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  • Journal Of Nematology



First Report of Heterorhabditis amazonensis from Venezuela and Characterization of Three Populations

During a survey in western Venezuela in 2011, three new populations of Heterorhabditis amazonensis (LPV081, LPV156, and LPV498) were isolated. Some differences were found in terms of morphometry compared with the original description; however, the distance from the anterior end to the excretory pore is the most variable character; significantly shorter in all infective juveniles and in other developmental stages depending on the population. According to a Principal Component Analysis, LPV498


Journal of Nematology , ISSUE 3, 139–147

Research Article

Responses of Anastrepha suspensa, Diachasmimorpha longicaudata, and Sensitivity of Guava Production to Heterorhabditis bacteriophora in Fruit Fly Integrated Pest Management

infested guavas were treated with increasing Heterorhabditis bacteriophora infective juvenile (IJ) concentration or rate (0, 25, 50, …, 1,600 IJs cm−2) in field trials to measure the optimum IJ rate and then examine sensitivity of producing guavas to inclusion of Heterorhabditis bacteriophora in Caribfly IPM plans. Relative survival of Caribfly in treatments significantly decreased with increasing IJ rate from 0 to 100 IJs cm−2. Similarly, probability of observing large numbers of parasitoid wasps

William K. Heve, Fahiem E. El-Borai, Evan G. Johnson, Daniel Carrillo, William T. Crow, Larry W. Duncan

Journal of Nematology , ISSUE 3, 261–272


Natural occurrence and distribution of entomopathogenic nematodes (Steinernematidae, Heterorhabditidae) in Viti Levu, Fiji Islands

Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) species belonging to the genera Steinernema Travassos, 1927 and Heterorhabditis Poinar, 1975 and their symbiotic bacteria from genera Xenorhabdus and Photorhabdus, respectively, are lethal parasites of soil inhibiting insects (Shapiro-Ilan et al., 2017). Globally, EPNs are being widely researched as promising biocontrol agents for wide range of agricultural pests (Lacey et al., 2015). Because of the increasing awareness of EPN as an effective non-chemical

Sumeet Kour, Uma Khurma, Gilianne Brodie, Selcuk Hazir

journal of nematology , 1–17

Research Article

Survival and Infectivity of Entomopathogenic Nematodes Formulated in Sodium Alginate Beads

An alternative control method to the use of chemical insecticides against soil dwelling insect pests is the application of entomopathogenic nematodes formulated in alginate beads for enhanced shelf life. The aim was to compare the benefit on nematode survival and infectivity of: (i) pre-conditioning of juveniles, and (ii) coating of alginate beads. The nematodes Steinernema glaseri, Steinernema carpocapsae, and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora were reproduced in last instar larvae of the wax moth

Jaime Ruiz-Vega, Carlos I. Cortés-Martínez, Cipriano García-Gutiérrez

Journal of Nematology , ISSUE 3, 273–280


First record of native entomopathogenic nematodes from Montana agroecosystems

variety of soils (Hominick, 2002; Adams et al., 2006; Adams et al., 2007). The only continent where they have not been found is Antarctica (Griffin et al., 1990). About 95 species of Steinernema and 16 species of Heterorhabditis have been described so far (Hunt and Nguyen, 2016). However, there are reports of new EPN species being found and described from different parts of the world (Lephoto and Gray, 2019; Stock et al., 2019; Katumanyane et al., 2020; Půža et al., 2020). The distribution and

Ramandeep K. Sandhi, Ratnasri Pothula, Satyendra K. Pothula, Byron J. Adams, Gadi V.P. Reddy

Journal of Nematology , 1–11


Infection parameters of Heterorhabditis amazonensis (Nematoda: Heterorhabditidae) in different stages of Hibiscus pink mealybug

., 2015; Nomakholwa et al., 2016; Stokwe and Malan, 2017; Guide et al., 2018). As EPNs have shown potential to become biological control agents of the above mentioned hemipterans, the objective of this work was to evaluate the pathogenicity, virulence, and infection rates of Heterorhabditis amazonensis Andaló et al. (Rhabditida: Heterorhabditidae) against different stages of PHM under laboratory conditions. Materials and methods PHM breeding PHM-Infected fruits of Annona cherimola Mill. (Magnoliales

Yvan Fuenmayor, Edgar Portillo, Brynelly Bastidas, Mayamarú Guerra, Ernesto San-Blas

Journal of Nematology , 1–7

Research Article

Secondary Metabolites Produced by Heterorhabditis Symbionts and Their Application in Agriculture: What We Know and What to Do Next

Gram-negative Photorhabdus bacteria have a dual lifestyle: they are mutualists of Heterorhabditis nematodes and are pathogens of insects. Together, this nematode–bacterium partnership has been used to successfully control a wide range of agricultural insect pests. Photorhabdus produce a diverse array of small molecules that play key biological roles in regulating their dual roles. In particular, several secondary metabolites (SM) produced by this bacterium are known to play a critical role in


Journal of Nematology , ISSUE 4, 373–383

Research Article

Molecular Identification of Entomopathogenic Nematode Isolates from the Philippines and their Biological Control Potential Against Lepidopteran Pests of Corn

Heterorhabditis indica. The pathogenicity of these EPN was tested in Ostrinia furnacalis, Spodoptera litura, and Helicoverpa armigera larvae under laboratory conditions. All the EPN isolates were pathogenic to the lepidopteran species with, H. indica PBCB and S. abbasi MBLB exhibiting the highest virulence (88%–99.33% and 90%–100% mortality, respectively) at 48 hr post infection (HPI) and thus, further studies were done on these two EPN. The highest penetration rate at 48 HPI was observed in H. armigera

Barbara L. Caoili, Romnick A. Latina, Regina Faye C. Sandoval, Joey I. Orajay

Journal of Nematology , ISSUE 2, 99–110


Potential of entomopathogenic nematodes against the pupal stage of the apple maggot Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh) (Diptera: Tephritidae)

Snow for which 60% parasitism was observed in hawthorn fruit. Entomopathogenic nematodes may be another alternative approach for the biological control of R. pomonella. Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) from genera Steinernema and Heterorhabditis have the ability to infect and kill insect pests and they are naturally found in all types of agricultural and natural soils (Grewal et al., 2005). Entomopathogenic nematodes are associated with symbiotic bacteria, i.e. Xenorhabdus spp. bacteria are

Muhammad Usman, Sehrish Gulzar, Waqas Wakil, Jaime C. Piñero, Tracy C. Leskey, Laura J. Nixon, Camila Oliveira-Hofman, Shaohui Wu, David Shapiro-Ilan

Journal of Nematology , 1–9


An innovative strategy for control of fungus gnats using entomopathogenic nematodes alone or in combination with waterlogging

adults, ozone water (Shi et al., 2016), soil solarization (Shi et al., 2018), and biotic approaches, such as Beauveria bassiana (Hugo et al., 2018), entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) (San-Blas et al., 2017), etc. Among them, EPNs have been intensively studied and considered to be potential alternative control agents for Bradysia spp. on a large scale (San-Blas et al., 2017; Katumanyane et al., 2018b). EPNs of the genera Steinernema and Heterorhabditis (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae and

Chaoying Chen, Haikun Ma, Mingyang Ma, Jingjing Li, Shuyuan Zheng, Qifeng Song, Xinghui Gu, David Shapiro-Ilan, Weibin Ruan

Journal of Nematology , 1–9


Efficacy of Heterorhabdits indica LPP35 against Aedes aegypti in domiciliary oviposition sites

of Heterorhabditis and Steinernema species have been shown to kill, at different rates, larvae and pupae of several mosquito species. Early studies indicated that mosquito larval stages 3 and 4 (L3, L4) readily ingest EPN infective juveniles (IJs). Most IJs are injured by larval mouthparts, but some enter the hemocoel and overcome the insect’s defenses, causing mortality (Daad, 1971; Poinar and Kaul, 1982; Molta and Hominick, 1989). Most studies on the efficacy of EPNs against mosquito larvae

Bruna Silva, Alexandre M. Almeida, Claudia Dolinski, Ricardo M. Souza

journal of nematology , 1–7


In vivo production of entomopathogenic nematodes using Galleria mellonella: costs and effect of diets on nematode pathogenicity

The use of biological agents, such as entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN) of the genera Heterorhabditis and Steinernema, is one of a range of tools for biological control. These nematode species are obligate parasites, lethal, and easy to apply (San-Blas, 2013). They can be mass-produced using in vivo or in vitro (solid or liquid) culture methods (Gaugler and Han, 2002; Rahoo et al., 2019), but in vivo is the method of choice for laboratory-scale production (e.g. for generating material for field

Régina Kotchofa, Hugues Baimey

journal of nematology , 1–15


Effect of an Alltech soil health product on entomopathogenic nematodes, root-knot nematodes and on the growth of tomato plants in the greenhouse

considered while adopting any sustainable pest management approach (Saleh et al., 2017). Very often, in an attempt to control PPN, the beneficial entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN) are harmed by bionematicides or organic amendments (Bednarek and Gaugler, 1997; Somasekhar et al., 2002). Entomopathogenic nematodes are widely used by farmers and growers commercially for biological control of insect pests (Somasekhar et al., 2002). Species within the EPN genera Steinernema and Heterorhabditis (Rhabditida) are

Anusha Pulavarty, Karina Horgan, Thomais Kakouli-Duarte

Journal of Nematology , 1–10


Survival of entomopathogenic nematodes in oil emulsions and control effectiveness on adult engorged ticks (Acari: Ixodida)

room temperature and to increase their infectivity on ticks in laboratory and field evaluations. The compatibility of some vegetable oils with the nematode Heterorhabditis bacteriophora has been reported (Krishnayya and Grewal, 2002; Alves et al., 2017). Furthermore, owing to its viscosity level, the oil sticks for some time and its evaporation is slower compared with water. These physicochemical characteristics can be exploited in the application of EPN by delaying its desiccation and improving

Teodulfo Aquino-Bolaños, Jaime Ruiz-Vega, Yolanda D. Ortiz Hernández, Julio C. Jiménez Castañeda

Journal of Nematology , 1–10


Are Entomopathogenic Nematodes Effective Biological Control Agents Against the Carob Moth, Ectomyelois ceratoniae?

. carpocapsae, and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora were selected and used in a series of in vitro and in vivo experiments. In preliminary assays, the EPNs species were used with different concentrations of infective juveniles (IJs) (0, 1, 5, 10, 25, and 50 IJ/larvae) in 2-cm diam. plates. The mortality rates of the laboratory tests were 79.75% and 76.5% for S.feltiae and S. carpocapsae, corresponded to LC50 value of 2.02 IJ/larva for S. feltiae and 2.05 IJ/larva for S. carpocapsae. On the contrary


Journal of Nematology , ISSUE 4, 261–267

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