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Research and Application of SO2 Concentration Monitoring Algorithm in Flue Gas

This paper mainly focuses on the concentration calculation of SO2 in flue gas. There are many methods for smoke detection. First of all, this paper mainly introduces the basic Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy technology. Then, in order to solve the problem of overlapping absorption between different gases in the flue gas, this paper use cyclic iteration algorithm to measure the concentration of SO2. It is concluded that the basic DOAS algorithm has a large error for the

Qinqin Wang, Xiaohui Su

International Journal of Advanced Network, Monitoring and Controls, Volume 3 , ISSUE 1, 80–85



To measure the concentrations of nitrogen dioxide, an OPSIS Optical Analyzing System AR 500 device was used, which operation is based on the DOAS technique (Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy). This method uses the Lambert’s – Beer absorption law which defines the relationship between the amount of radiation absorbed on the route of the light beam and the number of molecules that are located along the measuring path. The measurement is based on the emission of a light beam from a source


Architecture, Civil Engineering, Environment, Volume 12 , ISSUE 1, 145–153

research-article | 16-April-2019

First report of cultivated Cretan mountain tea (Sideritis syriaca) as a host of Meloidogyne hapla and M. javanica in Crete, with some additional records on the occurrence of Meloidogyne species in Greece

Root-knot nematodes (RKNs), Meloidogyne spp., are recognized worldwide as the most economically important nematodes in agriculture, with a wide host range, and common in the Mediterranean area (Lamberti, 1981; Karssen and Moens, 2006). Knowledge of their occurrence in agricultural land is of vital importance for designing control measures. However, Meloidogyne spp. identification is complex, difficult and time-consuming, even for experts. In Greece, RKNs have been found in several locations and

Emmanuel A. Tzortzakakis, Carolina Cantalapiedra-Navarrete, Antonio Archidona-Yuste, Maria Kormpi, Juan E. Palomares-Rius, Pablo Castillo

Journal of Nematology, Volume 51 , 1–4

Research Article | 17-October-2018

Discovery and Identification of Meloidogyne Species Using COI DNA Barcoding

DNA barcoding with a new cytochrome oxidase c subunit 1 primer set generated a 721 to 724 bp fragment used for the identification of 322 Meloidogyne specimens, including 205 new sequences combined with 117 from GenBank. A maximum likelihood analysis grouped the specimens into 19 well-supported clades and four single-specimen lineages. The “major” tropical apomictic species (Meloidogyne arenaria, Meloidogyne incognita, Meloidogyne javanica) were not discriminated by this barcode although some

Thomas Powers, Timothy Harris, Rebecca Higgins, Peter Mullin, Kirsten Powers

Journal of Nematology, Volume 50 , ISSUE 3, 399–412

research-article | 06-November-2020

Mist chamber extraction for improved diagnosis of Meloidogyne spp. from golf course bermudagrass

The grass root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne graminis and the Maryland root-knot nematode (M. marylandi), have long been recognized as pathogens on turfgrasses (Sledge and Golden, 1964; Grisham et al., 1974; Jepson and Golden, 1987). Recently, these nematodes have increased in importance as pathogens on ultradwarf bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon  ×  C. transvaalensis) used on golf greens (Crow, 2018). Non-systematic surveying of root-knot nematodes on turf and forage bermudagrass in Florida (W. T

William T. Crow, Alemayehu Habteweld, Thomas Bean

Journal of Nematology, Volume 52 , 1–12

research-article | 30-November-2020

First report of root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita on calendula in Turkey

Plant parasitic nematodes, especially root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.), cause serious yield losses in vegetables, ornamental and medicinal plants, and horticultural crops around the world (Devran et al., 2017; Karssen et al., 2013; Pintea et al., 2003). The plantation areas of ornamental and medicinal plants in tropical and sub-tropical countries have significantly increased recently in order to be used in pharmaceutical, perfumery, cosmetic and food industries (Pandey, 2017). Calendula

Hürkan Ataş, Gülsüm Uysal, Çiğdem Gözel, Tevfik Özalp, Uğur Gözel, Zübeyir Devran

Journal of Nematology, Volume 53 , 1–5

research-article | 17-March-2020

Genome sequence of the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne luci

Root-knot nematodes (RKN) from the genus Meloidogyne parasitize a wide range of host plants and have a global distribution. They are considered the most important group of plant-parasitic nematodes (Jones et al., 2013). Field infestations result in economic damage due to reduction or loss of crop yield with estimated global annual losses of $110bn (Danchin et al., 2013; Bebber et al., 2014). Among RKN, the tropical species belonging to Meloidogyne Clade I reproduce asexually by mitotic

Nik Susič, Georgios D. Koutsovoulos, Cristian Riccio, Etienne G. J. Danchin, Mark L. Blaxter, David H. Lunt, Polona Strajnar, Saša Širca, Gregor Urek, Barbara Gerič Stare

Journal of Nematology, Volume 52 , 1–5

research-article | 30-November-2020

First report of Seville root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne hispanica (Nematoda: Meloidogynidae) in the USA and North America

, needle, ring, stunt, pin, lance, and stubby root nematodes (Tylka et al., 2011; Yan et al., 2016). The Seville root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne hispanica (Hirschmann, 1986) was studied for the first time by Dalmasso and Bergé (1978) from Seville, Spain from peach rootstock (Prunus persica silvestris Batsch) and later described as M. hispanica by Hirschmann (1986). The species has been reported infecting many economically important crops such as tomato, beet, corn, pepper, cucumber, eggplant, potato

Andrea M. Skantar, Zafar A. Handoo, Sergei A. Subbotin, Mihail R. Kantor, Paulo Vieira, Paula Agudelo, Maria N. Hult, Stephen Rogers

Journal of Nematology, Volume 53 , 1–7

research-article | 30-November-2019

First report of root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne species) infecting Chinese Elm (Ulmus parvifolia) in Florida, USA

) and Drake (Fig. 1A), in Lake County, FL and submitted for nematode certification at the Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Division of Plant Industry, Gainesville, FL (FDACS-DPI). Initially, nematodes were extracted from soil and roots, and species identification performed using FDACS-DPI’s standard protocol for identifying Meloidogyne enterolobii Yang and Eisenback, 1981, a COI-based qPCR assay (Kiewnick et al., 2015; Braun-Kiewnick et al., 2016) with slight modifications

M. R. Moore, J. A. Brito, S. Qiu, C. G. Roberts, L. A. Combee

Journal of Nematology, Volume 52 , 1–4

research-article | 30-November-2019

Further observations on Meloidogyne enterolobii (Nematoda: Meloidogynidae) infecting guava (Psidium guajava) in India

Root-knot nematodes (RKNs, Meloidogyne spp.) are global pests comprised of more than 100 nominal species, and attack a large number of host-plants. Meloidogyne enterolobii Yang and Eisenback, 1983 is an aggressive RKN species with high reproduction potential that infects a wide range of hosts (Brito et al., 2004). Originally, Yang and Eisenback (1983) described M. enterolobii infecting Pacara earpod trees (Enterolobium contortisiliquum (Vell.) Morong) from Hainan Island of China. Subsequently

Tushar Manohar Ghule, Victor Phani, Vishal Singh Somvanshi, Maya Patil, Somnath Bhattacharyya, Matiyar Rahaman Khan

Journal of Nematology, Volume 52 , 1–9

research-article | 14-June-2021

First report of Meloidogyne incognita infecting Cannabis sativa in Alabama

Industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) is a new crop for Alabama with the recent legalization and hemp acreage is increasing each year. In the first season of legal production, hemp plants (cultivar ‘Boax’ and ‘Otto2’) in a commercial field located in Geneva County, AL exhibited stunted growth, poor root development, and numerous galls typical of root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne spp.) infection. After harvest in September 2019, 75 L of soil were collected from the field in the area with

Bisho R. Lawaju, William Groover, Jessica Kelton, Kassie Conner, Edward Sikora, Kathy S. Lawrence

Journal of Nematology, Volume 53 , 1–3

Research Article | 17-October-2018

Characterization of Meloidogyne indica (Nematoda: Meloidogynidae) Parasitizing Neem in India, with a Molecular Phylogeny of the Species

Neem is a perennial plant of family Meliaceae grown very commonly in India. During a survey in Rajasthan, India; a population of root-knot nematode was found in association with tender neem plants causing yellowing, stunting, and heavy root galling. Inspection of the perineal pattern morphology of the adult females, extracted from the galled roots, primarily led to identification of the species as Meloidogyne indica. Further, detailed morphological and morphometric illustrations of second-stage

Victor Phani, Satyapal Bishnoi, Amita Sharma, Keith G. Davies, Uma Rao

Journal of Nematology, Volume 50 , ISSUE 3, 387–398

research-article | 30-November-2020

Reproduction of Meloidogyne arenaria race 2 on Flue-cured tobacco possessing resistance genes Rk1 and/or Rk2

Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) is a valuable agricultural commodity, cultivated around the world (FAO, 2016). While tobacco production in the United States has decreased over the past two decades, the crop still contributed over 1.2 billion dollars to the economy in 2016 (FAO, 2016). Flue-cured tobacco accounts for the majority of tobacco production in the United States, with over 14,000 acres planted in Virginia in 2020 (USDA, 2020). Root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.) can cause serious

Noah Adamo, Charles S. Johnson, T. David Reed, Jonathan D. Eisenback

Journal of Nematology, Volume 53 , 1–13

Article | 21-July-2017

Reproduction of Meloidogyne incognita Race 3 on Flue-cured Tobacco Homozygous for Rk1 and/or Rk2 Resistance Genes

Most commercial tobacco cultivars possess the Rk1 resistance gene to races 1 and 3 of Meloidogyne incognita and race 1 of Meloidogyne arenaria, which has caused a shift in population prevalence in Virginia tobacco fields toward other species and races. A number of cultivars now also possess the Rk2 gene for root-knot resistance. Experiments were conducted in 2013 to 2014 to examine whether possessing both Rk1 and Rk2 increases resistance to a variant of M. incognita race 3 compared to


Journal of Nematology, Volume 48 , ISSUE 2, 79–86

research-article | 30-November-2018

Identification of Suitable Meloidogyne spp. Housekeeping Genes

Root-knot nematodes (RKN, Meloidogyne spp.) are sedentary endoparasites with wide host ranges, including most important agricultural crops, and cause billions of dollars in yield losses (Sasser and Freckman, 1987). The first genomes of M. hapla and M. incognita were available in 2008 (Abad et al., 2008; Opperman et al., 2008), and now the genomes of seven RKN species, including the abovementioned two, and M. arenaria, M. enterolobii, M. floridensis, M. javanica are publicly available. The

Weiming Hu, Peter M. DiGennaro

journal of nematology, Volume 51 , 1–11

research-article | 30-November-2019

First report of Meloidogyne javanica infecting Zinnia elegans in Ceará State, Brazil

mild temperature and in tropical areas. The plant has an erect shape, oval leaves, and colorful floral rays of various forms (Torres, 1963; Ahmad et al., 2015). The genus Meloidogyne (Goeldi, 1887), also known as gall nematode, is widespread in all regions of Brazil, associated with agricultural crops. Alternative hosts, such as ornamental plants, maintain the inoculum and increase its populations, compromising the development of plants and affecting the quality of products and resulting in losses

Francisco Jorge Carlos Souza Junior, Mayara Castro Assunção

Journal of Nematology, Volume 52 , 1–4

research-article | 26-April-2019

Control of Meloidogyne incognita in sweetpotato with fluensulfone

-knot nematodes (RKN: Meloidogyne spp.) are economically the most damaging nematodes in sweetpotato both on a worldwide scale as well as in California (Overstreet, 2009). Crop loss estimates of 10% due to RKN were reported in California (Koenning et al., 1999). Unlike many other vegetable crops, most sweetpotato cultivars are particularly sensitive to RKN damage because symptoms develop directly on the harvested product. Symptoms of RKN on the harvested storage roots depend on the sweetpotato

Antoon Ploeg, Scott Stoddard, J. Ole Becker

Journal of Nematology, Volume 51 , 1–8

research-article | 30-November-2019

First report of Meloidogyne hapla on kiwifruit in South Africa

glycerin using De Grisse’s (1969) method. The characteristics perineal patterns of the second-stage juvenile (J2) were used to identify the test Meloidogyne species (Perry et al., 2009). Figure 1: Meloidogyne hapla Chitwood, 1949. (A) Roots of kiwi tree affected. (B) Mature female on the root. The molecular characterization followed the methods described in Álvarez-Ortega et al. (2019). The ribosomal ITS and LSU sequences were analyzed and aligned using the program BioEdit (Hall, 1999), aligned

Ebrahim Shokoohi, Phatu W. Mashela

Journal of Nematology, Volume 52 , 1–5

Article | 05-December-2017

Influence of Root Exudates and Soil on Attachment of Pasteuria penetrans to Meloidogyne arenaria

Abstract: The bacterium Pasteuria penetrans is a parasite of root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.). Endospores of P. penetrans attach to the cuticle of second-stage juveniles (J2) and subsequently sterilize infected females. When encumbered by large numbers of spores, juveniles are less mobile and their ability to infect roots is reduced. This study looked at different factors that influence spore attachment of P. penetrans to the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne arenaria. Pretreatment of J2


Journal of Nematology, Volume 49 , ISSUE 3, 304–310

research-article | 30-November-2018

Screening of Cucurbita maxima and Cucurbita moschata Genotypes for Resistance Against Meloidogyne arenaria, M. incognita, M. javanica, and M. luci

Root-knot nematodes (RKN), Meloidogyne spp., are considered one of the major plant-parasitic nematodes worldwide (Jones et al., 2013). These obligate endoparasites infect roots and cause the formation of root galls which contain the modified feeding cells known as giant cells, which serve as the exclusive source of nutrients for nematode development (Caillaud et al., 2008). Due to nematode infection of roots, plant nutrient and water uptake are substantially reduced, resulting in above-ground

Gökhan Aydınlı, Ertan Sait Kurtar, Sevilhan Mennan

journal of nematology, Volume 51 , 1–10

research-article | 17-March-2020

Silver nanoparticles as a potential nematicide against Meloidogyne graminicola

Rice (Oryza sativa) is a major life-sustaining crop in India and feeds more than 60% of the population. During 2014 to 2015, the area under rice crop in India was 43.86 million ha with a total rice production of 105.48 million tons (Anonymous, 2016). Rice root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne graminicola, is widely distributed across diverse agro-climatic conditions in India (Salalia et al., 2017) and it has emerged as the economically most threatening plant-parasitic nematode in rice nurseries

Richa Baronia, Puneet Kumar, S. P. Singh, R. K. Walia

Journal of Nematology, Volume 52 , 1–9

research-article | 29-March-2019

First Report of the Peach Root-Knot Nematode, Meloidogyne floridensis Infecting Almond on Root-Knot Nematode Resistant ‘Hansen 536’ and ‘Bright's Hybrid 5’ Rootstocks in California, USA

The peach root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne floridensis, is recognized as an emerging pathogen of commercial peach production because of its capability to overcome root-knot nematode resistance in rootstocks. This nematode was first described in Florida where it was found in 16 counties (Brito et al., 2015; Brito pers.comm). Although it was reported to infect peaches in 1966, the peach root-knot nematode was only described as a new species in 2004 (Handoo et al., 2004). In Florida, M. floridensis

Andreas Westphal, Zin T. Z. Maung, David A. Doll, Mohammad A. Yaghmour, John J. Chitambar, Sergei A. Subbotin

Journal of Nematology, Volume 51 , 1–3

research-article | 06-March-2020

First report of Meloidogyne enterolobii infecting Japanese blue berry tree (Elaeocarpus decipiens) in Florida, USA

Elaeocarpus decipiens F.B.Forbes & Hemsl. (Japanese blueberry tree; Oxalidales: Elaeocarpaceae) is an evergreen tree native to East Asia. Its stylish branching pattern, opulent growth, solid form and beautiful tropical foliage make this plant species an attractive landscape tree. In October 2019, a sample of soil and roots was collected from under an E. decipiens in Hernando County, FL and submitted for certification for Meloidogyne enterolobii (Yang and Eisenback, 1983) at the Division of

M. R. Moore, J. A. Brito, S. Qiu, C. G. Roberts, L. A. Combee

Journal of Nematology, Volume 52 , 1–3

research-article | 30-November-2019

Biological control of Meloidogyne spp. in glasshouse-grown chrysanthemum

Root-knot nematodes (RKN; Meloidogyne spp.) are a worldwide problem in the cultivation of both fruit and vegetable crops (Jones et al., 2013). There are approximately 100 different species of Meloidogyne (with new species being described often) (Jones et al., 2013) and specific species or “races” usually parasitize only a select range of host plants (Moens et al., 2009). The life cycle of RKN lasts approximately 30 days, depending on species and environmental conditions (Ploeg and Maris, 1999

J. R. De Long, M. A. Streminska, A. Persijn, H. M. I. Huisman, C. van der Salm

Journal of Nematology, Volume 52 , 1–12

research-article | 30-November-2020

Meloidogyne enterolobii egg extraction in NaOCl versus infectivity of inoculum on cucumber

The root-knot nematode (RKN) Meloidogyne enterolobii Uang and Eisenback is a widely dispersed and highly pathogenic plant parasite. This RKN is capable for reproduction on most of vegetables, including cultivars with genetic resistance to other important RKN species such as M. incognita and M. javanica (Brito et al., 2004). In Mexico, M. enterolobii was recently diagnosed by molecular identification in the vegetable-producing region of Sinaloa, parasitizing several crops including tomato

Guillermo Gómez-González, Isabel Cruz-Lachica, Isidro Márquez-Zequera, José Benigno Valdez-Torres, Juan Manuel Tovar-Pedraza, Luis Alfredo Osuna-García, Raymundo Saúl García-Estrada

Journal of Nematology, Volume 53 , 1–8

research-article | 30-November-2020

Transcriptome Analyses of Pre-parasitic and Parasitic Meloidogyne Chitwoodi Race 1 to Identify Putative Effector Genes

Root-knot nematodes are microscopic, endoparasitic roundworms that are a major limiting factor in the production of potatoes, which are the fourth most important food crop in the world (Birch et al., 2012; Lima et al., 2018). Meloidogyne chitwoodi (Golden et al., 1980) (Tylenchida: Meloidogynidae) is a root-knot nematode with limited worldwide distribution, and in the United States, M. chitwoodi is widely spread in the three states (Washington, Oregon, and Idaho) that produce over half of US

Lei Zhang, Cynthia Gleason

Journal of Nematology, Volume 53 , 1–13

Article | 24-July-2017

Reproduction of Meloidogyne incognita and M. graminis on Several Grain Sorghum Hybrids

A total of 27 grain sorghum hybrids were evaluated in a series of greenhouse experiments to determine their susceptibility to Meloidogyne incognita race 3 and M. graminis. Each hybrid was inoculated with 2,000 nematode eggs/pot. Reproduction by M.incognita was numerically greater than M. graminis on 93% of the hybrids tested, indicating that grain sorghum is a better host for M.incognita than M. graminis. A wide variation in host suitability was observed on these hybrids in a second experiment


Journal of Nematology, Volume 49 , ISSUE 2, 156–161

research-article | 30-November-2020

Induction of defence-related proteins by selected plant growth regulators and biocontrol agents against guava root knot nematode, Meloidogyne enterolobii

was confirmed to be Meloidogyne enterolobii through morphological and molecular means. Studies showed that all the guava cultivars (Psidium guajava L.) are susceptible to M. enterolobii and also the root exudates of guava cultivars increased the egg hatching ability and decrease the infective juvenile J2 mortality rate and were directly proportional to the time and concentration (Ashokkumar et al., 2019). M. enterolobii is regarded as the most aggressive species in comparison to other tropical

N. Ashokkumar, K. Poornima, P. Kalaiarasan, P. Jeyakumar, D. Uma, M. Kavino, S. Dharani, S. Kothai

Journal of Nematology, Volume 53 , 1–15

Research Article | 31-May-2018

Influence of Temperature on Susceptibility of CVS. Tifguard and Georgia-06G Peanut to Meloidogyne arenaria

Tifguard was released in 2008 as a peanut cultivar with a high level of resistance to Meloidogyne arenaria. Our objective was to determine the role of temperature on infection and development of M. arenaria in Tifguard compared to that in the nematode susceptible cultivar, Georgia-06G. Temperature affected the rate of nematode infection and development in both Tifguard and Georgia-06G (P ≤ 0.05). In Georgia-06G, egg-laying females were observed 25, 20 or 25 days after inoculation at 28°C, 31°C

Weimin Yuan, C. C. Holbrook, Y. Chu, P. Ozias-Akins, D. W. Dickson

Journal of Nematology, Volume 50 , ISSUE 1, 33–40

Article | 05-December-2017

Vertical Distribution of Pasteuria penetrans Parasitizing Meloidogyne incognita on Pittosporum tobira in Florida

Pasteuria penetrans is considered as the primary agent responsible for soil suppressiveness to root-knot nematodes widely distributed in many agricultural fields. A preliminary survey on a Pittosporum tobira field where the grower had experienced a continuous decline in productivity caused by Meloidogyne incognita showed that the nematode was infected with Pasteuria penetrans. For effective control of the nematode, the bacterium and the host must coexist in the same root zone. The vertical


Journal of Nematology, Volume 49 , ISSUE 3, 311–315

research-article | 30-November-2020

Report of the Texas peanut root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne haplanaria (Tylenchida: Meloidogynidae) from American pitcher plants (Sarracenia sp.) in California

and Agriculture, Sacramento, California. Meloidogyne haplanaria was initially described from roots of peanut in Collingsworth, Texas, USA (Eisenback et al., 2003) and its current distribution of M. haplanaria includes Texas, Arkansas, and Florida (Joseph et al., 2016). Hosts of M. haplanaria include tomato, common bean, garden pea, radish, and soybean. This species has also been found in rhizosphere soil of Indian hawthorn, okra, ash, oak, cherry laurel, maple, tomato, willow, rivercane, elm

Sergei A. Subbotin

Journal of Nematology, Volume 53 , 1–7

Article | 03-December-2017

Morphological, Morphometric, and Molecular Characterization of Intraspecific Variations within Indian Populations of Meloidogyne graminicola

Fourteen populations of Meloidogyne graminicola were collected from different agroecological regions of India. Morphological and morphometrical comparisons were made for various nematode life stages. Three populations (Hisar, New Delhi, and Samastipur) were different from typical M. graminicola on the basis of the length of eggs; J2 length, a-value, hyaline tail portion; male length, distance up to excretory pore, spicule and gubernaculum lengths; female length and width, stylet length


Journal of Nematology, Volume 49 , ISSUE 3, 254–267

Article | 21-July-2017

Mitochondrial Haplotype-based Identification of Root-knot Nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.) on Cut Foliage Crops in Florida

Florida accounts for more than 75% of the national cut foliage production. Unfortunately, root-knot nematodes (RKN) (Meloidogyne spp.) are a serious problem on these crops, rendering many farms unproductive. Currently, information on the Meloidogyne spp. occurring on most commonly cultivated cut foliage crops in Florida, and tools for their rapid identification are lacking. The objectives of this study were to (i) identify specific RKN infecting common ornamental cut foliage crops in Florida


Journal of Nematology, Volume 48 , ISSUE 3, 193–202

research-article | 30-November-2020

Meloidogyne incognita management by nematicides in tomato production

The production of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) is a very important industry in the United States with 10 billion kg tomatoes worth $1.6 billion United States dollars (USD) produced in 2019 (USDA-NASS, 2020). Florida produces 54% of fresh market tomatoes, an industry that produced 646 million kg worth $705 million (USD) nationwide in 2019 (USDA-NASS, 2020). Meloidogyne incognita (southern root-knot nematode, SRKN) is a major pest in tomato production, and there are relatively few management

Zane J. Grabau, Chang Liu, Rebeca Sandoval-Ruiz

Journal of Nematology, Volume 53 , 1–12

research-article | 30-November-2021

Additional fertilizer and nematicide combinations on upland cotton to manage Rotylenchulus reniformis and Meloidogyne incognita in Alabama

restricted to tropical and subtropical regions because of elevated temperatures and humidity that are ideal for growth (Luttrell et al., 1994). These climate conditions are found in the cotton belt of the Southern United States where most cotton production occurs (Jones and Durand, 1959). The reniform nematode (Rotylenchulus reniformis Linford and Oliveira) and the southern root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita Kofoid and White) are the most economically important nematodes on upland cotton

Kara L. Gordon, Drew W. Schrimsher, Kathy S. Lawrence

Journal of Nematology, Volume 54 , 1–15

Research Article | 26-September-2018

Oat, Wheat, and Sorghum Genotype Reactions to Meloidogyne incognita and Meloidogyne javanica

Meloidogyne spp. are the most economically important species of plant-pathogenic nematodes. Plant resistance and crop rotation are the main nematode management methods. Thus, the objective was to evaluate the resistance of seven wheat genotypes, five oat genotypes, ten sorghum hybrids, and three sorghum–sudangrass genotypes to Meloidogyne incognita and Meloidogyne javanica. The crops were sowed in pots with an auto-claved substrate. A single plant/pot was left after thinning. The soil was


Journal of Nematology, Volume 49 , ISSUE 4, 386–389

research-article | 15-April-2019

Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide induced resistance against root-knot nematode Meloidogyne hapla is based on increased tomato basal defense

Root-knot nematodes (RKNs; Meloidogyne spp.) are sedentary endoparasitic nematodes that can infect a wide range of plant species worldwide, which results in approximately $70 billion in crop losses annually (Caboni et al., 2012). Meloidogyne spp. is ranked within the top 10 most economically devastating plant-parasitic nematodes, with Meloidogyne incognita, M. arenaria, M. hapla, and M. javanica as the four major crop-damaging species (Jones et al., 2013). In tomato, yield loss due to RKNs

Noor Abdelsamad, H. Regmi, J. Desaeger, P. DiGennaro

Journal of Nematology, Volume 51 , 1–10

research-article | 30-November-2019

The relationship between commercial cotton cultivars with varying Meloidogyne incognita resistance genes and yield

The southern root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid and White) Chitwood, is widely distributed across the southern USA. In the Southern High Plains of Texas, M. incognita infested 40 to 50% of the cotton fields (Starr et al., 1993; Wheeler et al., 2000). In the absence of nematode management tactics, it is estimated that M. incognita reduces yield in the west Texas area by an average of 26% (Orr and Robinson, 1984). Management options for this nematode include crop rotation

Terry A. Wheeler, Kerry Siders, Cecilia Monclova-Santana, Jane K. Dever

Journal of Nematology, Volume 52 , 1–8

research-article | 30-November-2019

Reproduction of Meloidogyne enterolobii on selected root-knot nematode resistant sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas) cultivars

Sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam) is a major crop in the southeastern USA and a staple food in many tropical countries around the world. Root-knot nematodes (RKN) (Meloidogyne spp.), particularly M. incognita (Kofoid and White, 1919) Chitwood, 1949, cause significant suppression in yield and root quality of sweetpotato (Lawrence et al., 1986; Clark et al., 1992). Most recently, there has been an outbreak of M. enterolobii (Yang and Eisenback, 1983), Pacara earpod tree RKN (Yang and

Janete A. Brito, Johan Desaeger, D.W. Dickson

Journal of Nematology, Volume 52 , 1–6

research-article | 16-January-2021

Occurrence and molecular characterization of Meloidogyne graminicola on rice in Central Punjab, Pakistan

(Bridge et al., 2005; Win et al., 2015; Ali et al., 2015). Among various RKNs, Meloidogyne graminicola (Golden and Birchfield) has emerged as the most serious pest of rice (Mantelin et al., 2017). M. graminicola was first reported in Pakistan by Munir and Bridge (2003) during a survey of rice fields of Sheikhupura, Punjab, Pakistan. The subtropical climate of Pakistan and warm sandy soils are favorable for the development and reproduction of RKNs (Khattak, 2008). But plant-parasitic nematodes in these

Abdul Jabbar, Nazir Javed, Anjum Munir, Huma Abbas, Sajid A. Khan, Anam Moosa, Muhammad Jabran, Byron J. Adams, Muhammad A. Ali

Journal of Nematology, Volume 52 , 1–17

research-article | 17-March-2020

The effects of Meloidogyne incognita and Heterodera glycines on the yield and quality of edamame (Glycine max l.) in Arkansas

(Wrather and Koenning, 2003, 2006). Two nematodes of major concern for soybean production in Arkansas include the soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines, Ichinoe) and the southern root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita, Kofoid & White, Chitwood). Both nematodes have been historically present in Arkansas soybean and cotton fields (Kirkpatrick et al., 1992; Bateman et al., 2000; Walter and Barker, 1994; Tylka and Marett, 2014). A survey from 2018 identified that soybean cyst and root-knot nematode

J. E. Wilkes, T. L. Kirkpatrick

Journal of Nematology, Volume 52 , 1–15

Research Article | 03-September-2018

Activity of Vetiver Extracts and Essential Oil against Meloidogyne incognita

Vetiver, a nonhost grass for certain nematodes, was studied for the production of compounds active against the southern root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita. In laboratory assays studying the effects on second-stage juvenile (J2) activity and viability, crude vetiver root and shoot extracts were nematotoxic, resulting in 40% to 70% J2 mortality, and were also repellent to J2. Vetiver oil did not exhibit activity against J2 in these assays. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses of

Kansiree Jindapunnapat, Nathan D. Reetz, Margaret H. MacDonald, Ganga Bhagavathy, Buncha Chinnasri, Noppamas Soonthornchareonnon, Anongnuch Sasnarukkit, Kamlesh R. Chauhan, David J. Chitwood, Susan L.F. Meyer

Journal of Nematology, Volume 50 , ISSUE 2, 147–162

research-article | 30-November-2020

Reproduction of Meloidogyne arenaria race 2 on flue-cured tobacco with putative resistance derived from Nicotiana repanda

hectares planted in Virginia alone in 2020 (USDA, 2020). Root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.) can seriously complicate production for tobacco growers in the southeastern United States, causing crop losses of 1 to 5% in Virginia in affected fields (Fortnum et al., 2001; Koenning et al., 1999). The use of resistant cultivars for root-knot nematode management is a fundamental tool for flue-cured tobacco growers (Johnson et al., 2005), particularly in light of the increasing restrictions on some of the

Noah Adamo, Charles S. Johnson, T. David Reed, Jonathan D. Eisenback

Journal of Nematology, Volume 53 , 1–9

research-article | 30-November-2021

Evaluation of perennial Glycine species for response to Meloidogyne incognita, Rotylenchulus reniformis, and Pratylenchus penetrans

Southern root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid & White) Chitwood), reniform nematode (Rotylenchulus reniformis Linford & Oliveira), and lesion nematode (Pratylenchus penetrans (Cobb) Filipjev & Shuurmans Stekhoven) are common plant-parasitic nematodes that infect soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) and other crops, causing yield losses (Noel et al., 2015; Bradley et al., 2021). These nematodes occur in diverse soybean growing regions (Karssen et al., 2013; Noel et al., 2015). Yield

Jaeyeong Han, Steven P. Locke, Theresa K. Herman, Nathan E. Schroeder, Glen L. Hartman

Journal of Nematology, Volume 54 , 1–13

research-article | 26-October-2020

Xanthosoma sagittifolium is resistant to Meloidogyne spp. and controls Meloidogyne enterolobii by soil biofumigation

Plant-parasitic nematodes cause significant damage in tropical and subtropical agriculture. Among them, the Meloidogyne species, also known as root-knot nematode, affect agricultural production (Jones et al., 2011). The biggest problem in areas infested with these nematodes is the difficulty of managing and controlling them. Many nematicidal products have been withdrawn from the market due to their high toxicity to human beings and the environment (Sousa et al., 2015). Consequently, there is an

Vanessa Alves Gomes, Fabíola de Jesus Silva, Eunice Maria Baquião, Luana Viana Faria, Júlio César Antunes Ferreira, Marcio Pozzobon Pedroso, Fernando Broetto, Silvia Renata Siciliano Wilcken

Journal of Nematology, Volume 52 , 1–12

Article | 21-July-2017

Evaluation of Pochonia chlamydosporia and Purpureocillium lilacinum for Suppression of Meloidogyne enterolobii on Tomato and Banana

Meloidogyne enterolobii is one of the most important root-knot nematode in tropical regions, due to its ability to overcome resistance mechanisms of a number of host plants. The lack of new and safe active ingredients against this nematode has restricted control alternatives for growers. Egg-parasitic fungi have been considered as potential candidates for the development of bionematicides. In tissue culture plates, Pochonia chlamydosporia (var. catenulata and chlamydosporia) and


Journal of Nematology, Volume 49 , ISSUE 1, 77–85

research-article | 30-November-2019

The effect of two QTLs for resistance to Meloidogyne incognita in cotton on nematode egression from roots

subsequent developmental stages. Some plants can inhibit the establishment of Meloidogyne spp. feeding sites through a hypersensitive response (Davies et al., 2015), which has been suggested as a mechanism of resistance to M. incognita in cotton (Mota et al., 2013). Failure to establish a feeding site may lead a nematode to leave (egress from) the root (Timper et al., 2000). Nematode egression from the roots of resistant plants has been documented for peanut, potato, alfalfa, and tomato (Timper et al

Mychele B. da Silva, Richard F. Davis, Robert L. Nichols, Pawan Kumar, Peng W. Chee

Journal of Nematology, Volume 52 , 1–8

research-article | 30-November-2020

Genome sequence of the coffee root-knot nematode Meloidogyne exigua

Root-knot nematodes (RKN) parasitize a wide range of host plants and have a global distribution. They are considered the most important group of plant-parasitic nematodes (Jones et al., 2013). Several Meloidogyne species can attack coffee plants, but only Meloidogyne exigua (Goeldi, 1892) has a significant impact on coffee production. This pathogen is the most widely distributed nematode in the coffee production areas in Central and South America (Campos and Villain, 2005), with estimated yield

Ngan Thi Phan, Guillaume Besnard, Rania Ouazahrou, William Solano Sánchez, Lisa Gil, Sophie Manzi, Stéphane Bellafiore

Journal of Nematology, Volume 53 , 1–6

research-article | 30-November-2019

Festulolium and fungal endophyte associations: host status for Meloidogyne incognita and nematotoxic plant extracts

nematode Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid and White) Chitwood (Jia et al., 2013). Similarly, host status of tall fescue ‘Jesup’ to M. incognita did not depend on fungal colonization; the cultivar was a nonhost regardless of endophyte status (Nyczepir and Meyer, 2010). As indicated by the examples given above, interactions among grasses, endophytes, and nematodes are complex. The current study was conducted to investigate host status of five Festulolium lines, each with and without its own strain of loline

Susan L. F. Meyer, Brian J. Patchett, Timothy J. Gillanders, Mihail R. Kantor, Patricia Timper, Margaret H. MacDonald

Journal of Nematology, Volume 52 , 1–16

Research Article | 03-December-2018

Effects of vermicompost water extract prepared from bamboo and kudzu against Meloidogyne incognita and Rotylenchulus reniformis

A series of experiments in laboratory, greenhouse, and field were conducted to compare the nematode suppressive effect of vermicompost tea (VCT) prepared from vermicompost with moso-bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis (Carrière) J. Houz.) and kudzu (Pueraria lobata (Willd) Ohwi) as feed stock (weed VCT) to that prepared from vegetable food waste (vegetable VCT) against Meloidogyne incognita and Rotylenchulus reniformis. Two laboratory trials were conducted by incubating eggs of M. incognita and R

Xiaodong You, Motoaki Tojo, Shelby Ching, Koon-Hui Wang

Journal of Nematology, Volume 50 , ISSUE 4, 569–578

research-article | 16-April-2020

Nematicide efficacy at managing Meloidogyne arenaria and non-target effects on free-living nematodes in peanut production

Peanut (Arachis hypogaea) is an important crop in the United States with 757,000 ha planted in 2018, worth $1.15 billion (NASS-USDA, 2019a, b). Much of the production is concentrated in the Southeast where Meloidogyne arenaria (peanut root-knot nematode (PRKN)) can significantly reduce yields with suppression approaching 50% observed in field research (Rodriguez-Kabana and Robertson, 1987; Rodriguez-Kabana et al., 1994a, 1994b). Damage thresholds for this nematode are 1 egg/100 cm3, so any

Zane J. Grabau, Mark D. Mauldin, Alemayehu Habteweld, Ethan T. Carter

Journal of Nematology, Volume 52 , 1–10

Article | 24-July-2017

Management of Root-knot Nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) onPittosporum tobira Under Greenhouse, Field, and On-farm Conditions in Florida

(=Paecilomyces lilacinus) strain 251. Treatment applications were made during the spring and fall seasons according to manufacturer’s specifications. Efficacy was evaluated based on J2/100 cm3 of soil, J2/g of root, and crop yield (kg/plot). Unlike spirotetramat, which did not demonstrate any measurable effects on Meloidogyne incognita J2 in the soil, furfural and P. lilacinum were marginally effective in reducing the population density of M. incognita on Pittosporum tobira. However, nematode reduction did


Journal of Nematology, Volume 49 , ISSUE 2, 133–139

research-article | 30-November-2020

Endophytic Beauveria bassiana increases galling of ‘Rutgers’ tomato roots with Meloidogyne incognita

entry wounds for secondary pathogens (Shalini et al., 2014). Of all identified nematodes, only 15% cause significant economic crop losses (Bernard et al., 2017; Koenning et al., 1999). Genera of highest economic importance in the U.S. include Meloidogyne, Heterodera, Pratylenchus, Hoplolaimus, Xiphinema, and Rotylenchulus (Bernard et al., 2017; Koenning et al., 1999). Meloidogyne incognita, the southern root-knot nematode (RKN), is the most devastating threat to agricultural crop production

Shalini Yerukala, Ernest C. Bernard, Kimberly D. Gwinn, David M. Butler, Parwinder S. Grewal, Bonnie H. Ownley

Journal of Nematology, Volume 53 , 1–16

research-article | 30-November-2020

Enhanced biological control of root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita, by combined inoculation of cotton or soybean seeds with a plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium and pectin-rich orange peel

Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) and soybean (Glycine max L.) are economically important crops in the United States and worldwide. In the U.S. alone, cotton yield in 2018 was 18.4 million bales, and soybean yield was 4.54 billion bushels (Anonymous, 2018). Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid and White) Chitwood, the southern root-knot nematode, is broadly distributed in soils cultivated with cotton (Xiang et al., 2017b) and other crops (Huang et al., 2016), and causes economically significant yield

Mohammad K. Hassan, Kathy S. Lawrence, Edward J. Sikora, Mark R. Liles, Joseph W. Kloepper

Journal of Nematology, Volume 53 , 1–17

research-article | 30-November-2019

First report of Meloidogyne naasi parasitizing turfgrass in Portugal

The barley root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne naasi Franklin, 1965 was originally described from field crops (cereals, grasses, and sugarbeet, Beta vulgaris L.) in England and Wales (Franklin, 1965). According to the EPPO Global Database, this nematode is present in temperate regions in all continents: Africa (Libya); Asia (Iran); Europe (Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Germany, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Malta, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Serbia and UK); North America (Canada, USA

M. Clara Vieira dos Santos, M. Teresa M. Almeida, Sofia R. Costa

Journal of Nematology, Volume 52 , 1–4

research-article | 21-January-2022

Susceptibility of Flordaguard peach rootstock to a resistant-breaking population of Meloidogyne floridensis and two populations of Meloidogyne arenaria

as resistance to all Meloidogyne spp. considered a threat to the peach industry in Florida and was suggested to become the standard rootstock for commercial low-chill peach production replacing Okinawa and Nemaguard (Sherman et al., 1991). After Flordaguard was released as the suggested RKN resistant rootstock, there were reports of it being damaged by Meloidogyne spp. (Brito et al., 2015, 2016). Although limited information is available, recent field surveys carried out in commercial orchards

Sai Qiu, Mary Ann D. Maquilan, Jose X. Chaparro, Janete A. Brito, Thomas G. Beckman, Donald W. Dickson

Journal of Nematology, Volume 53 , 1–12

research-article | 06-November-2020

The potential of eugenol as a nematicidal agent against Meloidogyne javanica (Treub) Chitwood

Root-knot nematodes (RKN; Meloidogyne spp.) cause economic damage to a wide range of economically important open field and greenhouse vegetable crops and are considered one of the most damaging agricultural pests worldwide. The genus Meloidogyne has an extremely broad host range of over 2000 plant species, which can cause significant yield losses (Chitwood, 2003; Bleve-Zacheo et al., 2007). The control of nematodes has become increasingly difficult due to many reasons. Many nematicides and soil

Eleni Nasiou, Ioannis O. Giannakou

Journal of Nematology, Volume 52 , 1–10

research-article | 06-March-2021

Effects of fluopyram and azadirachtin integration with sunn hemp on nematode communities in zucchini, tomato and sweet potato in Hawaii

of Agriculture National Agriculture Statistics Service USDA NASS, 2019). Tremendous potential for expansion exists with support for local food production systems. Improving pest and disease management strategies could further bolster yields and stimulate agribusinesses in Hawaii. Plant-parasitic nematodes are detrimental pests that adversely affect plant health and yields in fruit and vegetable crops. Of particular importance are root-knot (Meloidogyne spp.) and reniform (Rotylenchulus reniformis

Philip Waisen, Koon-Hui Wang, Jensen Uyeda, Roxana Y. Myers

Journal of Nematology, Volume 53 , 1–15

Article | 21-July-2017

Assessment of DAPG-producing Pseudomonas fluorescens for Management of Meloidogyne incognita and Fusarium oxysporum on Watermelon

Pseudomonas fluorescens isolates Clinto 1R, Wayne 1R, and Wood 1R, which produce the antibiotic 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (DAPG), can suppress soilborne diseases and promote plant growth. Consequently, these beneficial bacterial isolates were tested on watermelon plants for suppression of Meloidogyne incognita (root-knot nematode: RKN) and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum (Fon). In a greenhouse trial,Wayne 1R root dip suppressed numbers of RKN eggs per gram root on ‘Charleston Gray’ watermelon


Journal of Nematology, Volume 48 , ISSUE 1, 43–53

Article | 21-July-2017

Resistance to Southern Root-knot Nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) in Wild Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. citroides)

Southern root-knot nematode (RKN, Meloidogyne incognita) is a serious pest of cultivated watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus) in southern regions of the United States and no resistance is known to exist in commercial watermelon cultivars. Wild watermelon relatives (Citrullus lanatus var. citroides) have been shown in greenhouse studies to possess varying degrees of resistance to RKN species. Experiments were conducted over 2 yr to assess resistance of southern RKN in C. lanatus var


Journal of Nematology, Volume 48 , ISSUE 1, 14–19

Article | 21-July-2017

Efficacy of Various Application Methods of Fluensulfone for Managing Root-knot Nematodes in Vegetables

Fluensulfone is a new nematicide in the flouroalkenyl chemical group. A field experiment was conducted in 2012 and 2013 to evaluate the efficacy of various application methods of fluensulfone for control of Meloidogyne spp. in cucumber (Cucumis sativus). Treatments of fluensulfone (3.0 kg a.i./ha) were applied either as preplant incorporation (PPI) or via different drip irrigation methods: drip without pulse irrigation (Drip NP), pulse irrigation 1 hr after treatment (Drip +1P), and treatment


Journal of Nematology, Volume 48 , ISSUE 2, 65–71

research-article | 30-November-2020

Recombinase Polymerase Amplification assays for detection of the major tropical root-knot nematodes

The root-knot nematodes (RKN) of the genus Meloidogyne represent one of the most damaging and agriculturally important groups of plant-parasitic nematodes. Meloidogyne incognita, M. javanica and M. arenaria are three major tropical RKN species, which are globally distributed and polyphagous pests of many agricultural crops. These nematodes together with several other species are commonly referred to the tropical RKN complex (Álvarez-Ortega et al., 2019). Early and rapid detection of RKN in soil

Sergei A. Subbotin, Julie Burbridge

Journal of Nematology, Volume 53 , 1–11

research-article | 17-April-2019

Effect of spirotetramat and fluensulfone on population densities of Mesocriconema xenoplax and Meloidogyne incognita on peach

persica (L.) Batch] due to its association with the disease complex known as peach tree short life (PTSL) (Brittain and Miller, 1978; Nyczepir et al., 1983; Nyczepir, 1989). In a survey of commercial peach orchards in South Carolina and Georgia, M. xenoplax was detected in 100% of soil samples collected from those orchards where PTSL was present (Nyczepir et al., 1985). Peach tree decline, unlike PTSL, is often associated with the root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne spp.) and the root-lesion nematode

Andrew M. Shirley, James P. Noe, Andrew P. Nyczepir, Phillip M. Brannen, Benjamin J. Shirley, Ganpati B. Jagdale

Journal of Nematology, Volume 51 , 1–10

Research Article | 03-September-2018

Nematode Genome Announcement: A Draft Genome for Rice Root-Knot Nematode, Meloidogyne graminicola

The rice root-knot nematode Meloidogyne graminicola has emerged as a devastating pest of rice in South-East Asian countries. Here we present a draft genome sequence for M. graminicola, assembled using data from short and long insert libraries sequenced on Illumina GAIIx sequencing platform.

Vishal Singh Somvanshi, Madhura Tathode, Rohit Nandan Shukla, Uma Rao

Journal of Nematology, Volume 50 , ISSUE 2, 111–116

research-article | 30-November-2020

Transfer of Meloidogyne incognita Resistance Using Marker-assisted Selection in Sorghum

United States in 2018, sorghum was planted on approximately 6 million acres, largely in the Great Plains (USDA-NASS 2019), and it is often grown as a rotation crop with cotton (Gossypium hirsutum), corn (Zea mays), or soybeans (Glycine max) (Xavier-Mis et al., 2017). Because of its drought tolerance and relatively low input requirements, sorghum could be more widely used as a cost-effective rotation crop in the southeastern US. Meloidogyne incognita is the most commonly occurring species of root-knot

Richard F. Davis, Karen R. Harris-Shultz, Joseph E. Knoll, Hongliang Wang

Journal of Nematology, Volume 53 , 1–10

research-article | 06-November-2020

Morphological and molecular analyses of a Meloidogyne mali population with high intragenomic rRNA polymorphism

Meloidogyne mali (Itoh et al., 1969) is a root-knot nematode (RKN) causing significant damage by inducing root galls on its host plant and consequently reduced host growth by interfering with the uptake of water and nutrients. M. mali has a wide host range, typically on trees, but can also parasitize on shrubs and herbaceous plants (Ahmed et al., 2013). M. mali was first described in Japan in 1969, with the type host apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) (Itoh et al., 1969). In 2000, a root-knot

Jianfeng Gu, Yiwu Fang, Lele Liu

Journal of Nematology, Volume 52 , 1–11

Article | 21-July-2017

Acetic Acid, 2-Undecanone, and (E)-2-Decenal Ultrastructural Malformations on Meloidogyne incognita

The use of natural compounds to control phytonematodes is significantly increasing, as most of the old synthetic pesticides have been banned due to their eco-hostile character. Plant secondary metabolites are now evaluated as biologically active molecules against Meloidogyne spp. but their target site in the nematode body is rarely specified.Herein, we report on the ultrastructure modifications of the Meloidogyne incognita J2 after treatment with nematicidal plant secondary


Journal of Nematology, Volume 48 , ISSUE 4, 248–260

research-article | 30-November-2020

Report of the Parana coffee root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne paranaensis (Tylenchida: Meloidogynidae) from Caladium sp. in the continental United States

a mixture of two root-knot nematode species: the Parana coffee root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne paranaensis (Carneiro et al., 1996) and the peanut root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne arenaria (Neal, 1889) Chitwood, 1949. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first report of M. paranaensis in the continental United States. Meloidogyne paranaensis was first described in 1996 in the state of Paraná, Brazil (Carneiro et al., 1996; Campos and Vallain, 2005). This species is considered as one of the

Sergei A. Subbotin, Julie Burbridge

Journal of Nematology, Volume 53 , 1–6

research-article | 30-November-2018

Maternal Stress Reduces the Susceptibility of Root-Knot Nematodes to Pasteuria Penetrans

D. magna genotypes were raised under low-food conditions, their offspring showed varying levels of resistance to parasites. Pasteuria penetrans is an obligate bacterial pathogen of root-knot nematodes, Meloidogyne spp. The infection process of P. penetrans has multiple steps during which the nematode could resist infection. The first step is attachment of endospores to the cuticle of the second-stage juvenile (J2). Individuals within a root-knot nematode population have been shown to vary in

Chang Liu, Pingsheng Ji, Patricia Timper

Journal of Nematology, Volume 51 , 1–8

research-article | 30-November-2020

Pathogen identification of Gentiana macrophylla root-knot nematode disease in Yulong, China

Qinjiao (Gentiana macrophylla) is a perennial herb of the Gentianaceae family, mainly produced in Mongolia, Russia, and China. Gentiana macrophylla has been widely cultivated in the southwest region of China for medicinal uses (Zhang et al., 2003). Severely stunted and withered Qinjiao plants with rotted and galled roots were observed in a field of the Yulong country (N 99°46′; E 27°18′) in September 2020. These are typical symptoms of infection by root-knot nematodes (RKN; Meloidogyne spp

Wentao Wu, Shanshan Xu, Zewen Gao, Shusheng Zhu, Youyong Zhu, Yang Wang, Xiahong He

Journal of Nematology, Volume 53 , 1–3

research-article | 23-April-2019

Resistant Pepper Carrying N, Me1, and Me3 have Different Effects on Penetration and Reproduction of Four Major Meloidogyne species

Root-knot nematodes, Meloidogyne spp., are one of the most yield-limiting parasites of peppers (Capsicum annuum L.) in the USA and worldwide (Sasser and Freckman, 1987; Thies and Fery, 2000). These parasites are widely distributed across the world and are adapted to develop and reproduce on peppers in tropical and subtropical climates. Infection of peppers by Meloidogyne spp. can cause changes in the plant physiology, fruit morphology and yield. Three species of M. incognita (Kofoid & White

Abolfazl Hajihassani, William B. Rutter, Xuelin Luo

Journal of Nematology, Volume 51 , 1–9

research-article | 30-November-2020

Host status of morning-glory (Ipomoea spp.) to Meloidogyne species

-parasitic nematodes, among which the root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp. Göldi). This phytoparasite genus has the greatest impact on crops in the world, in addition to being the genus most frequently found in parasitic weed roots (Bellé et al., 2019; Ferraz et al., 1978; Moens and Perry, 2009). In Brazil, an increasing number of studies have been developed that report weeds, present in agricultural areas, as natural hosts of several species of nematodes of the genus Meloidogyne (Bellé et al., 2016

Tiago Edu Kaspary, Ismail Teodoro de Souza Júnior, Rodrigo Ferraz Ramos, Cristiano Bellé

Journal of Nematology, Volume 53 , 1–6

research-article | 17-March-2020

Characterization of root-knot nematodes infecting mulberry in Southern China

identified as Meloidogyne mali, Meloidogyne hapla, Meloidogyne arenaria, and Meloidogyne incognita, according to the morphological characteristics of female perineal pattern, male, and second instar larvae (Hida and Zhu, 1985). While in India (Schreiber et al., 2006; Kepenekcı et al., 2006; Sujathamma et al., 2014; Gnanaprakash et al., 2016) were identified as Meloidogyne incongnita. Paestakahashi et al. (2015) identified the root-knot nematodes of mulberry in Brazil as Meloidogyne enterolobii based on

Pan Zhang, Hudie Shao, Chunping You, Yan Feng, Zhenwen Xie

Journal of Nematology, Volume 52 , 1–8

research-article | 21-October-2020

First report of southern root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita, infecting Brassica nigra in Peru

., 2018). Among the plant-parasitic nematodes, the most important genus is Meloidogyne (Göldi, 1887), which causes damage in the form of root galls and may reduce in the number of roots, and predispose the plant to fungal and bacterial diseases causing losses in crop yields (Karssen, 2002; Sikora et al., 2018). In February 2020, many nematode galls (Fig. 1A, B) were observed on the roots of black mustard plants, and samples were taken from areas (16°27′43.5″S; 71°49′19.6″W), in La Joya, Arequipa

Jorge Airton Gómez-Chatata, Juan José Tamo-Zegarra, Teodocia Gloria Casa-Ruiz, Cristiano Bellé

Journal of Nematology, Volume 52 , 1–3

Article | 05-December-2017

Nematicidal Effects of 5-Aminolevulinic Acid on Plant-Parasitic Nematodes

Plant-parasitic nematodes are important agricultural pests and often cause serious crop losses. Novel, environmental friendly nematicides are urgently needed because of the harmful effects of some existing nematicides on human health. 5-Aminolevulinic acid (ALA) was reported as a potential biodegradable herbicide, insecticide, or plant-growth promoting agent. Lack of information on ALA against plant-parasitic nematodes prompted this investigation to determine the effects of ALA on Meloidogyne


Journal of Nematology, Volume 49 , ISSUE 3, 295–303

research-article | 21-October-2020

Chenopodium album is a weed host of Meloidogyne incognita (Nematoda: Meloidogynidae) in Peru

. soybean, wheat, barley, maize, quinoa, potato, sugarbeet, sugarcane, and peanut) (Bajwa et al., 2019). C. album is more problematic than other species of the genus, as the is more widespread and infests more number of crops, and it also acts as an alternate host of several crop pests and pathogens (Bellé et al., 2019). In this context, several weed species have been reported to host root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp. Göldi, 1887). This genus of root-knot nematodes has the largest impact on major

Jorge Airton Gómez-Chatata, Teodocia Gloria Casa-Ruiz, Juan José Tamo-Zegarra, Cristiano Bellé

Journal of Nematology, Volume 52 , 1–4

research-article | 30-November-2018

Movement of seed- and soil-applied fluopyram in soil columns

The southern root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita, is among the most important plant-parasitic nematodes affecting upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) and soybean (Glycine max) production in the southern USA (Starr et al., 2007; Koenning, 2015; Weaver, 2015). During the 2017 cropping season yield loss estimates by the southern root-knot nematode in cotton were 2.0% or 629,000 bales across the US Cotton Belt (Lawrence et al., 2018), while losses by Meloidogyne spp. in soybean were 1.2% or 22

Travis R. Faske, Katherine Brown

Journal of Nematology, Volume 51 , 1–8

research-article | 30-November-2020

First report of rice root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne graminicola, infecting Juncus microcephalus in Brazil

during the absence of crop, serving as an alternative host for many crop pests including arthropods, pathogens, including nematodes. In October 2020, samples of South American reeds showing many galls on the roots (Fig. 1A, B) were collected in rice fields, before sowing the crop from the municipality of Agudo (29° 34′16, 7″S; 53° 17′17, 4″ O; 53 m), state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. No symptoms were observed in the aerial part of infected South American rush plants. Figure 1: Meloidogyne

Cristiano Bellé, Paulo Sergio dos Santos, Tiago Edu Kaspary

Journal of Nematology, Volume 53 , 1–4

Original Research | 18-July-2017

Diversity of Root-knot Nematodes Associated with Tubers of Yam (Dioscorea spp.) Established Using Isozyme Analysis and Mitochondrial DNA-based Identification

Abstract The root-knot nematodes (RKN), Meloidogyne spp., represent an important threat to yam (Dioscorea spp.) production in West Africa. With the aim to establish the diversity of RKN species affecting yam tubers, for control and resistance screening purposes, surveys were conducted in the main yam producing areas of Nigeria. Galled tubers (N = 48) were collected from farmers’ stores and markets in nine states in Nigeria and in one district in Ghana. RKN isolated from yam tubers were

Yao A. Kolombia, Gerrit Karssen, Nicole Viaene, P. Lava Kumar, Nancy de Sutter, Lisa Joos, Danny L. Coyne, Wim Bert

Journal of Nematology, Volume 49 , ISSUE 2, 177–188

research-article | 24-April-2020

First report of southern root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita, infecting pomegranate, Punica granatum, in Peru

et al., 2018). Among the plant-parasitic nematodes, the most important the genus is Meloidogyne Göldi, 1887, which causes damage in the form of root galls and reduction in the number of roots, and predisposition to fungal and bacterial diseases causing losses in crop yields (Karssen, 2002; Sikora et al., 2018). Furthermore, root-knot nematodes often thrive and cause damage on perennial hosts for many years preventing them from reaching their full yield potential. The root-knot nematodes

Ricardo Andreé Vega-Callo, María Yaquelin Mendoza-Lima, Nataly Ruth Mamani-Mendoza, Leslie Sharon Lozada-Villanueva, Juan José Tamo-Zegarra, Teodocia Gloria Casa-Ruiz, Cristiano Bellé

Journal of Nematology, Volume 52 , 1–3

research-article | 30-November-2020

First report of root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita, infecting hops, Humulus lupulus, in São Paulo, Brazil

according to the methodology proposed by Coolen and D’Herde (1972) and Jenkins (1964). The population number of nematodes encountered in 10 g of roots was 19,075 eggs and 2,675 Meloidogyne sp. individuals in different stages of development. In 100 cm3 of soil, the population of this nematode was 724 second-stage juveniles (J2s). Figure 1: A. Hop roots, Humulus lupulus L. (Mantiqueira cultivar), with galls formed by Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid and White, 1919) Chitwood, 1949; B. Roots with apparent

R. F. Gonsaga, A. Souza Pollo, D. D. Nascimento, R. J. Ferreira, L. T. Braz, P. L. M. Soares

Journal of Nematology, Volume 53 , 1–4

research-article | 30-November-2019

Yellow and purple nutsedge and coffee senna as hosts of common plant nematodes in Florida

). Yellow and purple nutsedges are both hosts to Meloidogyne incognita (Schroeder et al., 1993) and can harbor life stages of the nematode within their tubers. Consequently, fumigant nematicides fail to kill many of the individuals housed within tubers (Thomas et al., 2004). Yellow nutsedge is reported to be a host to M. graminicola and Hoplolaimus columbus (Bird and Hogger, 1973; Minton et al., 1987; Schroeder et al., 1993), whereas purple nutsedge is reported to be a host to M. graminicola, H

Maria de Lourdes Mendes, Donald W. Dickson, William T. Crow

Journal of Nematology, Volume 52 , 1–9

Article | 21-July-2017

Evaluation of Steam and Soil Solarization for Meloidogyne arenaria Control in Florida Floriculture Crops

Steam and soil solarization were investigated for control of the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne arenaria in 2 yr of field trials on a commercial flower farm in Florida. The objective was to determine if preplant steam treatments in combination with solarization, or solarization alone effectively controlled nematodes compared to methyl bromide (MeBr). Trials were conducted in a field with naturally occurring populations of M. arenaria. Treatments were solarization alone, steam treatment after


Journal of Nematology, Volume 48 , ISSUE 3, 183–192

research-article | 30-November-2018

First report of Meloidogyne javanica (Nematoda: Meloidogynidae) infecting Scoparia dulcis, a medicinal plant in Brazil

Meloidogyne Göldi, 1887, which, cause to direct damage such as root galls and reduction in the number of roots, and predisposition to fungal and bacterial diseases, causing losses in crop yields (Karssen, 2002; Rich et al., 2008). Sweet broom plants showing distinctive root galls (Fig. 1A) were collected on August 2018 in the municipality of Cachoeira do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. In order to identify the plant-parasitic nematode species, a combination of morphological, biochemical, and

Cristiano Bellé, Rodrigo Ferraz Ramos, Andressa Lima de Brida, Tiago Edu Kaspary

journal of nematology, Volume 51 , 1–3

research-article | 30-November-2018

Temporal expression patterns of Pasteuria spp. sporulation genes

devastating, polyphagous root-knot nematode Meloidogyne spp. (Srivastava et al., 2018). The endospores that do successfully germinate, grow vegetatively and sporulate in the bodies of their host (Opperman et al., 2011), significantly reducing nematode fecundity as the multiplication of endospores in the body of infected females occludes the growth and development of eggs. Bacillus subtilis is the traditional model to study the process of sporulation (Stragier and Losick, 1996). This process can be

Ruhiyyih Dyrdahl-Young, Weiming Hu, Peter DiGennaro

Journal of Nematology, Volume 51 , 1–8

research-article | 30-November-2020

Evaluation of a new chemical nematicide, fluazaindolizine (ReklemelTM active), for plant-parasitic nematode management in bermudagrass

novel sulfonamide recently discovered to have nematicidal properties (Corteva Agriscience, Indianapolis, IN) (Lahm et al., 2017; Thoden and Wiles, 2019). Assessments of fluazaindolizine in vitro have shown its ability to significantly reduce motility and activity of Meloidogyne incognita juveniles compared to untreated juveniles, and greenhouse assays of fluazaindolizine on tomato have lowered M. incognita’s reproductive factor (Rf = final population density/initial population density) (Wram and

Will L. Groover, Kathy S. Lawrence

Journal of Nematology, Volume 53 , 1–14

research-article | 09-April-2020

First report of the root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne morocciensis infecting peach in Southern Brazil

), typical to Meloidogyne morocciensis (Rammah and Hirschmann, 1990), according to Carneiro et al. (2008). Measurements and ratios of J2 were as follows in microns as means plus or minus the standard deviation with the range in parentheses (Fig. 2A): L = 389.3 ± 3.8 (377.5-425.1) μm, stylet length = 13.9 ± 0.2 (12.7-14.9) μm, DGO = 3.6 ± 0.1 (3.3-4.2) μm, tail length 47.5 ± 0.6 (45.3-48.9) µm, hyaline tail terminus length = 14.1 ± 0.3 (12.5-17.0) µm, a = 25.6 ± 0.4 (23.8-28.8) µm and c = 8.6 ± 0.1 (8.0

W. R. Silva, C. P. Machaca-Calsin, C. B. Gomes

Journal of Nematology, Volume 52 , 1–3

research-article | 23-April-2020

Plant-parasitic nematodes associated with the root zone of hop cultivars planted in a Florida field soil

), there are relatively few reports on the plant-parasitic nematode species associated with this crop. The hop cyst nematode (Heterodera humuli Filipjev) is the most well studied nematode associated with hop worldwide (De Grisse and Gillard, 1963), and has been reported in United States hop production in Pierce County, Washington (Cobb, 1962). Other plant-parasitic nematodes associated with hop in the United States include Meloidogyne hapla Chitwood and Xiphinema americanum Cobb, which were found

Tristan T. Watson, Marco Suarez, Zhanao Deng, Johan A. Desaeger

Journal of Nematology, Volume 52 , 1–10

research-article | 30-November-2020

First report and new molecular and morphological characterizations of root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne javanica, infecting ginger and long coriander in Vietnam

Root-knot nematodes belonging to the genus Meloidogyne are one of the most damaging plant-parasitic nematodes of the world (Jones et al., 2013). These nematodes parasitize thousands of plant species and cause significant yield loss (Agrios, 2005; CABI, 2020; Jones et al., 2013). Among more than 100 known species, the tropical (Meloidogyne arenaria (Chitwood, 1949; Neal, 1889), Meloidogyne incognita (Chitwood, 1949; Kofoid and White, 1919), and Meloidogyne javanica (Chitwood, 1949; Treub, 1885

Ke Long Phan, Thi Mai Linh LE, Huu Tien Nguyen, Thi Duyen Nguyen, Quang Phap Trinh

Journal of Nematology, Volume 53 , 1–8

research-article | 26-April-2019

First report of Meloidogyne javanica on Ginger and Turmeric in the United States

Fig. 1 Ginger (Zingiber officinale) (A) and turmeric (Curcuma longa) infected with Meloidogyne javanica from an organic farm in Wheeler County, Georgia showing severely galled roots. Numerous egg masses of the nematode are evident protruding from galled roots of both ginger (C) and turmeric (D). Fig. 2 Healthy ginger (left) and ginger infected with Meloidogyne javanica (right) showing stunted growth of the rhizomes, collected from nematode-infested soils on an organic farm in Wheeler

Abolfazl Hajihassani, Weimin Ye, Brooke B. Hampton

Journal of Nematology, Volume 51 , 1–3

research-article | 23-April-2019

Fusarium wilt of cotton may commonly result from the interaction of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum with Belonolaimus longicaudatus

. vasinfectum (Fov) causes FW in cotton. FW incidence fluctuates greatly from year to year due to different management practices and environmental conditions (Davis et al., 2006; Hermanto et al., 2009; Lawrence et al., 2017). Meloidogyne incognita, the southern root-knot nematode, causes the greatest losses of any single pathogen of cotton in the USA (Lawrence et al., 2015), and the synergistic interaction of Fov with M. incognita that can result in greatly increased FW is well documented (Cooper and Brodie

Mychele B. da Silva, Richard F. Davis, Hung K. Doan, Robert L. Nichols, Robert C. Kemerait, Hannah C. Halpern, Marin T. Brewer, Ganpati Jagdale, Peng W. Chee

Journal of Nematology, Volume 51 , 1–10

Article | 21-July-2017

Optimum Concentrations of Trichoderma longibrachiatum and Cadusafos for Controlling Meloidogyne javanica on Zucchini Plants

A factorial experiment was established in a completely randomized design to verify the effect of different inoculum levels of an Iranian isolate of Trichoderma longibrachiatum separately and in combination with various concentrations of cadusafos against Meloidogyne javanica in the greenhouse. Zucchini seeds were soaked for 12 hr in five densities (0, 105, 106, 107, and 108 spores/ml suspension) of the fungus prior to planting in pots containing four concentrations of cadusafos (0, 0.5, 1, and


Journal of Nematology, Volume 48 , ISSUE 1, 54–63

research-article | 30-November-2020

Evaluation of root-knot nematode resistance assays for sugarcane accession lines in Australia

Plant-parasitic nematodes are major constraints to sugarcane production worldwide (Ramouthar and Bhuiyan, 2018). In Australia, plant-parasitic nematodes cause 5 to 20% yield loss per year, costing over $80 million in productivity (Blair and Stirling, 2007). The most important nematodes of sugarcane in Australia are root-lesion nematode (Pratylenchus zeae) and root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne javanica). Meloidogyne javanica is primarily abundant in sandy soil and can cause significant yield loss

S. A. Bhuiyan, K. Garlick

Journal of Nematology, Volume 53 , 1–11

research-article | 24-April-2020

Genetic intraspecific diversity of Meloidogyne javanica parasitizing vegetables in southern Iran

Plant-parasitic nematodes are an important limiting factor in vegetable production, and in many areas a major factor requiring extensive use of pesticides. Root-knot nematodes (RKNs) of the genus Meloidogyne (Göldi, 1887), which their population increase to damaging levels within a few seasons under susceptible crops, are so common in subtropical and tropical vegetable production that frequently they are taken to represent “nematodes” in general (Sikora and Fernandez, 2005). The populations of

Reza Ghaderi, Ali Asghar Dehghan, Abbas Mokaram Hesar, Akbar Karegar

Journal of Nematology, Volume 52 , 1–13

research-article | 12-August-2021

Temperature: a driving factor for Meloidogyne floridensis migration toward different hosts

Plant-parasitic nematodes are microorganisms associated with economically important agricultural crops. Their parasitism may cause considerable yield suppressions, 9 to 15% of worldwide production (Nicol et al., 2011), thus representing a major constraint for global food security. Root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.) have been ranked first among genera of plant-parasitic nematodes that threatens world agriculture (Jones et al., 2013). A new emerging species, Meloidogyne floridensis, has been

Diego A. H. S. Leitão, Elvira M. R. Pedrosa, Donald W. Dickson, Ana Karina S. Oliveira, Mario Monteiro Rolim

Journal of Nematology, Volume 53 , 1–10

research-article | 30-November-2018

First Report of Scutellonema brachyurus (Steiner, 1938) Andrassy, 1958 and Occurrence of Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid & White, 1919) Chitwood, 1949 in Belgium

, our survey revealed the presence of Scutellonema brachyurus and the tropical root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid and White, 1919) Chitwood, 1949 for the first time, respectively, on banana (Musa basjoo Siebold & Zucc. ex Iinuma) and red ginger (Hedychium greenii W. W. Sm.) in Belgium. Materials and methods After removing detritus layer from the surface, soil and root samples were collected from the upper 30 cm soil layer around the rhizosphere of Musa basjoo and Hedychium greenii at

Huu Tien Nguyen, Quang Phap Trinh, Marjolein Couvreur, Phougeishangbam Rolish Singh, Wilfrida Decraemer, Wim Bert

journal of nematology, Volume 51 , 1–6

research-article | 30-November-2021

Review of nematode interactions with hemp (Cannabis sativa)

the terms “Cannabis × nemato*” and “hemp × nemato*”. The abstract of each article was read to determine if its subject matter concerned plant-parasitic nematodes and Cannabis sativa, as many hits dealt with sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L.), Bombay hemp or kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) and other plants. To determine the total number of records for root-knot nematodes, the terms “Meloidogyne”, “Heterodera radicicola” and “Heterodera marioni” were searched. Because Web of Science contains a number

Ernest C. Bernard, Angel G. Chaffin, Kimberly D. Gwinn

Journal of Nematology, Volume 54 , 1–18

research-article | 30-November-2019

Nematicidal effect of cruciferous bio-fumigants against the root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita infesting okra

influenced due to the attack by several pathogens, such as bacteria, fungi, viruses, nematodes, and abiotic factors. Plant parasitic nematodes are the most harmful pests of vegetable crops, responsible for an annual yield loss amounting to 9 to 15% of the world crop yield (Koenning et al., 2004). Among all the plant parasitic nematodes, root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.) are a hidden threat to okra (Marin et al., 2017). It has been reported that root-knot nematode causes annual losses up to 29% in

J.A. Patil, Anil Kumar, Saroj Yadav, K.K. Verma

Journal of Nematology, Volume 52 , 1–7

Article | 24-July-2017

Methyl Bromide Alternatives for Control of Root-knot Nematode (Meloidogyne spp.) in Tomato Production in Florida

The following work was initiated to determine the scope of application methodology and fumigant combinations for increasing efficacy of 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D) and metam sodium for management of root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.) in Florida. A series of five experiments were set up during spring and fall seasons to evaluate the potential of different fumigants, alone or in combination, in polyethylene film tomato production. The most promising chemical alternatives to methyl bromide, in


Journal of Nematology, Volume 49 , ISSUE 2, 140–149

research-article | 30-November-2019

Effect of seed-applied fluopyram on Meloidogyne incognita infection and maturity in cotton and soybean

The southern root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid and White) Chitwood race 3, is an important yield-limiting pest of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) and soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) in the southern USA (Thomas and Kirkpatrick, 2001; Koenning, 2015). Furthermore, it is the most prevalent species of root-knot nematode in Arkansas (Ye et al., 2019). Seed cotton losses in 2018 were estimated at 2.4% (966,600 bales) across the US Cotton Belt (Lawrence et al., 2019). While non-soybean

Tracy Hawk, Travis R. Faske

Journal of Nematology, Volume 52 , 1–7

research-article | 09-April-2020

Examine medicinal plants from South Africa for suppression of Meloidogyne incognita under glasshouse conditions

nematodes, especially root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.), are worldwide an extremely important limiting factor in vegetable production (Hallmann and Meressa, 2018). Tomato (Solanum lycopersicon L.) is one of the most common vegetables grown in SA (FAO, 2017). Tomato can be infected by a wide variety of plant-parasitic nematodes but predominantly by root-knot nematodes which can cause significant yield losses (Jones et al., 2017). A nematode survey in rural and peri-urban households, community and

Mbokota Candy Khosa, Zakheleni Dube, Dirk De Waele, Mieke Stefanie Daneel

Journal of Nematology, Volume 52 , 1–7

research-article | 30-November-2020

Effect of fluensulfone on different functional genes of root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita

Over 4,100 species of plant-parasitic nematodes (PPNs) pose a major threat to the present day agriculture accounting an estimated yield loss of US$ 173 billion every year (Decraemer and Hunt, 2006). Amongst the top 10 PPN species that cause majority of the economic damage worldwide, root-knot nematodes (RKNs) of genus Meloidogyne are considered to be the most severe (Elling, 2013; Jones et al., 2013). The second-stage juveniles (J2s) of RKNs enter the plant roots and develop permanent feeding

Alkesh Hada, Divya Singh, Kranti Kavalipurapu Veera Venkata Satyanarayana, Madhurima Chatterjee, Victor Phani, Uma Rao

Journal of Nematology, Volume 53 , 1–14

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