direct antiglobulin test (DAT) is negative. The most common causes for AIHA associated with a negative DAT are RBC-bound IgG below the sensitivity threshold of the DAT, RBC-bound IgA and IgM not detectable by routine reagents, and low-affinity IgG that dissociates during the testing process. Samples submitted from 800 patients with hemolytic anemia and a negative DAT were tested by an

Regina M. Leger, Asuncion Co, Penny Hunt, George Garratty

Immunohematology, Volume 26 , ISSUE 4, 156–160

Research paper | 06-February-2018

Potential role of dopamine transporter in behavioral flexibility

Behavioral flexibility is subserved by the prefrontal cortex and the basal ganglia. Orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and dorsomedial striatum (DMS) form a functional frontocorticostriatal circuit crucial for the mediation of flexibility during reversal learning via dopamine (DA) neurotransmission. The regulatory control in maintaining DA homeostasis and function is provided by the dopamine transporter (DAT), which therefore likely plays a significant role in controlling the influence of DA on

Anita Cybulska-Klosowicz, Julia Dabrowska, Sebastian Niedzielec, Renata Zakrzewska, Aleksandra Rozycka

Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis, Volume 77 , ISSUE 2, 176–189

Review | 01-December-2019

EDTA glycine acid treatment of red blood cells

IgG dissociation is necessary when a sample is direct antiglobulin test (DAT) positive and antigen testing using blood grouping serum reactive by the antiglobulin test is performed. Exposure of IgG-coated red blood cells (RBCs) to a low pH of 3.0 with EDTA glycine acid successfully dissociates the IgG, rendering the RBCs DAT negative 82 to 85 percent of the time. The procedure takes one minute or less and leaves RBC antigens intact and able to be typed except for those antigens in the Kell

Joanne Kosanke

Immunohematology, Volume 28 , ISSUE 3, 95–96

Article | 18-October-2020

Frequency of HLA-DQB*06 in Caucasian, African American, and Mexican American patients with a positive direct antiglobulin test

A reduced frequency of HLA-DQ6 in patients with a positive direct antiglobulin test (DAT) was previously reported but race was undisclosed. Therefore, we investigated a total of 275 patients (80 Caucasian, 113 African American, and 82 Mexican American) and 518 normal controls (205 Caucasian, 208 African American, and 105 Mexican American). These were typed for class II HLA antigens using molecular techniques. A DAT was performed on each patient’s red cells drawn into EDTA using both mouse

Joann M. Moulds, Laura A. Diekman, T. Denise Wells, John D. Reveille

Immunohematology, Volume 16 , ISSUE 2, 74–77

Article | 02-May-2020

Cefotetan-induced immune hemolytic anemia following prophylaxis for cesarean delivery

Second- and third-generation cephalosporins,notably cefotetan, are increasingly implicated in severe, sometimes fatal immunemediated hemolytic anemia. We describe a 26-year-old woman who developed severe hemolytic anemia 2 weeks after receiving a single prophylactic dose of cefotetan during cesarean delivery. The patient’s DAT was weakly reactive for IgG and her serum reacted with cefotetan-coated RBCs. The antibody had a titer of 4096 by antiglobulin testing.The patient required

Sherry Shariatmadar, Jill R. Storry, Laima Sausais, Marion E. Reid

Immunohematology, Volume 20 , ISSUE 1, 63–66

Article | 01-April-2020

Application of gel technology in the serologic characterization of autoantibody in DAT-positive autoimmune diseases

used to characterize the RBC-bound autoantibodies in 66 DAT-positive patients. Hematologic and biochemical parameters such as Hb,reticulocyte count, serum bilirubin, and serum LDH were obtained from the patient files. Of the 49 patients carrying IgG on their RBCs, 21 (42.8%) were suffering from connective tissue disorders and another 16 patients (32.7%) had autoimmune hemolytic anemia. A total of 19 of these 49 patients had evidence of hemolysis. Thirteen of the 17 patients (76.5%) whose RBCs were

Sudipta Sekhar Das, Rajendra K. Chaudhary

Immunohematology, Volume 23 , ISSUE 2, 59–62

Article | 14-October-2020

Anti-Mta associated with three cases of hemolytic disease of the newborn

The Mta antigen is a low-frequency red blood cell (RBC) surface antigen and is an established antigen of the MNSs blood group system. There has been one report of anti-Mta –induced hemolytic disease of the newborn (HDN) in the literature to date. We describe a family in which three children were affected by neonatal anemia. The clinical and hematologic findings were consistent with HDN, despite repeatedly negative direct antiglobulin tests (DAT) on cord RBCs. Serologic investigations

Carol C. Cheung, Daniel Challis, George Fisher, Susan J. Russell, Andrew Davis, Hayley Bruce, Julie Watt, Beng H. Chong

Immunohematology, Volume 18 , ISSUE 2, 37–39

Article | 14-October-2020

Clinically significant autoimmune hemolytic anemia with a negative direct antiglobulin test by routine tube test and positive by column agglutination method

In two to five percent of cases of autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA),the patient’s RBCs are negative in the direct antiglobulin test (DAT). We describe a patient with AIHA with a negative DAT when tested by the traditional tube test but with a strongly positive one when tested by column agglutination. When the DAT was repeated by tube test using 4°C saline washes, it became positive. This phenomenon has been observed when low-affinity antibodies are involved in AIHA. The patient

Marco Lai, Carlo Rumi, Giuseppe D’Onofrio, Maria Teresa Voso, Giuseppe Leone

Immunohematology, Volume 18 , ISSUE 4, 109–113

Article | 09-November-2020

Direct Coombs test-negative autoimmune hemolytic anemia and low-affinity IgG class antibodies

Autoimmune hemolytic anemia, in which the direct antiglobulin test (DAT) is negative or weakly positive, may be due to low-affinity autoantibodies. We describe two such cases. An 8-year-old male presented with weight loss, jaundice, a hemoglobin of 33 g/L, reticulocytes of 306 x 109/L, and haptoglobin of < 0.1 g/L. The DAT was negative. After washing the red blood cells (RBCs) with saline at 4°C, the DAT was positive for IgG and an eluate contained an IgG3 autoantibody, thus confirming a

R.J. Sokol, D.J. Booker, R. Stamps, S. Jalihal, B. Paul

Immunohematology, Volume 13 , ISSUE 4, 115–118

Article | 28-April-2020

Autoimmune hemolytic anemia and a further example of autoanti-Kpb

A 65-year-old Caucasian man with myelodysplasia was admitted with autoimmune hemolytic anemia and a Hb of 5.6 g/dL. The patient’s serum contained anti-K; the DAT on the patient’s RBCs reacted 3+ with anti-IgG and 3+ with anti-C3d.K– RBC units were transfused, but there was no sustained increase in Hb level. The samples were referred to the reference laboratory of the National Blood Service. The DAT results remained the same, with anti-K detected only in the serum. An eluate

Edmond Lee, Gordon Burgess, Nay Win

Immunohematology, Volume 21 , ISSUE 3, 119–121

Article | 03-November-2020

Paroxysmal cold hemoglobinuria and the elusive DonathLandsteiner antibody

Four patients with paroxysmal cold hemoglobinuria (PCH) illustrate some of the difficulties in making the diagnosis. A 46-year-old male presented with anemia, a weakly positive direct antiglobulin test (DAT) with anti-IgG, a haptoglobin < 0.1 g/L, and a cold autoagglutinin showing anti-P specificity. A 9-year-old female had a 4-day coryzal illness, a 20 g/L fall in hemoglobin over 24 hours, and a haptoglobin < 0.1 g/L; the DAT was positive with anti-C3d. A 3-year-old female was referred

R.J. Sokol, D.J. Booker, R. Stamps

Immunohematology, Volume 14 , ISSUE 3, 109–112

Article | 06-December-2020

Antibody screening and direct antiglobulin testing using BioVueTM column agglutination technology versus standard tube tests

The BioVue™ column agglutination technology (CAT) was evaluated simultaneously with standard tube test (STT) methodology for use in indirect antiglobulin testing (IAT) and direct antiglobulin testing (DAT). One thousand thirty-five blood specimens were used for the IAT comparison, and 44 blood specimens were used for the DAT comparison. Both polyspecific antiglobulin and anti-IgG antiglobulin reagents were used in the tube testing and the CAT testing. For IAT, sensitivity was 100 percent

Susan F. South

Immunohematology, Volume 9 , ISSUE 3, 78–80

Article | 09-November-2020

A maternal warm-reactive autoantibody presenting as a positive direct antiglobulin test in a neonate

Autoimmune hemolytic anemia in pregnancy is a rare cause of hemolytic disease of the newborn. This report describes a neonate with a mild hemolytic process and a positive direct antiglobulin test (DAT) presenting as the first manifestations of a maternal warm-reactive autoantibody. A full-term male neonate, blood group O, had a strongly positive DAT and laboratory evidence suggestive of a mild hemolytic process. The neonate’s mother was also group O and had a negative antibody screen

Terry D. Williamson, Linda H. Liles, Douglas P. Blackall

Immunohematology, Volume 13 , ISSUE 1, 6–8

Article | 30-November-2020

Autoimmune hemolysis following transfusion: a mimicking autoanti-D in a D- patient with alloanti-D

An 80-year-old group O, D- (rr) female with anti-C, -D, -E, and -Fya received four units of crossmatch-compatible red blood cells (RBCs). The direct antiglobulin test (DAT) was negative. Two weeks later, jaundice, dark urine, a 16% drop in hematocrit (Hct), a 20% reticulocyte count, and absent haptoglobin occurred. During the next month, her DAT was positive with anti-IgG and -C3d. Acid eluates, which repeatedly showed anti-D specificity, were nonreactive with enzyme-treated D- RBCs. Adsorption

Walter H. Dzik, Joyce Blank, Paula Lutz, Thomas G. Hirose, Christine Lomas-Francis, Marilyn Moulds

Immunohematology, Volume 10 , ISSUE 4, 117–119

Article | 14-October-2020

Quantitation of red cell–bound IgG, IgA, and IgM in patients with autoimmune hemolytic anemia and blood donors by enzymelinked immunosorbent assay

with a negative DAT. For healthy blood donors, mean values were 58 IgG, 16 IgA, and 3 IgM molecules per RBC. For patients with a positive DAT, the mean values were 3435 IgG, 157 IgA, and 69 IgM molecules per RBC. An increased level of IgA was found in 12 patients without IgA autoantibodies demonstrable in RBC eluates. Increased IgG levels were also observed in patients with a negative DAT and, in one case, an increased level of IgA was also found. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using ether

Antonio A. Bencomo, Martha Díaz, Yalile Alfonso, Odalys Valdés, María E. Alfonso

Immunohematology, Volume 19 , ISSUE 2, 47–53

Article | 14-October-2020

The investigation of the significance of a positive direct antiglobulin test in blood donors

samples were not included in this study. With a tube test, most of the antibodies had titers from 4 to 8. IgG subclass studies showed that 14 of 25 samples with reactive eluates contained IgG1, one contained IgG1+IgG2, one contained IgG1+IgG4, and two contained IgG1+IgG3 weak. The frequency of donors with a positive direct antiglobulin test (DAT) was ~ 1 in 3000 and males were twice as likely to be DAT positive (8 females vs. 17 males in this study). None of the donors had hemolysis. Two donors showed

Marianna Bellia, John Georgopoulos, Vasilis Tsevrenis, Efrosini Nomikou, Niki Vgontza, I. Kontogpoulous-Griva

Immunohematology, Volume 18 , ISSUE 3, 78–81

Case report | 26-October-2019

Blocked D phenomenon and relevance of maternal  serologic testing

A blood requisition for double-volume exchange transfusion was received for a 2-day-old male child born to a 29-yearold multiparous female (P2002) referred to our institute having neonatal jaundice with encephalopathy; no maternal sample was received. The neonatal blood sample was typed as group A, D–, and the direct antiglobulin test (DAT) was strongly positive (4+) using the gel method. Mono-specific DAT showed the presence of IgG antibodies on neonatal red blood cells (RBCs). Acid

Ashish Jain, Vijay Kumawat, Neelam Marwaha

Immunohematology, Volume 31 , ISSUE 3, 116–118

Article | 14-October-2020

Tube and column agglutination technology for autocontrol testing

agglutination tests. The tube method was carried out using low-ionic-strength solution (LISS). The direct antiglobulin test (DAT) was performed using the tube method, and further investigated with elution studies if warranted. Seventy-nine patient’s samples (7.74%) had a positive autocontrol: the gel test, 72 (91.13%); ReACT, 21 (26.58%); and the tube method, 27 (34.18%). Of the 79 positive autocontrols, 44 samples had a negative DAT. Of the samples with positive DAT results, only one possessed a

J.E. Courtney, J.L. Vincent, A.J. Indrikovs

Immunohematology, Volume 17 , ISSUE 2, 50–52

Article | 16-November-2020

The GLAM test: a flow cytometric assay for the detection of leukocyte antibodies in autoimmune neutropenia

patients with a suspected diagnosis of autoimmune neutropenia were referred for investigation. Leukocytes were harvested in sufficient quantities from 10 of the patients such that neutrophil and lymphocyte direct antiglobulin tests (DATs) and antibody screening and identification could be undertaken (in one case the results were inconclusive). Only three of these 10 patients had DAT-positive granulocytes, and one of these three also had DAT-positive lymphocytes. One further patient demonstrated DAT

Anatole Lubenko, Sally Rosemary Wilson

Immunohematology, Volume 12 , ISSUE 4, 164–168

Article | 27-December-2020

The elucidation of a Kell-related autoantibody using ZZAP-treated red cells

A 61-year-old, nontransfused, Caucasian male was found to have a positive direct antiglobulin test (DAT) and an autoantibody in his serum prior to total hip replacement. Autoabsorption with the patient's ZZAP-treated red cells failed to absorb the autoantibody, giving a clue to its possible specificity, which was subsequently found to be Kell-system related. In addition, his red cells were found to have a slightly weakened expression of Kell system antigens. The patient was fit and healthy

Graham P. Rowe, Guiseppe G. Tozzo, Joyce Poole, Yew Wah Liew

Immunohematology, Volume 5 , ISSUE 3, 79–82

Article | 15-February-2021

Serologic problems associated with administration of intravenous immune globulin (IVIg)

the result may suggest a subtype), then do not test the plasma against group A1 or B red blood cells (RBCs) using the indirect antiglobulin test (IAT). Positive reactions could be seen with both cells due to the circulating IVIg instead of the true ABO antibody. A similar caveat must be heeded with a group A individual. Direct Antiglobulin Test When group A, B, or AB patients receive high-dose IVIg, the IgG isoagglutinins can bind to the patients’ RBCs in vivo and result in a positive DAT due to

D.R. Branch

Immunohematology, Volume 35 , ISSUE 1, 13–15

Case report | 16-November-2020

Case report: rapid onset of severe anemia in childhood. A systematic approach to laboratory diagnosis

Evaluation of a patient prompted the systematic review of causes of abrupt onset anemia in children and the development of a protocol for the immunohematologic workup of such cases. The patient, a 3- year-old boy, presented to our institution two weeks following a viral illness with gross hematuria, jaundice, and severe anemia (hematocrit 14.5%). He was found to have a positive direct antiglobulin test (DAT) due to primarily complement sensitization (2+) with smaller amounts of IgG (weak). A

Linda A. Chambers

Immunohematology, Volume 12 , ISSUE 3, 108–111

Article | 06-December-2020

Reactive lysis - a phenomenon of delayed hemolytic transfusion reactions

posttransfusion, a mixed-field anti-IgG direct antiglobulin test (DAT) indicated that there were two cell populations present. The DAT remained positive with anti-C3b, -C3d throughout the course of the reaction. Because of the substantially lower Hb and the severity of symptoms, immunologic clearance of the antigen-positive donor RBCs was expected. However, we demonstrated their persistence. Our data corroborates the observation that complement activation occurring during DHTRs can result in the hemolysis of

Deborah L. Greene, Sanobar Khan

Immunohematology, Volume 9 , ISSUE 3, 74–77

research-article | 30-November-2019

Mixtures of fluopyram and abamectin for management of Meloidogyne incognita in tomato

. Growth rate of indicator The stem diameter and plant height of the tomatoes were measured at 30 and 60 days after transplanting (DAT). The stem diameter was measured with Vernier callipers. The root length and the fresh weights of the root and shoot were measured at 60 DAT with a ruler and a balance, respectively. The relative growth rate of each physiological growth indicator (I) was calculated to evaluate the growth status of tomato plants as follows: G r o w t h r a t e o f I ( % ) = 100

Qing-Qing Li, Jing-Jing Li, Qi-Tong Yu, Ze-Yu Shang, Chao-Bin Xue

Journal of Nematology, Volume 52 , 1–11

Article | 16-October-2019

Assessment of common red blood cell pretreatments to yield an accurate serologic antigen phenotype compared with genotype-predicted phenotype

or by a positive direct antiglobulin test (DAT). Because a donor RBC can survive in circulation for up to 120 days, it is not recommended to phenotype individuals who have been transfused in the past 3 months.6 In addition, phenotyping with certain types of antisera may be hindered in patients with autoantibodies causing a positive DAT. In these scenarios, methods—such as EDTA glycine acid (EGA) treatment to remove IgG, hypotonic wash to separate autologous cells from patients with sickle cell

T. Horn, J. Hamilton, J. Kosanke, V.W. Hare, W. Kluver, W. Beres, S. Nance, M.A. Keller

Immunohematology, Volume 33 , ISSUE 4, 147–151

Article | 22-November-2020

Use of monoclonal Jka and Jkb reagents in phenotyping red cells with a positive direct antiglobulin test

an indirect antiglobulin test. The Jka and Jkb MAbs consistently gave the same phenotype results both on untreated DAT-positive red cells and on the same cells after CDP treatment. Two of the CDPtreated samples had diminished antigen expression with the MAbs, a finding that may have been caused by the CDP treatment. One untreated sample, which spontaneously agglutinated in a lowprotein medium, was incorrectly phenotyped with the anti-Jka MAb, but both MAbs and PAbs gave the same correct results

Judy L. Brazell

Immunohematology, Volume 10 , ISSUE 1, 16–18

Article | 20-December-2020

Du phenotyping by the rosette technique when the direct antiglobulin test is positive

The rosette technique provides a simple rapid and accurate procedure for Du phenotyping of red blood cells (RBCs) with a positive direct antiglobulin test (DAT) due to antibodies other than those of the Rh system. We used Sebring and Polesky’s rosette technique to test RBCs with positive DATs. Characteristic microscopic agglutination was observed for the Du phenotype which was dif­ferent from the mixed-field agglutination seen as positive rosettes in feto-maternal hemorrhage (FMH

Jochewed Werch, Carolyn Todd, Marilyn K. Moulds

Immunohematology, Volume 6 , ISSUE 2, 44–46

Article | 03-November-2020

Implementation of gel column technology, including comparative testing of Ortho ID-MTS with standard polyethylene glycol tube tests

Diane A. Derr, Stacy J. Dickerson, E.Ann Steiner

Immunohematology, Volume 14 , ISSUE 2, 72–74

Article | 09-November-2020

Delayed hemolytic transfusion reaction and paroxysmal cold hemoglobinuria: an unusual association

An 80-year-old female presented with melena and anemia due to bleeding from a benign gastric ulcer. Her blood group was O, D+. The serum contained anti-B and a weak anti-A (titer 2 at 18°C). She was inadvertently transfused with approximately 3.5 units of group A red blood cells with no initial ill effects. One week later, the antiA titer increased to 8 and the direct antiglobulin test (DAT) was weakly positive (IgG and C3d). The next day, intravascular hemolysis became evident. The DAT was

M.A. Wodzinski, R.C. Collin, D.J. Booker, R. Stamps, J.D. Bellamy, R.J. Sokol

Immunohematology, Volume 13 , ISSUE 2, 54–57

Article | 14-December-2020

Primary immune response to blood group antigens in burned children

positive direct antiglobulin test (DAT), or both. None of the 11 patients included in the study had been previously tranfused or pregnant. The average number of units transfused prior to antibody identification was 19. The average time elapsed between the first transfusion and antibody identification was 3.6 weeks. Anti-K and anti-E were the most frequently identified. Three patients had a decrease in hemoglobin (average 1.5 g/dL) and hematocrit at the time that a positive DAT was detected. Such

Nancy E. Bacon, Ethel D. Patten, Janet L. Vincent

Immunohematology, Volume 7 , ISSUE 1, 8–11

Article | 06-December-2020

Anti-Uz found in mother's serum and child's eluate

(DAT) and the autocontrol were negative. Her serum reacted stronger with S+ RBCs only in the antiglobulin phase, and failed to react with U- or ficin-treated RBCs. The antibody was adsorbed completely by S-s+U+ RBCs, proving that anti-S was not present. Monocyte monolayer assay results with S+s-U+ and S-s+U+ RBCs indicated that transfusion of incompatible blood would not result in significant hemolysis. The child's cord RBCs typed S-s+. The DAT was 3+ with anti-IgG, and an eluate prepared from

Sandra M. Read, Mary M. Taylor, Marion E. Reid, Mark A. Popovsky

Immunohematology, Volume 9 , ISSUE 2, 47–49

research-article | 30-November-2020

Endophytic Beauveria bassiana increases galling of ‘Rutgers’ tomato roots with Meloidogyne incognita

the methyl cellulose control and 76% in Bb-treated seed. The population of Bb on ‘Rutgers’ seed was log 7 for both trials. In the greenhouse assay, growth of tomato plants treated with Bb + RKN were compared with three controls: Bb only, RKN only, and Control (no treatment). At 30 and 60 days after treatment (DAT), there were no differences among treatments for shoot height and fresh weight (data not shown). Similarly, at 30 DAT there were no differences in root fresh weight, but at 60 DAT, root

Shalini Yerukala, Ernest C. Bernard, Kimberly D. Gwinn, David M. Butler, Parwinder S. Grewal, Bonnie H. Ownley

Journal of Nematology, Volume 53 , 1–16

Article | 17-February-2021

A prospective, observational study for optimization of antibody screening in pretransfusion compatibility testing

, Lea, Leb, M, N, S, Fya, and Fyb) was performed by CTT using antisera (Immucor, Norcross, GA). For s and P1, antigen typing was performed by CTT using Bioclone antisera (Ortho Clinical Diagnostics, Raritan, NJ). DIRECT ANTIGLOBULIN TEST In the case of a positive AS and positive autologous control, autoantibody was suspected, and further serological evaluation was done. Direct antiglobulin testing (DAT) was performed on whole blood samples. Where applicable, adsorption studies were performed using

P. Pandey, D. Setya, R. Srivastava, M.K. Singh

Immunohematology, Volume 36 , ISSUE 1, 19–28

Case report | 20-March-2020

New serologic findings in a patient with ulcerative colitis and a warm autoantibody

IgG-RBC sensitization associated with serine proteases is the current prevailing hypothesis used to explain an uncommon phenomenon in which a positive DAT is obtained using the RBCs from a patient’s clotted blood sample but a negative DAT is obtained when testing RBCs from the patient’s unclotted sample. Similarly, the patient’s serum but not plasma will also be reactive by IAT against all RBCs tested. The majority of patients demonstrating this phenomenon have had a history

Thomas G. Lightfoot, Laurie Delia VanThof

Immunohematology, Volume 25 , ISSUE 4, 160–164

Case report | 21-March-2020

Hyperhemolytic transfusion reaction attributable to anti-Fy3 in a patient with sickle cell disease

possible anti-I specificity. A DAT performed on her RBCs was negative.RBC units that lacked E,C,Jkb,N,V,and S were transfused. Posttransfusion Hb was 8.9 g/dL. On day 10 she developed a fever of 103°F,and on day 11 her Hb decreased to 6.4 g/dL. She complained of severe back pain and dark urine. In addition,she became hypertensive,tachycardic,and jaundiced. The DAT indicated the presence of IgG on the patient’s RBCs. Anti-Fy3 was identified in the serum and eluate. During the next 24 hours,her

Meredith A. Reyes, Orieji C. Illoh

Immunohematology, Volume 24 , ISSUE 2, 45–51

Article | 16-May-2020

Maternal alloanti-hrS - an absence of HDN

A 24-year old female,gravida III,para III,delivered a full-term infant by cesarean section. A maternal blood sample at the time of admission showed antibody in her serum that had apparent anti-e specificity and that her RBCs were e+. Further studies determined that the antibody was anti-hrS. Cord RBCs had a negative DAT and a normal Hb level. There was no clinical evidence for increased hemolysis in the infant. We describe an hrS+ infant with no evidence of HDN due to anti-hrS.

Ram Kakaiya, Jill Cseri, Beth Jochum, Laurie Gillard, Simone Silberman

Immunohematology, Volume 20 , ISSUE 3, 187–189

Case report | 09-October-2019

Two cases of the variant RHD*DAU5 allele associated with maternal alloanti-D  

allele. Cord blood testing on both infants revealed positive direct antiglobulin test (DAT) results with anti-D eluted from the red blood cells (RBCs) of one of the infants. Despite the positive DAT, neither infant experienced anemia or hyperbilirubinemia. We document two cases of pregnant women whose RBCs expressed a partial D variant and were classified as D+ on the basis of standard serologic testing, resulting in subsequent failure to provide RhIG prophylaxis. Both cases were associated with

Jennifer A. Duncan, Susan Nahirniak, Rodrigo Onell, Gwen Clarke

Immunohematology, Volume 33 , ISSUE 2, 60–63

Case report | 17-March-2020

Anti-Kpa–induced severe delayed hemolytic transfusion reaction

. She was referred to our institution for hepatic and renal failure, which was supported by laboratory findings of peak LDH, bilirubin, BUN, and creatinine elevations. Hemoglobin had dropped on Day 10 after transfusion. The DAT and antibody screen (ABS) were negative. Initial workup and subsequent ABS were negative. Anti-Kpa was identified when an additional RBC panel was tested. One of the RBC units transfused was incompatible by antihuman globulin (AHG) crossmatch with the patient’s plasma

Ranie Koshy, Bhishma Patel, Jonathan S. Harrison

Immunohematology, Volume 25 , ISSUE 2, 44–47

Article | 28-April-2020

Persistent anti-Dra in two pregnancies

Cromer blood group system, including anti-Dra, have never been reported to cause HDN. In most of the cases with anti-Dra examined in Israel, the antibodies have been subtyped as IgG2 and IgG4. This report is of a woman with Dr(a–) phenotype and an anti-Dra titer of 256 to 512 in her serum, observed during two successive pregnancies. At birth, the RBCs of the first- and second-born child were negative and positive in the DAT, respectively, and neither manifested clinical signs of HDN. The

Naomi Rahimi-Levene, Abraham Kornberg, Gabriela Siegel, Valery Morozov, Eilat Shinar, Orna Asher, Cyril Levene, Vered Yahalom

Immunohematology, Volume 21 , ISSUE 3, 126–128

Article | 06-December-2020

Evaluation of patients with positive direct antiglobulin tests and nonreactive eluates discovered during pretransfusion testing

correlation existed between the strength of the DAT reaction and the serum IgG concentration. Several mechanisms that could be responsible for these findings are discussed.

Jerald A. Clark, Patricia C. Tanley, Charles H. Wallas

Immunohematology, Volume 8 , ISSUE 1, 9–12

Article | 06-December-2020

Failure to detect a prozoning anti-Fya in the serum of a chronically transfused patient

facility for acute hemorrhage. Only the presence of anti-JH in the serum was documented. To detect possible immune red cell destruction, the patient was monitored by our facility at 24-hour intervals with a direct antiglobulin test and antibody screen. On day 4, a 4+ anti-Fya was identified in the serum and the DAT was negative. Three days later anti-K was also identified. The serologic picture remained unchanged for 10 days, when the DAT became positive. Concurrently, a mixed-field Fya typing (on the

Jody C. Sizemore, Teresa D. Sammons, Jerry N. Clanton

Immunohematology, Volume 8 , ISSUE 2, 44–46

Article | 15-February-2021

Heat elution: a modification of the Landsteiner-Miller method

eluate and final wash in parallel, using the appropriate test phase(s) in a manner that is best for detection of the antibody, following the laboratory’s standard operating procedure. RBCs = red blood cells. Additionally, heat causes a conformational change in proteins, resulting in a loss of the “lock and key” interaction between antigen and antibody. Indications Elution studies may be performed on patient samples having a positive direct antiglobulin test (DAT) due to auto- or

C. Dean-El, N. Quraishy

Immunohematology, Volume 35 , ISSUE 2, 45–47

Article | 14-December-2020

Indicators of clinically significant red cell antibodies produced by sensitized lymphocytes in liver transplant patients

It has been documented that transplanted livers can carry sensitized lymphocytes that subsequently produce red cell antibodies. We evaluated immunohematological variables in liver donors and recipients for indicators that might be predictive of serological red blood cell (RBC) destruction mediated by the passenger lymphocytes. Organ donor sera with antibody scores greater than ( > ) 60 correlated with a positive direct antiglobulin test (DAT) and need for increased RBC transfusion in liver

BeverIy E.W. Calhoun, M. Pothiawala, G. Musa, B. Baron

Immunohematology, Volume 7 , ISSUE 2, 37–39

Article | 14-October-2020

Drug-dependent antibodies with immune hemolytic anemia in AIDS patients

We studied the presence of drug-dependent antibodies (D-DAbs) in 53 patients with AIDS who developed immune hemolytic anemia (IHA). We examined sera and eluates for the presence of D-DAbs. Drug antibodies were detected in 43.4 percent (23/53) of the patients with IHA. Antibodies to more than one drug were detected in 60.8 percent (14/23) of patients with drug-induced IHA (D-IHA). The DAT was positive by RBC-bound IgG in eight patients, RBCbound IgG/C3d in nine, IgG/IgA in three, IgG/IgA/C3d in

Carlos A. González, Liliana Guzmán, Gabriela Nocetti

Immunohematology, Volume 19 , ISSUE 1, 10–15

Article | 03-November-2020

Evaluation of column technology for direct antiglobulin testing

Preliminary reports have suggested that microcolumn technology might be too sensitive for direct antiglobulin testing (DAT). We studied 228 samples from patients with autoimmune diseases and 30 samples from healthy controls to determine the sensitivity of column techniques. Both Sephadex® gel and protein A/G columns were compared with manual methods using rabbit or murine polyspecific reagents. Of the 187 samples that were negative by both manual methods, an additional 29 (15%) and 42 (22

Joann M. Moulds, Laura Diekman, T. Denise Wells

Immunohematology, Volume 14 , ISSUE 4, 146–148

Case report | 29-December-2020

A case report: cold hemagglutinin disease in a pancreatic and renal transplant patient

thermal amplitude of 37°C. The patie  nt had a weakly positive direct antiglobulin test (DAT) with only complement detectable on the red cells. The patient recovered spontaneously. The etiology of the CHD is unclear. The use of cyclosporin-A, OKT3 monoclonal antibody, and anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG) to treat acute rejection could have played a part.

Catherine Y. Beiting, Kathleen S. Larimore

Immunohematology, Volume 4 , ISSUE 4, 85–87

Article | 21-April-2020

Acute hemolytic transfusion reaction secondary to anti-Fy3

was red. Her Hb dropped from 8.4 to 6.4 g/dL over 24 hours after the transfusion. Her total bilirubin rose to 4.0 mg/dL, with an LDH value of 1558 U/L and a haptoglobin of 10.9 mg/dL. Both the antibody detection test and the DAT were positive. An anti-Fy3 was identified in the serum and in the eluate. To the best of our knowledge,this is the first case of acute intravascular hemolysis due to anti-Fy3 in a patient without sickle cell disease.

Horatiu Olteanu, David Gerber, Kara Partridge, Ravindra Sarode

Immunohematology, Volume 21 , ISSUE 2, 48–52

Article | 30-November-2020

An example of anti-LWa in a 10-month-old infant

patient’s red blood cells (RBCs) typed as B, D-, LW(a-), K-, Fy(a-). Due to the age and clinical status of the child, 51Cr survival studies were not performed. One pediatric unit of D-, K-, Fy(a-) blood was transfused uneventfully; the expected increment of hemoglobin was achieved. Repeat testing 3 months later showed a weakly positive DAT, the patient’s RBCs typed as LW(a+), and anti-LWa was detected only by a two-stage papain technique. These results suggest that the patient had a

Alan Devenish

Immunohematology, Volume 10 , ISSUE 4, 127–129

Article | 01-April-2020

External quality assessment scheme in red blood cell serology: a 5-year experience in Thailand

percent,mostly due to human errors. Error rates in D typing ranged from 0.7 to 5.7 percent, the most problematic being weak D phenotype interpretation. Although every sample was negative by the DAT, error rates due to false positive test results were determined to be 0.4 to 2.1 percent. Antibody screening errors were also found; however, errors steadily decreased from 4.2 percent in 2000 to 0.3 percent in 2004. Only 69.4 to 87.2 percent of laboratories performed antibody identification;however,correct

Sasitorn Bejrachandra, Jariya Saipin, Oytip Nathalang, Usanee Siriboonrit, Ekaraj Rungroung, Sudjai Udee

Immunohematology, Volume 22 , ISSUE 1, 1–5

Article | 20-December-2020

Two cases of autoantibodies that demonstrate mimicking specificity in the Duffy blood group system

Two transfused Caucasian patients presented with possible delayed transfusion reactions. Both patients demonstrated an anti-Fya (Fy1) plus anti-Fyb (Fy2) pattern of reactivity in their sera. The patients’ red blood cells (RBCs) were Fy:1,-2,3. Both had positive direct antiglobulin tests (DAT) with anti-IgG and -C3d. The serum antibodies reacted with the patients’ RBCs drawn when the DATs were negative. Both patients’ serum samples showed reactivity with Fy:1,-2 (1+), Fy:-1,2

Teresa Y. Harris

Immunohematology, Volume 6 , ISSUE 4, 87–91

research-article | 30-November-2018

First report of Longidorus mindanaoensis Coomans, De Ley, Jimenez and De Ley, 2012 (Nematoda: Longidoridae) From a Mangrove Forest in Vietnam

Thi Duyen Nguyen, Huu Tien Nguyen, Thi Mai Linh Le, Neriza Nobleza, Quang Phap Trinh

journal of nematology, Volume 51 , 1–5

Case report | 12-March-2020

Role for serial prenatal anti-Vel quantitative serologic monitoring with 2-ME serum treatment during pregnancy: case report

trimester (week 7) of her second pregnancy. Interval measurements of the serologic antibody titers were performed during the next 26 weeks. The untreated serum (IgM and IgG) titer increased from a baseline of 4 to 16 during that interval, while the 2-ME (presumed IgG component) titer remained stable at 4. Responding to ultrasound findings suspicious for fetal anemia, the child was delivered without complications at 34 weeks’ gestation. At birth, the DAT was negative and there was no evidence of

Walter J. Linz, Judith T. Fueger, Steven Allen, Susan T. Johnson

Immunohematology, Volume 26 , ISSUE 1, 8–10

Article | 14-October-2020

Variations in pretransfusion practices

autocontrol, and DAT, and immediate spin and 37°C microscopic readings. Nine percent never perform an Rh control with anti-D typing on patient samples. Various antibody screening and crossmatch methods are utilized. Individual laboratory test practices should be periodically assessed to ensure that they comply with standards, represent the recognized best practice, and are cost-effective. The survey responses indicate that many laboratories perform tests that are not necessary or cost-effective. These

Beverly J. Padget, Judith L. Hannon

Immunohematology, Volume 19 , ISSUE 1, 1–6

Report | 29-October-2019

Demonstration of IgG subclass (IgG1 and IgG3) in patients with positive direct antiglobulin tests

Serologic characterization of autoantibodies helps in the management and monitoring of the course of autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA). The purpose of this study was to evaluate gel centrifugation test (GCT) cards for immunoglobulin G (IgG) titer and determination of IgG subclasses IgG1 and IgG3 and their influence on hemolysis. Eighty direct antiglobulin test (DAT)-positive patients were examined with the help of GCT cards for IgG titer and IgG subclasses. The results were correlated with the

Ashutosh Singh, Archana Solanki, Rajendra Chaudhary

Immunohematology, Volume 30 , ISSUE 1, 24–27

research-article | 06-November-2020

Plant health evaluations of Belonolaimus longicaudatus and Meloidogyne incognita colonized bermudagrass using remote sensing

start of the trial via a handheld spray bottle, and each treatment was diluted so that 10 mL of sprayed solution was the desired application rate per microplot. Fluensulfone was broadcast with a Scotts Easy Hand-Held Broadcast Spreader. All nematicides were watered with 0.64 cm of water after application. Microplot data collection Data collection occurred at 0, 30, and 60 days after treatment (DAT) for both 2018 and 2019 trials. Data collected included nematode population density, visual turf

Will L. Groover, Kathy S. Lawrence

Journal of Nematology, Volume 52 , 1–13

Article | 14-October-2020

Warm autoimmune hemolytic anemia with mimicking anti-c and -E specificities

An 18-month-old male was admitted to a hospital with a hemoglobin of 4.1 g/dL and a reticulocyte count of 53 percent. There was no history of prior transfusion. Serologic evaluation revealed the presence of both a positive direct antiglobulin test (DAT) and an indirect antiglobulin test (IAT). The patient’s red blood cells (RBCs) typed as group A, C–D–E–c+e+ (cde/cde). Evaluation of the IAT revealed the presence of anti-c and anti-E. All other major antibodies were ruled

Hsin-Yeh Hsieh, Diana L. Moroney, Deanne E. Naumann, D. Jane Hata, Nancy C. Vosnidou, Rovenna L. Kessinger, Nassir Shahab, Nasrollah Hakami, Daniel S. Smith

Immunohematology, Volume 18 , ISSUE 1, 19–22

Article | 22-November-2020

Cefotetan-induced immune hemolytic anemia due to the drug-adsorption mechanism

), her hematocrit (Hct) decreased from 34.3% to 23.3%. The reticulocyte count was 6.9%. The DAT was 2+ (IgG only), and the serum and an eluate were nonreactive with a panel of standard reagent red blood cells (RBCs). Cefotetan therapy continued and the patient was transfused with two units of RBCs. On day 6 of therapy, the patient experienced an anaphylactoid reaction attributed to sensitivity to cefotetan. Cefotetan therapy was discontinued, the patient was treated with corticosteroids and

Robert J. Eckrich, Susan Fox, Delores Mallory

Immunohematology, Volume 10 , ISSUE 2, 51–54

Report | 14-March-2020

Absence of hemolytic disease of fetus and newborn despite maternal high-titer IgG anti-Ku

results established the presence of anti-Ku in maternal serum. The newborn was group A, D+ and required phototherapy for hyperbilirubinemia, but did not require transfusion. The woman was seen again in January 2010 during the third trimester (G4P3). At this time, anti-Ku titer was 256. She delivered a healthy group O, D+ baby boy at 37 weeks’ gestation. Cord RBCs were 4+ for IgG by DAT. An eluate reacted with all RBCs tested, but did not react when tested against a panel of DTT-treated RBCs. K0

Ram M. Kakaiya, Angelica Whaley, Christine Howard-Menk, Jigna Rami, Mona Papari, Sally Campbell-Lee, Zbigniew Malecki

Immunohematology, Volume 26 , ISSUE 3, 119–122

Case report | 01-December-2019

Paroxysmal cold hemoglobinuria: a case report

Scott C. Wise, Sheila H. Tinsley, Lloyd O. Cook

Immunohematology, Volume 28 , ISSUE 4, 118–123

Case report | 26-October-2019

Anti-Jk3 in a Filipino man

Shaina McCaskill, Scott Wise, Sheila Tinsley

Immunohematology, Volume 31 , ISSUE 3, 119–122

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