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  • Journal Of Nematology



Effect of an Alltech soil health product on entomopathogenic nematodes, root-knot nematodes and on the growth of tomato plants in the greenhouse

In the context of food security for an ever increasing global population, nematodes pose serious threat to agricultural crops worldwide (Miamoto et al., 2017). There are nearly 4,100 species of plant parasitic nematodes (PPN) reported to date that are currently a serious constraint for global food security (Jaouannet et al., 2013) causing yield loss of about 30% in susceptible crop varieties annually (tomatoes, eggplant, and melons) (Padgham et al., 2004; Collange et al., 2011). Among these

Anusha Pulavarty, Karina Horgan, Thomais Kakouli-Duarte

Journal of Nematology , 1–10


Steam-based thermotherapy for managing nematodes in strawberry transplants

. Each year more than 100 million strawberry transplants are shipped to Florida predominantly from California, North Carolina, and Canada to be planted in the winter strawberry production fields. Strawberry transplants coming into Florida from out-of-state nurseries often harbor many pathogens including nematodes (Noling and Whidden, 2010; Nyoike et al., 2012; Oliveira et al., 2017; Forcelini and Peres, 2018). The nematodes associated with the shipped strawberry transplants are foliar nematode

Churamani Khanal, Mengyi Gu, Natalia A. Peres, Johan A. Desaeger

Journal of Nematology , 1–10


A Simple Express Technique to Process Nematodes for Collection Slide Mounts

The new simple technique of hot fixation and a method for processing a mass quantity of nematodes to prepare nematode collection slides for taxonomic and ecological purposes, combined with an abrupt reduction of the set of procedures caused by the ‘‘cocktail’’ principle (a stratification of layers with a gradient of glycerol concentrations), are described.


Journal of Nematology , ISSUE 1, 27–32


Nematicide effects on non-target nematodes in bermudagrass

Turfgrass (Cynodon spp.) is an important horticultural crop in the Southeastern United States. Golf courses, athletic fields, and lawns utilize turfgrass as a playing surface and as ground cover. Turfgrass cultivation, sales, and maintenance is a billion-dollar industry in Florida (Haydu et al., 2006). Plant-parasitic nematodes are an important pathogen of turfgrass. Nematode feeding can lead to stunted roots and even death of the plant (Crow, 2008). As an aesthetic crop, turfgrass managers

Benjamin D. Waldo, Zane J. Grabau, Tesfamariam M. Mengistu, William T. Crow

Journal of Nematology , 1–12


Hatching and Mortality of Meloidogyne enterolobii Under the Interference of Entomopathogenic Nematodes In vitro

several phytosanitary problems, among them, phytopathogenic nematodes (Rosa et al., 2015). Plant parasitic nematodes have become one of the main problems in the olericulture cultivation in general. Among these, the Meloidogyne spp. genus representes the group of greater importance (Silva et al., 2014). The species of this genus can cause 100% losses in the production and therefore are considered one of the most harmful in the olericulture cultivation (Kurozawa and Pavan, 2005; Perry and Moens, 2006

Alixelhe Pacheco Damascena, Júlio César Antunes Ferreira, Marylia Gabriella Silva Costa, Luis Moreira de Araujo Junior, Silvia Renata Siciliano Wilcken

journal of nematology , 1–8


First record of native entomopathogenic nematodes from Montana agroecosystems

Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs), which occur naturally in soils, are obligate parasites of soil-inhabiting insects. EPNs were first described in 1923 with the identification of Aplectana kraussei Steiner (now known as Steinernema kraussei) (Nguyen and Hunt, 2007). Steinernematidae and Heterorhabditidae are two major families of EPNs with potential for managing insect populations (Kaya and Gaugler, 1993; Georgis et al., 2006). EPNs are associated with endosymbiotic bacteria belonging to the

Ramandeep K. Sandhi, Ratnasri Pothula, Satyendra K. Pothula, Byron J. Adams, Gadi V.P. Reddy

Journal of Nematology , 1–11


Differences in parasitism of root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.) on oilseed radish and oat

Root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.) are obligate, sedentary endoparasites that can infect both the below- and above-ground parts of many crops at different developmental stages. Meloidogyne spp. are serious pathogens of multiple vegetable crops in the southern United States and worldwide (Johnson et al., 1992; Jones et al., 2013; Hajihassani, Davis, and Timper, 2019; Hajihassani, Rutter, and Luo, 2019). In Georgia, more than 66% of vegetable growing areas are infested with at least one

Negin Hamidi, Abolfazl Hajihassani

Journal of Nematology , 1–10


Natural occurrence and distribution of entomopathogenic nematodes (Steinernematidae, Heterorhabditidae) in Viti Levu, Fiji Islands

Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) species belonging to the genera Steinernema Travassos, 1927 and Heterorhabditis Poinar, 1975 and their symbiotic bacteria from genera Xenorhabdus and Photorhabdus, respectively, are lethal parasites of soil inhibiting insects (Shapiro-Ilan et al., 2017). Globally, EPNs are being widely researched as promising biocontrol agents for wide range of agricultural pests (Lacey et al., 2015). Because of the increasing awareness of EPN as an effective non-chemical

Sumeet Kour, Uma Khurma, Gilianne Brodie, Selcuk Hazir

journal of nematology , 1–17


The Mesostigmatid Mite Protogamasellus mica, an Effective Predator of Free-Living and Plant-Parasitic Nematodes

Protogamasellus mica was extracted from a sugarcane field in Australia and cultured on bacterial-feeding nematodes. Studies with various nematodes in laboratory arenas showed that one mite and its progeny reduced nematode numbers by between 26 and 50 nematodes/day. A bacterivore (Mesorhabditis sp.), a fungivore (Aphelenchus avenae), and two plant parasites (root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne javanica and root-lesion nematode, Pratylenchus zeae) were all reduced at much the same rate despite the


Journal of Nematology , ISSUE 3, 327–333


Root-knot nematodes demonstrate temporal variation in host penetration

Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 (Bhardwaj et al., 2011), spore formation, and spore dispersal of fungal pathogen Hyaloperenosposra arabidopsidis is regulated by host circadian rhythm (Wang et al., 2011). Attachment and motility of bacterial pathogen Agrobacterium tumefaciens to tomato roots follow a diurnal pattern (Oberpichler et al., 2008). Root-knot nematodes (RKN) infect almost all cultivated plants and are one of the most damaging plant-parasitic nematodes causing devastating agricultural

Shova Mishra, Peter DiGennaro

Journal of Nematology , 1–8


Nematicide influence on cotton yield and plant-parasitic nematodes in conventional and sod-based crop rotation

, stunting, and chlorosis (Lawrence and McLean, 2001; Blasingame et al., 2002; Robinson, 2007). Rotating to a non-host crop may provide short-term suppression of plant-parasitic nematodes in cotton production (Starr et al., 2002). For instance, crop rotation to a non-host like peanut (Arachis hypogaea) or corn (Zea mays) is an effective means to manage RN (Moore and Lawrence, 2012). Rotation to a non-host for one or more years can reduce RN populations below economic thresholds into the subsequent cotton

Lesley A. Schumacher, Zane J. Grabau, David L. Wright, Ian M. Small, Hui-Ling Liao

Journal of Nematology , 1–14


Plant-parasitic nematodes associated with sugarcane in Kilimanjaro, Tanzania

scale pest (Greathead, 1970; Msechu and Keswani, 1978; Katundu and Ramadhani, 1988). Other studies reported the effect of the white grubs, Cochliotis melolonthoides (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae), which feed underground on sugarcane roots (Jepson, 1956; Cock and Allard, 2013), and accounted for an annual economic loss of about 25 to 50% at the TPC Limited, Kilimanjaro (Paray et al., 2012). However, no investigation on the diversity and the effect of nematodes on sugarcane of Tanzania has been done

Phougeishangbam Rolish Singh, Beatrice E. Kashando, Marjolein Couvreur, Gerrit Karssen, Wim Bert

Journal of Nematology , 1–17


Nematicidal Effects of 5-Aminolevulinic Acid on Plant-Parasitic Nematodes

Plant-parasitic nematodes are important agricultural pests and often cause serious crop losses. Novel, environmental friendly nematicides are urgently needed because of the harmful effects of some existing nematicides on human health. 5-Aminolevulinic acid (ALA) was reported as a potential biodegradable herbicide, insecticide, or plant-growth promoting agent. Lack of information on ALA against plant-parasitic nematodes prompted this investigation to determine the effects of ALA on Meloidogyne


Journal of Nematology , ISSUE 3, 295–303

Research Article

Terrestrial Non-Parasitic Nematode Assemblages associated With Glyphosate-tolerant and Conventional Soybean-Based Cropping Systems

Information about the effects of glyphosate on nematodes is limited and contradictory, while none existing for South African agricultural fields. The abundance and identity of non-parasitic nematodes in the rhizospheres of commercial glyphosate-tolerant and conventional (non-glyphosate-tolerant), soybean cultivars from cultivated fields, and adjacent natural vegetation (reference system) were obtained for two growing seasons. The impact of glyphosate was also investigated on non-parasitic

Akhona Mbatyoti, Mieke Stefanie Daneel, Antoinette Swart, Dirk de Waele, Hendrika Fourie

Journal of Nematology , ISSUE 3, 243–260


Morphological and Molecular Identification of Longidorus euonymus and Helicotylenchus multicinctus from the Rhizosphere of Grapevine and Banana in Greece

Plant-parasitic nematodes such as Longidorus euonymus and Helicotylenchus multicintctus are species widely distributed in central Europe as well as in Mediterranean area. In Greece, both species have been previously reported but no morphometrics or molecular data were available for these species. Nematode surveys in the rhizosphere of grapevines in Athens carried out in 2016 and 2017, yielded a Longidorus species identified as Longidorus euonymus. Similarly, a population of Helicotylenchus


Journal of Nematology , ISSUE 3, 233–235


Occurrence of Panagrellus (Rhabditida: Panagrolaimidae) Nematodes in a Morphologically Aberrant Adult Specimen of Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Coleoptera: Dryophthoridae)

An aberrant specimen of Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Coleoptera: Dryophthoridae) also known as red palm weevil (RPW), the most economically important insect pest of palms in the world, was found among a batch of conspecifics reared for research purposes. A morphological analysis of this weevil revealed the presence of nematodes associated with a structured cuticle defect of the thorax. These nematodes were not able to be cultured, but were characterized by molecular analysis using 28S


Journal of Nematology , ISSUE 1, 1–6


Molecular approach to confirm traditional identification of Radopholus similis sampled in Tanzania

Banana (Musa spp. L.) is a key food crop in rural and urban areas of the humid tropics, with an annual global production of up to 100mn tons (FAO, 2015). In East Africa, banana is widely consumed and provides approximately 10% of the calorific intake for more than 70mn people (Kilimo Trust, 2012). In Tanzania, in particular, it is a staple food and cash crop for more than 30% of the total population (Nkuba, 2007). Plant-parasitic nematodes (PPN) are the principal pests of banana in Tanzania

Doreen M. Mgonja, Gladness E. Temu, Joseph C. Ndunguru, Magreth F. Mziray, Sylvester L. Lyantagaye, Nessie D. Luambano

Journal of Nematology , 1–8


Optimizing for taxonomic coverage: a comparison of methods to recover mesofauna from soil

Nematodes occupy trophic levels in a food web that includes natural enemies such as nematophagous fungi (Kaya and Koppenhöfer, 1996), ectoparasitic bacteria (Enright and Griffin, 2005; El-Borai et al., 2005), and soil microarthropods (Walter and Ikonen, 1989). Mites, springtails, and other microarthropods are major components of soil biodiversity and food web function. Numerous reports indicate that these generalist predators dominate the higher trophic levels that regulate virtually all

Alexandros Dritsoulas, Larry W. Duncan

Journal of Nematology , 1–9


First report of Paratylenchus lepidus Raski, 1975 associated with green tea (Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze) in Vietnam

The genus Paratylenchus (Ciobanu et al., 2003) is commonly known as pin nematodes that are ectoparasites and can be frequently found at high density in perennial plants, hop gardens, orchards, or forest trees (Ghaderi et al., 2016; Ghaderi, 2019). Although sometimes plants infected by Paratylenchus species show no specific symptoms, large populations of Paratylenchus spp. affect the absorption capacity of roots and the general physiology of plants (Ghaderi, 2019). According to Talavera and

Thi Mai Linh Le, Huu Tien Nguyen, Thi Duyen Nguyen, Quang Phap Trinh

Journal of Nematology , 1–4

Research Article

Survival and Infectivity of Entomopathogenic Nematodes Formulated in Sodium Alginate Beads

An alternative control method to the use of chemical insecticides against soil dwelling insect pests is the application of entomopathogenic nematodes formulated in alginate beads for enhanced shelf life. The aim was to compare the benefit on nematode survival and infectivity of: (i) pre-conditioning of juveniles, and (ii) coating of alginate beads. The nematodes Steinernema glaseri, Steinernema carpocapsae, and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora were reproduced in last instar larvae of the wax moth

Jaime Ruiz-Vega, Carlos I. Cortés-Martínez, Cipriano García-Gutiérrez

Journal of Nematology , ISSUE 3, 273–280


Infection parameters of Heterorhabditis amazonensis (Nematoda: Heterorhabditidae) in different stages of Hibiscus pink mealybug

of insect mass production in laboratories, among other causes (Cermelli et al., 2002). For those reasons, there is a need to study biological alternatives to reduce the populations of PHM in Venezuela. Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) have been used in biological control programs for crops worldwide because of their effectiveness, time of response, innocuousness to mammals, and relative simplicity of mass production (Kaya et al., 2006). Some laboratories in Venezuela work actively on these

Yvan Fuenmayor, Edgar Portillo, Brynelly Bastidas, Mayamarú Guerra, Ernesto San-Blas

Journal of Nematology , 1–7


Diversity and seasonal fluctuation of tylenchid plant-parasitic nematodes in association with alfalfa in the Kerman Province (Iran)

Worldwide, alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), a flowering plant belonging to the family Fabaceae, is cultivated as a forage crop (Tucak et al., 2008). It is the most important forage crop in Iran due to its superior feeding value for cattle, which is the main meat/protein food source (Tucak et al., 2008). The genus Medicago comprises many species, with up to 23 being cultivated in Iran (Ghanavati et al., 2007). A wide range of plant-parasitic nematodes have been associated with alfalfa crops in

Ebrahim Shokoohi, Phatu William Mashela, Fahimeh Iranpour

Journal of Nematology , 1–14

Research Article

Oat, Wheat, and Sorghum Genotype Reactions to Meloidogyne incognita and Meloidogyne javanica

Meloidogyne spp. are the most economically important species of plant-pathogenic nematodes. Plant resistance and crop rotation are the main nematode management methods. Thus, the objective was to evaluate the resistance of seven wheat genotypes, five oat genotypes, ten sorghum hybrids, and three sorghum–sudangrass genotypes to Meloidogyne incognita and Meloidogyne javanica. The crops were sowed in pots with an auto-claved substrate. A single plant/pot was left after thinning. The soil was


Journal of Nematology , ISSUE 4, 386–389


First report of southern root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita, infecting pomegranate, Punica granatum, in Peru

Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) is an exotic fruit in Peru that has unique pharmacological characteristics including several bioactive compounds. Its cultivation is intended for ornamentation, fruit production for fresh consumption, or processed products, such as juices, syrups, and jellies (Saroj et al., 2008), among others. Plants can be attacked by pests, diseases, and plant-parasitic nematodes, which can qualitatively and quantitatively impair production (Dias-Arieira et al., 2010; Sikora

Ricardo Andreé Vega-Callo, María Yaquelin Mendoza-Lima, Nataly Ruth Mamani-Mendoza, Leslie Sharon Lozada-Villanueva, Juan José Tamo-Zegarra, Teodocia Gloria Casa-Ruiz, Cristiano Bellé

Journal of Nematology , 1–3


Superparasitism and Population Regulation of the Mosquito-Parasitic Mermithid Nematodes Romanomermis iyengari and Strelkovimermis spiculatus

Superparasitism is a common phenomenon in mosquito-parasitic mermithid nematodes. Multiple nematodes are needed in a single host to produce males. Host selection behavior and intraspecific competition among Romanomermis iyengari and Strelkovimermis spiculatus were investigated against their host, Culex pipiens pipiens in laboratory experiments. In a choice assay between previously infected and uninfected host larvae, infectious preparasites of both nematode species could distinguish not only


Journal of Nematology , ISSUE 3, 316–320


Nematicide efficacy at managing Meloidogyne arenaria and non-target effects on free-living nematodes in peanut production

detectable level of this nematode presents a risk of damage (McSorley et al., 1992). Peanut producers rely on crop rotation, resistant cultivars, and nematicide application to manage PRKN. Peanut cultivars (TifNV High O/L, Georgia 14 N, and Tifguard) that are highly resistant to root-knot nematodes are available and derive resistance from the parental cultivar COAN (Holbrook et al., 2008; Branch et al., 2014; Holbrook et al., 2017). These resistant cultivars are not widely adopted as a majority of

Zane J. Grabau, Mark D. Mauldin, Alemayehu Habteweld, Ethan T. Carter

Journal of Nematology , 1–10


Nematodes and the effect of seasonality in grassland habitats of South Africa

Nematodes occupy most terrestrial habitats on earth (Liu et al., 2019), even the furthest reaches of caves (Du Preez et al., 2017) and deep underground mines (Borgonie et al., 2011). Estimates also indicate that nematodes represent 80% of all multicellular organisms (Eisenhauer and Guerra, 2019; Van Den Hoogen et al., 2019). However, despite their omnipresent distribution and dominating abundance, many nematode communities are poorly studied with the majority of species remaining undescribed

Chantelle Girgan, Gerhard du Preez, Mariette Marais, Antoinette Swart, Hendrika Fourie

Journal of Nematology , 1–22


Survival of entomopathogenic nematodes in oil emulsions and control effectiveness on adult engorged ticks (Acari: Ixodida)

available in the national market. However, the risk of generating populations of ticks resistant to the ixodicides is higher if its use is not handled as indicated by the standards (Rodríguez-Vivas et al., 2014). Nowadays, there are very few studies on the biological control of ticks using entomopathogenic nematodes (Kocan et al., 1998). Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) are efficient agents of biological control, and are compatible with some chemical pesticides (Kaya and Gaugler, 1993). The

Teodulfo Aquino-Bolaños, Jaime Ruiz-Vega, Yolanda D. Ortiz Hernández, Julio C. Jiménez Castañeda

Journal of Nematology , 1–10

Research Article

Two nematodes (Nematoda: Diplogastridae, Rhabditidae) from the invasive millipede Chamberlinius hualienensis Wang, 1956 (Diplopoda, Paradoxosomatidae) on Hachijojima Island in Japan

Millipedes may cause unexpected damage when they are introduced to new locations, becoming invaders that leave behind their old parasites and predators. Therefore, it was interesting to find numerous rhabditid nematodes within the gut of the invasive phytophagous millipede Chamberlinius hualienensis Wang, 1956 (Diplopoda, Paradoxosomatidae) from Hachijojima (Japan) in November, 2014. This millipede originated in Taiwan but was discovered in Japan in 1986. The nematodes were identified as

L. K. Carta, W. K. Thomas, V. B. Meyer-Rochow

Journal of Nematology , ISSUE 4, 479–486

Research Article

First Reports, Morphological, and Molecular Characterization of Longidorus caespiticola and Longidorus poessneckensis (Nematoda: Longidoridae) from Ukraine

Seven needle nematode species of the genus Longidorus have been reported in Ukraine. Nematological surveys for needle nematodes were carried out in Ukraine between 2016 and 2017 and two nematode species of Longidorus (L. caespiticola and L. poessneckensis) were collected from natural and anthropogenically altered habitats on the territory of Opillia and Zakarpattia in Ukraine. Nematodes were extracted from 500 cm3 of soil by modified sieving and decanting method. Extracted specimens were


Journal of Nematology , ISSUE 4, 396–402


Chenopodium album is a weed host of Meloidogyne incognita (Nematoda: Meloidogynidae) in Peru

. soybean, wheat, barley, maize, quinoa, potato, sugarbeet, sugarcane, and peanut) (Bajwa et al., 2019). C. album is more problematic than other species of the genus, as the is more widespread and infests more number of crops, and it also acts as an alternate host of several crop pests and pathogens (Bellé et al., 2019). In this context, several weed species have been reported to host root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp. Göldi, 1887). This genus of root-knot nematodes has the largest impact on major

Jorge Airton Gómez-Chatata, Teodocia Gloria Casa-Ruiz, Juan José Tamo-Zegarra, Cristiano Bellé

Journal of Nematology , 1–4


Yellow and purple nutsedge and coffee senna as hosts of common plant nematodes in Florida

is a common weed in agronomic crops and is particularly important because its seeds contain animal toxins (Furlan et al., 2012). Weeds often serve as alternative hosts to plant-parasitic nematodes, thereby increasing their incidence and severity. In addition, they reduce the efficacy of nematode management tactics. For example, nutsedges and plant-parasitic nematodes are two of the most common soilborne pest problems in Florida vegetable production and often occur concomitantly (Rich et al., 2003

Maria de Lourdes Mendes, Donald W. Dickson, William T. Crow

Journal of Nematology , 1–9


First report of Meloidogyne javanica (Nematoda: Meloidogynidae) infecting Scoparia dulcis, a medicinal plant in Brazil

traditionally used as a treatment for diabetes mellitus, hypertension, stomach troubles, hypertension, inflammation, bronchitis, hemorrhoids, hepatosis, and as an analgesic and antipyretic (Das and Chakraborty, 2011; Murtl et al., 2012). Medicinal plants can be attacked by pests, diseases, and plant-parasitic nematodes, which can qualitatively and quantitatively impair curative properties and production (Bellé et al., 2017; Pandey, 2017). Among the plant-parasitic nematodes, the most important genus is

Cristiano Bellé, Rodrigo Ferraz Ramos, Andressa Lima de Brida, Tiago Edu Kaspary

journal of nematology , 1–3


Sampling Error in Relation to Cyst Nematode Population Density Estimation in Small Field Plots

Cyst nematodes are serious plant-parasitic pests which could cause severe yield losses and extensive damage. Since there is still very little information about error of population density estimation in small field plots, this study contributes to the broad issue of population density assessment. It was shown that there was no significant difference between cyst counts of five or seven bulk samples taken per each 1-m2 plot, if average cyst count per examined plot exceeds 75 cysts per 100 g of


Journal of Nematology , ISSUE 2, 150–155


Genetic intraspecific diversity of Meloidogyne javanica parasitizing vegetables in southern Iran

Plant-parasitic nematodes are an important limiting factor in vegetable production, and in many areas a major factor requiring extensive use of pesticides. Root-knot nematodes (RKNs) of the genus Meloidogyne (Göldi, 1887), which their population increase to damaging levels within a few seasons under susceptible crops, are so common in subtropical and tropical vegetable production that frequently they are taken to represent “nematodes” in general (Sikora and Fernandez, 2005). The populations of

Reza Ghaderi, Ali Asghar Dehghan, Abbas Mokaram Hesar, Akbar Karegar

Journal of Nematology , 1–13


First report of Bursaphelenchus fungivorus (Nematoda: Aphelenchida) in Italy and an overview of nematodes associated with Crocus sativus L.

subterranean organ, the corm can come into contact with different organisms such as fungi, bacteria, viruses and nematodes. Most information concerning nematodes associated with saffron, refers to nematodes collected in the soil around the roots of Crocus sativus (Fotedar and Handoo, 1977; Mahdikhani and Alvani, 2013; Sheikh et al., 2014; Cirujeda et al., 2016; Alvani et al., 2017; Hassan and Ahangar, 2018). In this study, Bursaphelenchus fungivorus (Franklin and Hooper, 1962) is reported for the first

Giulia Torrini, Agostino Strangi, Stefania Simoncini, Maria Luppino, Pio Federico Roversi, Leonardo Marianelli

Journal of Nematology , 1–11


First Report of the Spiral Nematode Rotylenchus incultus (Nematoda: Hoplolaimidae) from Cultivated Olive in Tunisia, with Additional Molecular Data on Rotylenchus eximius

Spiral nematode species of the genus Rotylenchus have been reported on olive (Olea europaea L.) in several Mediterranean countries (Castillo et al., 2010; Ali et al., 2014). Nematological surveys for plant-parasitic nematodes on olive trees were carried out in Tunisia between 2013 and 2014, and two nematode species of Rotylenchus were collected from the rhizosphere of olive cv. Chemlali in several localities of Tunisia (Tables 1,2). Twenty-two soil samples of 3 to 4 kg were collected with a


Journal of Nematology , ISSUE 3, 136–138


In vivo production of entomopathogenic nematodes using Galleria mellonella: costs and effect of diets on nematode pathogenicity

The use of biological agents, such as entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN) of the genera Heterorhabditis and Steinernema, is one of a range of tools for biological control. These nematode species are obligate parasites, lethal, and easy to apply (San-Blas, 2013). They can be mass-produced using in vivo or in vitro (solid or liquid) culture methods (Gaugler and Han, 2002; Rahoo et al., 2019), but in vivo is the method of choice for laboratory-scale production (e.g. for generating material for field

Régina Kotchofa, Hugues Baimey

journal of nematology , 1–15


First Report of the Carolina Spiral Nematode, Scutellonema brachyurus, from Soil of a Garden in Crete, Greece

Members of the genus Scutellonema can cause substantial crop losses to ornamental and cultivated plants directly by feeding ectoparasitically on plant roots (Bridge et al., 2005; Coyne et al., 2006). In May 2015, a soil sample from a house garden from Heraklion city in Crete, Greece, was sent for diagnosis of plant-parasitic nematodes. In this place, there had been cactus (Opuntia sp.) plants (probably imported), which were uprooted 3 to 4 years earlier. After that, the area was


Journal of Nematology , ISSUE 1, 7–7


Mortality of Phyllophaga vetula larvae by the separate and combined application of Metarhizium anisopliae, Steinernema carpocapsae and Steinernema glaseri

chemical pesticides for the control of white grubs is causing increased resistance of this insect pest and has resulted in negative effects on the environment and human health, which make necessary the development of effective biological control products with low impact on the environment and human health (Cory and Franklin, 2012; Chandel et al., 2019; Karabörklü et al., 2018). The combined application of entomopathogenic fungi (EPF) and entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN) through a formulated product is

Jaime Ruiz-Vega, Carlos I. Cortés-Martínez, Teodulfo Aquino-Bolaños, Pastor T. Matadamas-Ortíz, Cipriano García-Gutiérrez, José Navarro-Antonio

Journal of Nematology , 1–8


First report of Xiphinema hunaniense Wang & Wu, 1992 (Nematoda: Longidoridae) in Vietnam

The genus Xiphinema Cobb, 1913, commonly known as dagger nematodes, are migratory ectoparasitic nematodes that damage numerous wild and cultivated plants through direct feeding on the root and transmission of plant viruses (Taylor and Brown, 1997; Perry and Moens, 2013). This genus is distributed worldwide and is divided in two groups, Xiphinema americanum group and non-Xiphinema americanum group, with more than 260 valid species (Gutiérrez-Gutiérrez et al., 2012). The conserved morphology and

Huu Tien Nguyen, Thi Duyen Nguyen, Thi Mai Linh Le, Quang Phap Trinh

Journal of Nematology , 1–4


Curative Control of the Peachtree Borer Using Entomopathogenic Nematodes

with chlorpyrifos and a water-only control in 2014 and 2015. Additionally, types of spray equipment were compared: nematodes were applied via boom sprayer, handgun, or trunk sprayer. To control for effects of application method or nematode source, in vivo laboratory-grown S. carpocapsae, applied using a watering can, was also included. Treatment effects were assessed 39 d (2014) or 19 d (2015) later by measuring percentage of trees still infested, and also number of surviving S. exitiosa larvae per


Journal of Nematology , ISSUE 3, 170–176

Research Article

Effects of vermicompost water extract prepared from bamboo and kudzu against Meloidogyne incognita and Rotylenchulus reniformis

both trials. Although both VCTs did not reduce the number of M. incognita and R. reniformis in soil, weed VCT did increase omnivorous nematodes in the second trial, indicating a gradual improvement of soil food web structure through VCT drenching over time. Overall, performance of weed VCT was more consistent than vegetable VCT for plant-parasitic nematodes suppression.

Xiaodong You, Motoaki Tojo, Shelby Ching, Koon-Hui Wang

Journal of Nematology , ISSUE 4, 569–578


First report of root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne species) infecting Chinese Elm (Ulmus parvifolia) in Florida, USA

) and Drake (Fig. 1A), in Lake County, FL and submitted for nematode certification at the Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Division of Plant Industry, Gainesville, FL (FDACS-DPI). Initially, nematodes were extracted from soil and roots, and species identification performed using FDACS-DPI’s standard protocol for identifying Meloidogyne enterolobii Yang and Eisenback, 1981, a COI-based qPCR assay (Kiewnick et al., 2015; Braun-Kiewnick et al., 2016) with slight modifications

M. R. Moore, J. A. Brito, S. Qiu, C. G. Roberts, L. A. Combee

Journal of Nematology , 1–4


Validation of the Chemotaxis of Plant Parasitic Nematodes Toward Host Root Exudates

Phytopathogenic nematodes are microscopic roundworms that develop obligate parasitic relationships with plants. Once sedentary endoparasitic nematodes reach a root surface, they insert their stomatostylet, enter root tissue, establish a feeding site near the vascular cylinder, and ingest cytosolic nutrients (Mitchum et al., 2013; Fosu-Nyarko and Jones, 2016). Damage caused by PPN is estimated to result in an annual loss of ~14% of world crop productions (Nicol et al., 2011), needing an urgent

Wenshan Liu, Alexis L. Jones, Heather N. Gosse, Kathy S. Lawrence, Sang-Wook Park

journal of nematology , 1–10


Potential of entomopathogenic nematodes against the pupal stage of the apple maggot Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh) (Diptera: Tephritidae)

Snow for which 60% parasitism was observed in hawthorn fruit. Entomopathogenic nematodes may be another alternative approach for the biological control of R. pomonella. Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) from genera Steinernema and Heterorhabditis have the ability to infect and kill insect pests and they are naturally found in all types of agricultural and natural soils (Grewal et al., 2005). Entomopathogenic nematodes are associated with symbiotic bacteria, i.e. Xenorhabdus spp. bacteria are

Muhammad Usman, Sehrish Gulzar, Waqas Wakil, Jaime C. Piñero, Tracy C. Leskey, Laura J. Nixon, Camila Oliveira-Hofman, Shaohui Wu, David Shapiro-Ilan

Journal of Nematology , 1–9


Are Entomopathogenic Nematodes Effective Biological Control Agents Against the Carob Moth, Ectomyelois ceratoniae?

of exploring effective control methods, especially environmental friendly approaches. Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) are a group of biological control agents that actively search for the host, including those in a cryptic habitat like the carob moth larvae within infested fruits. Here, we assumed that treatment of the infested and dropped fruits with EPNs may provide new insight into the management of the carob moth. Three species of EPNs, Steinernema feltiae, S


Journal of Nematology , ISSUE 4, 261–267

Research Article

Short-term Impacts of Tillage and Fertilizer Treatments on Soil and Root Borne Nematodes and Maize Yield in a Fine Textured Cambisol

Conservation agriculture (CA) based on the principles of minimum soil disturbance, crop residue retention, and crop rotation has been the focus of intensive research in recent years. A study was carried out to determine the effects of tillage and fertilizer on the population densities of plant-parasitic nematodes in maize. Three tillage regimes, (i) basin planting, (ii) rip line seeding, and (iii) conventional tillage, were combined with four fertilizer regimes: (i) no-fertilizer, (ii) low

N. Mashavakure, A. B. Mashingaidze, R. Musundire, E. Gandiwa, V. K. Muposhi, C. Thierfelder, N. Nhamo, T. Bere, S. S. Akhtar

Journal of Nematology , ISSUE 3, 329–342


Mitochondrial Haplotype-based Identification of Root-knot Nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.) on Cut Foliage Crops in Florida

Florida accounts for more than 75% of the national cut foliage production. Unfortunately, root-knot nematodes (RKN) (Meloidogyne spp.) are a serious problem on these crops, rendering many farms unproductive. Currently, information on the Meloidogyne spp. occurring on most commonly cultivated cut foliage crops in Florida, and tools for their rapid identification are lacking. The objectives of this study were to (i) identify specific RKN infecting common ornamental cut foliage crops in Florida


Journal of Nematology , ISSUE 3, 193–202

Research Article

Nematicidal Weeds, Solanum nigrum and Datura stramonium

We investigated Solanum nigrum (seeds) and Datura stramonium (shoots) against root-knot nematodes in terms of J2 paralysis and egg hatch inhibition (methanol extract), as well as inhibition of nematode development in host roots (soil amending with either S. nigrum seeds’ or D. stramonium shoots’ meal). Datura stramonium was found equally effective at inhibiting motility of Meloidogyne incognita and Meloidogyne javanica (both EC50 = 427 μg mL−1 at 3 day), but inhibition occurred more quickly for

Chrisostomos Oplos, Kodjo Eloh, Urania-Menkissoglu Spiroudi, Caboni Pierluigi, Nikoletta Ntalli

Journal of Nematology , ISSUE 3, 317–328


Maternal Stress Reduces the Susceptibility of Root-Knot Nematodes to Pasteuria Penetrans

D. magna genotypes were raised under low-food conditions, their offspring showed varying levels of resistance to parasites. Pasteuria penetrans is an obligate bacterial pathogen of root-knot nematodes, Meloidogyne spp. The infection process of P. penetrans has multiple steps during which the nematode could resist infection. The first step is attachment of endospores to the cuticle of the second-stage juvenile (J2). Individuals within a root-knot nematode population have been shown to vary in

Chang Liu, Pingsheng Ji, Patricia Timper

Journal of Nematology , 1–8


Plant-parasitic nematodes associated with the root zone of hop cultivars planted in a Florida field soil

), there are relatively few reports on the plant-parasitic nematode species associated with this crop. The hop cyst nematode (Heterodera humuli Filipjev) is the most well studied nematode associated with hop worldwide (De Grisse and Gillard, 1963), and has been reported in United States hop production in Pierce County, Washington (Cobb, 1962). Other plant-parasitic nematodes associated with hop in the United States include Meloidogyne hapla Chitwood and Xiphinema americanum Cobb, which were found

Tristan T. Watson, Marco Suarez, Zhanao Deng, Johan A. Desaeger

Journal of Nematology , 1–10


PCR amplification of a long rDNA segment with one primer pair in agriculturally important nematodes

Caenorhabditis spp., for instance, the rDNA copy number was estimated to be as many as 56 to 323 copies within their genomes (Bik et al., 2013). Second, the rDNA polymorphisms among the repeat units are very low within the genome due to concerted evolution (Liao, 1999). These two features make rDNA particularly well suited for taxonomic identification, phylogenetic analysis, and barcoding for nematodes (Blaxter et al., 1998; Floyd et al., 2002; Holterman et al., 2006; Megen et al., 2009; Rodrigues Da Silva

L. K. Carta, S. Li

Journal of Nematology , 1–8

Research Article

A Model for Evolutionary Ecology of Disease: The Case for Caenorhabditis Nematodes and Their Natural Parasites

, cryopreservation, behavioral assays, and genomic tools. Throughout, we present avenues of research that are interesting and feasible to address with caenorhabditid nematodes and their natural parasites, ranging from the maintenance of outcrossing to the community dynamics of host-associated microbes. In combining natural relevance with the experimental power of a laboratory supermodel, these fledgling host–parasite systems can take on fundamental questions in evolutionary ecology of disease.


Journal of Nematology , ISSUE 4, 357–372


Efficacy of Various Application Methods of Fluensulfone for Managing Root-knot Nematodes in Vegetables

experiment was conducted twice. Foliar applications of fluensulfone reduced plant vigor and dry weight of eggplant and tomato, but not cucumber or squash; application of oxamyl had no effect on the vigor or weight of any of the crops. Typically, only the highest rate of fluensulfone was phytotoxic to eggplant and tomato. Tomato was the only crop tested in which there was a reduction in the number of nematodes or galls when fluensulfone or oxamyl was applied to the foliage compared to the nontreated


Journal of Nematology , ISSUE 2, 65–71


Impact of a conservation agriculture system on soil characteristics, rice yield, and root-parasitic nematodes in a Cambodian lowland rice field

-parasitic nematodes (RPN) that substantially affect rice production in SE Asia (De Waele and Elsen, 2007). The rice root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne graminicola (Golden and Birchfield, 1965), is the principal Meloidogyne species found on rice in Asia causing rice yield losses ranging between 16 and 80% of the total crop production (Plowright and Bridge, 1990; Prot and Matias, 1995; Soriano et al., 2000; Padgham et al., 2004; Mantelin et al., 2017), depending on the rice agroecosystems and agricultural

Malyna Suong, Elodie Chapuis, Vira Leng, Florent Tivet, Dirk De Waele, Huế Nguyễn Thị, Stéphane Bellafiore

Journal of Nematology , 1–15

Research Article

NMR Analysis Reveals a Wealth of Metabolites in Root-Knot Nematode Resistant Roots of Citrullus amarus Watermelon Plants

Citrullus amarus (CA) (previously known as Citrullus lanatus var. citroides) accessions collected in southern Africa are known to have resistance to root-knot nematodes (RKN) and are suitable rootstocks for grafted watermelon. The objective of this study was to conduct a comparative metabolomics analysis and identify unique metabolites in roots of CA accessions versus roots of watermelon cultivars (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. and Nakai var. lanatus; CL). Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR

Mihail Kantor, Amnon Levi, Judith Thies, Nihat Guner, Camelia Kantor, Stuart Parnham, Arezue Boroujerdi

Journal of Nematology , ISSUE 3, 303–316

Research Article

Characterization of Juvenile Stages of Bursaphelenchus crenati Rühm, 1956 (Nematoda: Aphelenchoidoidea)

the egg and the J2 was at the hatching stage. Sex of juvenile stages can be identified using the morphology and size of the genital primordia and a body size of nematodes. Sex of juveniles may be identified from the J3 stage by the presence of the cloacal primordium in male juvenile and orientation of the germinal zone of the genital primordium. A tabular key to developmental stages of B. crenati is given. The body grows during molts and within each stage. The body increases rapidly after J3 stage

Alexander Y. Ryss, Kristina S. Polyanina

Journal of Nematology , ISSUE 4, 459–472

Original Research

Diversity of Root-knot Nematodes Associated with Tubers of Yam (Dioscorea spp.) Established Using Isozyme Analysis and Mitochondrial DNA-based Identification

Abstract The root-knot nematodes (RKN), Meloidogyne spp., represent an important threat to yam (Dioscorea spp.) production in West Africa. With the aim to establish the diversity of RKN species affecting yam tubers, for control and resistance screening purposes, surveys were conducted in the main yam producing areas of Nigeria. Galled tubers (N = 48) were collected from farmers’ stores and markets in nine states in Nigeria and in one district in Ghana. RKN isolated from yam tubers were

Yao A. Kolombia, Gerrit Karssen, Nicole Viaene, P. Lava Kumar, Nancy de Sutter, Lisa Joos, Danny L. Coyne, Wim Bert

Journal of Nematology , ISSUE 2, 177–188


Serendipitous identification of Pratylenchus curvicauda from the grainbelt of Western Australia

Root lesion nematodes (Pratylenchus spp.) are one of three economically important plant-parasitic nematode pests of many crops worldwide (Jones et al., 2013). The over 77 species currently described are polyphagous and cause yield losses of major grain crops including wheat and barley and even more significant damage under drought conditions (Taylor et al., 1999; Castillo and Vovlas, 2007). In Australia, about 12 economically important Pratylenchus species have been described and these include

Farhana Begum, John Fosu-Nyarko, Shashi Sharma, Bill Macleod, Sarah Collins, Michael G. K. Jones

Journal of Nematology , 1–15

Research Article

Discovery and Identification of Meloidogyne Species Using COI DNA Barcoding

Thomas Powers, Timothy Harris, Rebecca Higgins, Peter Mullin, Kirsten Powers

Journal of Nematology , ISSUE 3, 399–412


Evaluation of Steam and Soil Solarization for Meloidogyne arenaria Control in Florida Floriculture Crops

Steam and soil solarization were investigated for control of the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne arenaria in 2 yr of field trials on a commercial flower farm in Florida. The objective was to determine if preplant steam treatments in combination with solarization, or solarization alone effectively controlled nematodes compared to methyl bromide (MeBr). Trials were conducted in a field with naturally occurring populations of M. arenaria. Treatments were solarization alone, steam treatment after


Journal of Nematology , ISSUE 3, 183–192


First Report of the Spiral Nematode Helicotylenchus microlobus Infecting Soybean in North Dakota

Spiral nematodes (Helicotylenchus spp.) are common plant-parasitic nematodes in fields of many crops. In June 2015, two soil samples were collected from a soybean field in Richland County, ND. Nematodes were extracted from soil using the sugar centrifugal flotation method ( Jenkins, 1964). Plant-parasitic nematodes were identified to genus based on morphological features and counted. Both samples contained spiral nematodes from 1,500 to 3,300 per kilogram of soil. In June and August


Journal of Nematology , ISSUE 1, 1–1

Research Article

Delatylus andersoni n. gen., n. sp. (Nematoda: Neotylenchidae) Isolated from White Pine (Pinus monticola) Lumber from USA and Intercepted in Ningbo, China

Three populations of neotylenchid nematodes were isolated in Ningbo, P. R. China, from white pine lumber (Pinus monticola) imported from the USA. The nematodes were morphologically intermediate between Hexatylus and Deladenus. The nematodes were molecularly characterized based on sequences of the rDNA small subunit 18S, large subunit 28S D2/D3, and internal transcribed spacer sequences. The phylogenetic inferences placed the nematodes with other neotylenchid nematodes, i.e., Fergusobia and

Qing Yu, Maria Munawar, Jianfeng Gu, Weimin Ye

Journal of Nematology , ISSUE 1, 69–76


Ultrastructure of Hirschmanniella diversa early-stage infection in browning rhizomes of Indian lotus

Indian lotus (Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn), cultivated in Japan since ancient times, includes both the flowering lotus, with high ornamental value, and the edible lotus, the rhizomes of which are consumed as a vegetable (Minamikawa and Tanaka, 1959). Mihira and Nagai (1996) reported that nematodes cause blackish-brown blotches on the surface of edible lotus rhizomes. These blotches were determined to be the symptoms of browning rhizome of Indian lotus (also known as “browning tuber of Indian lotus

Shigeru Uematsu, Tetsuo Yabu, Mitsuyoshi Yao, Takayuki Kurihara, Hironori Koga

Journal of Nematology , 1–9


The Effect of Endophytic Fungi on Nematode Populations in Summer-dormant and Summer-active Tall Fescue

;cultivars, Kentucky 31 (common toxic) and Texoma MaxQ II (novel endophyte) and the Mediterranean cultivar Flecha MaxQ (novel endophyte). Endophyte-free plants of each cultivar were controls. Each cultivar 3 endophyte combination was randomly assigned to a control, low or high inoculation rate of a mixed nematode culture containing stunt nematodes (Tylenchorhynchus spp.), ring nematodes (Criconemella spp.), spiral nematodes (Helicotylenchus spp.), and lesion nematodes (Pratylenchus spp


Journal of Nematology , ISSUE 2, 87–94


Improvement of long segment ribosomal PCR amplification for molecular identification of Litylenchus crenatae mccannii associated with beech leaf disease

die eventually and this loss would devastate the beech-maple forest ecosystems of the eastern USA. The etiology was not understood (Ewing et al., 2019) until recently when a nematode was demonstrated to be necessary for experimental symptom production (Carta et al., 2020). As the disease spreads, accurate identification of nematodes in new symptomatic trees is more important than ever to delimit and potentially contain the spread of the disease and to identify the nematode in surveys outside the

L.K. Carta, S. Li

Journal of Nematology , 1–15


Biological control of Meloidogyne spp. in glasshouse-grown chrysanthemum

Root-knot nematodes (RKN; Meloidogyne spp.) are a worldwide problem in the cultivation of both fruit and vegetable crops (Jones et al., 2013). There are approximately 100 different species of Meloidogyne (with new species being described often) (Jones et al., 2013) and specific species or “races” usually parasitize only a select range of host plants (Moens et al., 2009). The life cycle of RKN lasts approximately 30 days, depending on species and environmental conditions (Ploeg and Maris, 1999

J. R. De Long, M. A. Streminska, A. Persijn, H. M. I. Huisman, C. van der Salm

Journal of Nematology , 1–12


First report of the cactus cyst nematode, Cactodera cacti, from a cactus garden in Idaho

microscope, and light microscopic images of fixed nematodes were taken on a Leica WILD MPS48 Leitz DMRB compound microscope. Measurements were made with an ocular micrometer on a Leica WILD MPS48 Leitz DMRB compound microscope. All measurements are in micrometers, unless otherwise stated. Living nematode juveniles (J2) recovered from the cysts were examined morphologically and molecularly for species identification at the MNGDBL. Observations of morphological characters critical for identification (Fig

Andrea M. Skantar, Zafar A. Handoo, Mihail R. Kantor, Maria N. Hult, Saad. A. Hafez

Journal of Nematology , 1–6


First Report of Meloidogyne ethiopica and M. javanica in Rumex spp. in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil

as susceptible to M. javanica (Ansari et al., 2019). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of M. ethiopica and M. javanica parasitizing Rumex spp. roots in Brazil. This finding has a great importance, since to predict one host potential of nematodes in agricultural areas (Fig. 1). Appendix

L. A. Yánez Márquez, M. Divers, W. R. Silva, J. V. de Araújo Filho, C. B. Gomes

journal of nematology , 1–2


Molecular and morphological characterization of the alfalfa cyst nematode, Heterodera medicaginis, from Utah

solution. Photomicrographs of cyst vulval cones, females, and J2 were made with an automatic 35-mm camera attached to a compound microscope having an interference contrast system. Roots and whole cysts were photographed under a dissecting microscope, and light microscopic images of fixed nematodes were taken on a Nikon Eclipse Ni compound microscope using a Nikon DS-Ri2 camera. Measurements were made with an ocular micrometer on a Leica WILD MPS48 Leitz DMRB compound microscope. All measurements are in

Zafar A. Handoo, Andrea M. Skantar, Saad L. Hafez, Mihail R. Kantor, Maria N. Hult, Stephen A. Rogers

Journal of Nematology , 1–4


First report of Meloidogyne hapla on kiwifruit in South Africa

Ebrahim Shokoohi, Phatu W. Mashela

Journal of Nematology , 1–5

Research Article

Stauratostoma shelleyi n. gen., n. sp. (Nematoda: Rhabditida: Thelastomatidae) from Appalachian Polydesmid Millipedes (Polydesmida: Xystodesmidae)

Stauratostoma shelleyi n. gen., n. sp. is described from the midgut and hindgut of nine species of the millipede family Xystodesmidae collected in the southern Appalachian regions of North Carolina, Tennessee and Alabama. Specimens of S. shelleyi were morphologically examined with differential interference contrast, phase contrast, and scanning electron microscopy. The head of S. shelleyi differs from other thelastomatid nematodes in having a head region mushroom-shaped in profile; cruciform

Gary Phillips, Robert J. Pivar, Xiocaun Sun, John K. Moulton, Ernest C. Bernard

Journal of Nematology , ISSUE 2, 133–146


Esteya vermicola Controls the Pinewood Nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, in Pine Seedlings

sawyer beetles (Coleoptera:Cerambycidae). Esteya vermicola treatments significantly increased the survival rate of pine seedlings that were infected by pinewood nematodes.Wounded plants sprayed with 107 CFU/ml E. vermicola had a 73.0% greater survival rate than nonwounded pine seedlings treated similarly. The treatment of pine seedlings with 107 CFU/ml E. vermicola 14 d before nematode infection increased their survival rate by 90.0%. The number of pinewood nematodes isolated from dead


Journal of Nematology , ISSUE 1, 86–91


Oscheius microvilli n. sp. (Nematoda: Rhabditidae): A Facultatively Pathogenic Nematode from Chongming Island, China


Journal of Nematology , ISSUE 1, 33–41


Fluensulfone and 1,3-dichloroprene for plant-parasitic nematode management in potato production

nematodes are a major problem in this warm area with coastal sandy soils (Weingartner et al., 1993; Crow et al., 2000a). A wide variety of plant-parasitic nematodes are abundant in the area, but sting nematode (Belonolaimus longicaudatus) and the stubby-root nematodes, Paratrichodorus (Nanidorus) spp. and Trichodorus spp., are the most problematic (Perez et al., 2000; Crow et al., 2000b). Sting nematode is a very damaging pathogen of potato that stunts the root system, reducing tuber yield (Weingartner

Zane J. Grabau, Joseph W. Noling, Pablo A. Navia Gine

Journal of Nematology , 1–12


Characterization of root-knot nematodes infecting mulberry in Southern China

Root-knot nematode disease has dramatically impacted Morus alba L. production in Japan, India, and Brazil (Hida and Zhu, 1985; Sujathamma et al., 2014; Paestakahashi et al., 2015). According to Wang and Chen (1989a, 1989b), root-knot nematodes cause mulberry leaf loss of 20 to 45%, with severe cases reaching over 75% in some fields (Wang and Chen, 1989a, 1989b). Leaf quality can also be negatively impacted by this pathogen. Root-knot nematodes on mulberry in Japan have previously been

Pan Zhang, Hudie Shao, Chunping You, Yan Feng, Zhenwen Xie

Journal of Nematology , 1–8


Morphological and molecular characterizations of Heterodera oryzae in Korea

exposed to various pests and diseases including soil bone plant pathogens such as plant-parasitic nematodes. Plant-parasitic nematodes have been documented as an important constraint to rice production in various parts of the world and can cause an estimated yield loss of 20 to 90% depending on the nematode species present country, season, crop variety, cultivation practices, and soil conditions (Gilces et al., 2016). The most important nematode species in rice production include Meloidogyne

Rose Mwesige, Eun-Hwa Kim, Eun-Hyung Park, Hyoung-Rai Ko

Journal of Nematology , 1–12


Morphological and Molecular Characterization of Two Aphelenchoides Endophytic in Poplar Leaves

During a long-term, large network study of the ecology of plant endophytes in native habitats, various nematodes have been found. Two poplar species, Populus angustifolia (narrowleaf cottonwood) and Populus trichocarpa (black cottonwood), are important ecological and genomic models now used in ongoing plant–pathogen–endophyte interaction studies. In this study, two different aphelenchid nematodes within surface-sterilized healthy leaves of these two Populus spp. in


Journal of Nematology , ISSUE 1, 28–33


Agricultural intensification and urbanization negatively impact soil nematode richness and abundance: a meta-analysis

, biodiversity in soils is understudied compared to above-ground biodiversity. Soil is a dynamic system in which organisms interact with each other and form complex food webs (Hunt and Wall, 2002). Nematodes are at the central place in the soil food web because they represent multiple trophic levels including primary, secondary, and tertiary consumer levels (Yeates et al., 1993). The structure of a nematode community provides good information on the condition of the soil food web since nematodes are specific

Satyendra K. Pothula, Parwinder S. Grewal, Robert M. Auge, Arnold M. Saxton, Ernest C. Bernard

Journal of Nematology , 1–17


Nematode trophic structure in the phytotelma of Neoregelia cruenta (Bromeliaceae) in relation to microenvironmental and climate variables

return, the microorganisms and metazoans associated with the phytotelma provide nutrients to the plant (Leroy et al., 2015). Phytotelmata are also found in tree and bamboo holes and pitcher plants. Nematodes are increasingly recognized as important participants in the ecology of aquatic ecosystems. Marine nematodes connect primary producers, decomposers, and macroscopic consumers; and in lentic and lotic ecosystems nematodes respond mainly to the input of organic matter, and secondarily to the

Alexandre M. Almeida, Ricardo M. Souza

Journal of Nematology , 1–12


Four Pristionchus species associated with two mass-occurring Parafontaria laminata populations

addition, recent surveys have found that many nominal and undescribed Pristionchus species are also associated with soil arthropods, such as millipedes (Kanzaki et al., 2016, 2018; Kanzaki unpubl. obs.). Biologically, Pristionchus is phoretic and necromenic nematodes. The nematodes are isolated from their host/carrier insects as dauer ( = dormant and dispersal) stage, which can be reared on artificial media, suggesting phoretic association, but the worms also propagate on the carcass of their host

Natsumi Kanzaki, Minami Ozawa, Yuko Ota, Yousuke Degawa

Journal of Nematology , 1–10


Nematicidal effect of cruciferous bio-fumigants against the root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita infesting okra

influenced due to the attack by several pathogens, such as bacteria, fungi, viruses, nematodes, and abiotic factors. Plant parasitic nematodes are the most harmful pests of vegetable crops, responsible for an annual yield loss amounting to 9 to 15% of the world crop yield (Koenning et al., 2004). Among all the plant parasitic nematodes, root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.) are a hidden threat to okra (Marin et al., 2017). It has been reported that root-knot nematode causes annual losses up to 29% in

J.A. Patil, Anil Kumar, Saroj Yadav, K.K. Verma

Journal of Nematology , 1–7


Festulolium and fungal endophyte associations: host status for Meloidogyne incognita and nematotoxic plant extracts

agriculture farming systems have led to the commercialization of many loline-producing endophyte strains of E. uncinata, including the U2 endophyte strain used in the current study. In contrast to lack of toxicity to grazing mammals, the loline alkaloids produced by E. uncinata may be a feeding deterrent, or toxic, to a wide range of insect pests (Riedell et al., 1991; Matsukura et al., 2012; Barker et al., 2015a, b; Nboyine et al., 2017). However, studies with plant-parasitic nematodes and lolines

Susan L. F. Meyer, Brian J. Patchett, Timothy J. Gillanders, Mihail R. Kantor, Patricia Timper, Margaret H. MacDonald

Journal of Nematology , 1–16


First Report of Scutellonema brachyurus (Steiner, 1938) Andrassy, 1958 and Occurrence of Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid & White, 1919) Chitwood, 1949 in Belgium

Recently, the presence of tropical nematodes has been reported from several Mediterranean or more southern European countries (Wesemael et al., 2011; EPPO, 2019). However, tropical nematodes do not yet pose a problem in the more northern parts of Europe, including Belgium. According to Bebber et al. (2013), there is clear evidence of a general, climate change-driven, poleward migration of pests and plant pathogens, a movement that can include tropical plant-parasitic nematodes. Interestingly

Huu Tien Nguyen, Quang Phap Trinh, Marjolein Couvreur, Phougeishangbam Rolish Singh, Wilfrida Decraemer, Wim Bert

journal of nematology , 1–6


Effects of Cover Crops on Pratylenchus penetrans and the Nematode Community in Carrot Production

Cover cropping is a common practice in U.S. Midwest carrot production for soil conservation, and may affect soil ecology and plant-parasitic nematodes—to which carrots are very susceptible. This study assessed the impact of cover crops—oats (Avena sativa), radish (Raphanus sativus) cv. Defender, rape (Brassica napus) cv. Dwarf Essex, and a mixture of oats and radish—on plantparasitic nematodes and soil ecology based on the nematode community in Michigan carrot


Journal of Nematology , ISSUE 1, 114–123


First report of a stunt nematode Tylenchorhynchus zeae on corn in Gansu Province, China

Stunt nematodes (Tylenchorhynchus spp.) are important plant parasitic nematodes that feed on a wide range of economic hosts. A survey of plant parasitic nematodes was performed in corn fields in May 2019, finding corn seedlings with symptoms like yellow leaves, dwarf plants and death plants in the field (N 37°07′36″, E 102°54′08″) of Baiyin City, Gansu Province, China. The rhizosphere soil samples and roots of diseased plants were collected. Each soil sample was about 1 kg consisted of over 20

Zhi Peng Xu, Hui Xia Li, Yong Gang Liu, Bao Cang Ren, Chun Hui Ni, Jin Hui Ma

Journal of Nematology , 1–2


First Report and Comparative Study of Steinernema surkhetense (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae) and its Symbiont Bacteria from Subcontinental India

Two populations (CS19 and CS20) of entomopathogenic nematodes were isolated from the soils of vegetable fields from Bijnor district, India. Based on morphological, morphometrical, and molecular studies, the nematodes were identified as Steinernema surkhetense. This work represents the first report of this species in India. The infective juveniles (IJs) showed morphometrical and morphological differences, with the original description based on longer IJs size. The IJs of the Indian


Journal of Nematology , ISSUE 1, 92–102


Management of Root-knot Nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) onPittosporum tobira Under Greenhouse, Field, and On-farm Conditions in Florida

Root-knot nematodes are important pests of cut foliage crops in Florida. Currently, effective nematicides for control of these nematodes on cut foliage crops are lacking. Hence, research was conducted at the University of Florida to identify pesticides or biopesticides that could be used to manage these nematodes. The research comprised on-farm, field, and greenhouse trials. Nematicide treatments evaluated include commercial formulations of spirotetramat, furfural, and Purpureocillium lilacinum


Journal of Nematology , ISSUE 2, 133–139


Dynamics of the impacts of Pratylenchus penetrans on Gisela® cherry rootstocks

(Edgerton and Parker, 1958; Mai et al., 1994; Melakeberhan et al., 1994, 1997, 2000). Relatively little is known, however, of the relative susceptibility or tolerance of the new semi-dwarfing cherry rootstocks to P. penetrans or any other plant-parasitic nematodes (Franken-Bembenek, 2008). Comparing P. penetrans inoculated to non-inoculated non-grafted seedlings under greenhouse conditions, Melakeberhan et al. (1994, 1997) demonstrated that growth of Gisela 6 (previously GI-148-1) and Gisela 7

Thomas Forge, Denise Neilsen, Gerry Neilsen, Suzanne Blatt

Journal of Nematology , 1–10


Molecular and morphological characterization of the amaryllis lesion nematode, Pratylenchus hippeastri (Inserra et al., 2007), from California

, 1936 contains approximately 100 species (Geraert, 2013; Qing et al., 2019), with new species being described very frequently. Root-lesion nematodes are among the most prevalent nematodes that can infect and cause damage to the grapevine roots (Téliz et al., 2007; Howland et al., 2014). The large number of species as well as the vast number of hosts makes this genus very important from an economic perspective. Pratylenchus hippeastri, also known as the amaryllis lesion nematode, has been previously

Zafar A. Handoo, Andrea M. Skantar, Mihail R. Kantor, Saad L. Hafez, Maria N. Hult

Journal of Nematology , 1–5

Research Article

Description and Distribution of Three Criconematid Nematodes from Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province, China

Maria Munawar, Thomas O. Powers, Zhongling Tian, Timothy Harris, Rebecca Higgins, Jingwu Zheng

Journal of Nematology , ISSUE 2, 183–206


Panagrolaimus superbus tolerates hypoxia within Gallium metal cage: implications for the understanding of the phenomenon of anhydrobiosis

Nematodes have adapted to live in different ecosystems (marine, freshwater, and terrestrial environments) and hosts (as parasites), with a cosmopolitan scattered pattern, inhabiting tropical, temperate and sub-Arctic soils, playing important roles in biogeochemistry (van den Hoogen et al., 2019). Importantly, many of these organisms are plant-parasitic entities that lead to drastic impacts on crops worldwide; thus, resulting in global annual losses around $125 billion (Barker et al., 1994; Crow

Danyel Fernandes Contiliani, Yasmin de Araújo Ribeiro, Vitor Nolasco de Moraes, Tiago Campos Pereira

Journal of Nematology , 1–6


Difference in lesion formation by male and female Pratylenchus penetrans

Three separate experiments using three hosts and a common design were conducted for 14 days at 24°C. Pea (Pisum sativum L. cv. Early Alaskan), dill (Anethum graveolens cv. Long Island Mammoth), and alfalfa (Medicago sativa cv. Vernal) axenic root explants were inoculated with male or female nematodes using a randomized complete block design with gender and time main effects and four blocks (replications) representing the sequence of inoculation and data collection, and position of the Petri dishes

Kanan Saikai, Ann E. MacGuidwin

Journal of Nematology , 1–9


A Third New Species of Aporcelinus Andrassy, 2009 (Dorylaimida, Aporcelaimidae) from Vietnam, with the First SEM Study of a Representative of the Genus


Journal of Nematology , ISSUE 2, 104–108


Grafting and Paladin Pic-21 for Nematode and Weed Management in Vegetable Production


Journal of Nematology , ISSUE 4, 231–240


First report of Rotylenchulus reniformis infecting turmeric in Vietnam and consequent damage

. In order to achieve a sustainable development of turmeric in these regions, it is vital that comprehensive plant-pathogen management strategies can be formulated and put into practice, including the management of plant-parasitic nematodes (Sikora et al., 2018). A number of nematode species have been reported associated with turmeric world-wide (Sikora et al., 2018; CABI, 2019), and Meloidogyne incognita and Rotylenchus reniformis in particular are known to be widely distributed and to cause

Huu Tien Nguyen, Quang Phap Trinh, Thi Duyen Nguyen, Wim Bert

Journal of Nematology , 1–5


Effects of integrated application of plant-based compost and urea on soil food web, soil properties, and yield and quality of a processing carrot cultivar

of inorganic fertilizers applied to soil and the accumulation of non-nutrient constituents such as heavy metals is an appealing strategy (Sikora and Knkiri, 2001). Implementation of such an alternative could be best achieved if its effects on soil food web, which drives nutrient transformations and productivity, are better understood. As the most abundant organisms in the terrestrial ecosystems and occurring at multiple levels of the soil food web, nematodes are key drivers of the soil food web

A. Habteweld, D. Brainard, A. Kravchencko, P. S. Grewal, H. Melakeberhan

Journal of Nematology , 1–17

Research Article

The Draft Genome of Globodera ellingtonae

Globodera ellingtonae is a newly described potato cyst nematode (PCN) found in Idaho, Oregon, and Argentina. Here, we present a genome assembly for G. ellingtonae, a relative of the quarantine nematodes G. pallida and G. rostochiensis, produced using data from Illumina and Pacific Biosciences DNA sequencing technologies.


Journal of Nematology , ISSUE 2, 127–128

Research Article

Pathogenic Potential of Fresh, Frozen, and Thermally Treated Anisakis spp. Type II (L3) (Nematoda: Anisakidae) after Oral Inoculation into Wistar Rats: A Histopathological Study

The third-stage (L3) larvae of Anisakis are the etiological agents of human anisakiasis caused by consumption of raw or undercooked seafood infected with anisakid nematodes. Infection with these worms is associated with abdominal pain, nausea, and diarrhea and can lead to massive infiltration of eosinophils and the formation of granulomas in the gastrointestinal tract if the larvae are not removed. Food allergy affects populations worldwide, and despite several reports on the presence of the


Journal of Nematology , ISSUE 4, 427–436

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