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Short Communication

An Improve Protocol for PCR Using LM1 and LM2 Primers for Listeria monocytogenes Detection in Food Matrices

Several studies have observed that use of a conventional PCR protocol with primers LM1 and LM2 for the identification of the hlyA gene of Listeria monocytogenes generates non-specific PCR amplifications and false positives. For this reason, in this study we provide a modified PCR protocol that improves the specificity of the results obtained with LM1 and LM2 primers.

Angélica Godínez-Oviede, Gerardo M. Nava, Sofía M. Arvizu-Medrano, Montserrat Hernández-Iturriaga

Polish Journal of Microbiology , ISSUE 2, 255–257

Original Paper

Comparison of PCR, Fluorescent in Situ Hybridization and Blood Cultures for Detection of Bacteremia in Children and Adolescents During Antibiotic Therapy

carried out in standard automated systems. Subsequently, FISH (Fluorescent In-Situ Hybridization) and nested multiplex-real-time-PCR (PCR) were performed. Blood cultures, FISH and PCR yielded positive results in 18%, 39.1%, and 71.7% of samples, respectively. Significant differences were found between the results obtained through culture before and after induction of antibiotherapy: 25.5% vs. 9.7%. There was no significant difference in FISH and PCR results in relation to antibiotics. The three


Polish Journal of Microbiology , ISSUE 4, 479–486

Short Communication

Identification of Pathogenicity of Yersinia enterocolitica in Pig Tonsils Using the Real-Time PCR

The application of DNA-based methods enables to identify Yersinia enterocolitica carrying the ail-gene with a greater sensitivity compared to culture methods and biochemical tests used for detection of pathogenic Y. enterocolitica in animal and food samples. In this study, 100 samples of pig tonsils were examined, among which 17 were positive for the ail gene. Additionally, biochemical tests and RT-PCR showed that nine Y. enterocolitica isolates carried the ail-gene. Two Y. enterocolitica


Polish Journal of Microbiology , ISSUE 2, –

Short Communication

Rapid Detection of Bloodstream Pathogens in Oncologic Patients with a FilmArray Multiplex PCR Assay: a Comparison with Culture Methods

The results of the FilmArray® Blood Culture Identification Panel (BCID) (BioFire Diagnostics) and the culture with susceptibility testing of 70 positive blood cultures from oncologic patients were compared. The multiplex PCR assay (BCID) identified 81 of the 83 isolates (97.6%), covered by the panel. The panel produced results in significantly shorter time than standard identification methods, when counted from receiving positive blood cultures bottles to the final results. It is an accurate

Maria Szymankiewicz, Beata Nakonowska

Polish Journal of Microbiology , ISSUE 1, 103–107

Original Paper

A Comparative Study: Taxonomic Grouping of Alkaline Protease Producing Bacilli

C265, were identified as Bacillus licheniformis with 99.4% and Bacillus mojavensis 99.8% based on 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities, respectively. Interestingly, the isolates identified as Bacillus safensis were also found to be high alkaline protease producing strains. Genotypic characterizations of the isolates were also determined by using a wide range of molecular techniques (ARDRA, ITS-PCR, (GTG)5-PCR, BOX-PCR). These different techniques allowed us to differentiate the alkaliphilic isolates

Nilgun Tekin, Arzu Coleri Cihan, Basar Karaca, Cumhur Cokmus

Polish Journal of Microbiology , ISSUE 1, 39–56

Original Paper

Identification of Lactobacillus delbrueckii and Streptococcus thermophilus Strains Present in Artisanal Raw Cow Milk Cheese Using Real-time PCR and Classic Plate Count Methods

The aim of this paper was to detect Lactobacillus delbrueckii and Streptococcus thermophilus using real-time quantitative PCR assay in 7-day ripening cheese produced from unpasteurised milk. Real-time quantitative PCR assays were designed to identify and enumerate the chosen species of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in ripened cheese. The results of molecular quantification and classic bacterial enumeration showed a high level of similarity proving that DNA extraction was carried out in a proper

Milena A. Stachelska

Polish Journal of Microbiology , ISSUE 4, 491–499

Short Communication

Enteroviruses Associated with Aseptic Meningitis in Poland, 2011–2014

A 4-year study (2011–2014) of patients with meningitis was performed. Out of the 686 cerebrospinal fluid samples, 465 (67.8%) were posi­tive for eneteroviruses using RT-PCR and out of 334 clinical samples, 216 (64.7%) were positive for enteroviruses using cell culture methods. The highest detection rate was observed in the summer and autumn. In total, 185 enteroviruses were identified by using neutralization test. Echovirus 6 and 30 were the most common (41.7% and 37.5% respectively

Magdalena Wieczorek, Agnieszka Figas, Arleta Krzysztoszek

Polish Journal of Microbiology , ISSUE 2, 231–235

Short Communication

Detection of Coxiella burnetii and Francisella tularensis in Tissues of Wild-living Animals and in Ticks of North-west Poland

Abstract This work presents results of the research on the occurrence of Coxiella burnetii and Francisella tularensis in the tissues of wild-living animals and ticks collected from Drawsko County, West Pomeranian Voivodeship. The real-time PCR testing for the pathogens comprised 928 samples of animal internal organs and 1551 ticks. The presence of C. burnetii was detected in 3% of wild-living animals and in 0.45–3.45% (dependent on collection areas) of ticks. The genetic sequences of F


Polish Journal of Microbiology , ISSUE 4, 529–534

Original Paper

Comparison of Methods Used for the Diagnosis of Epstein-Barr Virus Infections in Children

The accurate diagnosis of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infections is important, as many other infectious agents or diseases can cause similar symptoms. In this study, sera of pediatric patients who were suspected to have an EBV infection, were sent to Eskisehir Osmangazi University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, and investigated by IFA, ELISA, immunoblotting and Real-time PCR. The performances of these tests were compared with IFA. The rates of agreement between ELISA and

Nilgun Kasifoglu, Semra Oz, Ener Cagri Dinleyici, Tercan Us, Ozcan Bor, Gul Durmaz, Yurdanur Akgun

Polish Journal of Microbiology , ISSUE 1, 81–88


Mitochondrial Haplotype-based Identification of Root-knot Nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.) on Cut Foliage Crops in Florida

and (ii) evaluate the feasibility of using the mtDNA haplotype as a molecular diagnostic tool for rapid identification of large samples of RKN. A total of 200 Meloidogyne females were collected from cut foliage plant roots. Meloidogyne spp. were identified by PCR and RFLP of mitochondrial DNA. PCR and RFLP of mitochondrial DNA were effective in discriminating the Meloidogyne spp. present. Meloidogyne incognita is the most dominant RKN on cut foliage crops in Florida and must be a high target for


Journal of Nematology , ISSUE 3, 193–202

Research paper

Analysis of methionine synthase (rs1805087) gene polymorphism in autism patients in Northern Iran

this study was to analyze the association of MTR A2756G gene polymorphism (rs1805087) and the risk of autism in a population in northern Iran. The prevalence of MTR A2756G polymorphism was determined in 108 children with autism and 130 controls in northern Iran. Genotypes and allele frequencies were determined in patients and controls by polymerase chain reaction‑restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR‑RFLP). The prevalence of genotype frequencies of AA, AG and GG in autistic children were

Rosa Haghiri, Farhad Mashayekhi, Elham Bidabadi, Zivar Salehi

Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis , ISSUE 4, 318–323

Original Paper

Molecular Characterization of the cry Gene profile of Bacillus thuringiensis Isolated from a Caribbean Region of Colombia

In order to characterize native strains of Bacillus thuringiensis of the Colombian Caribbean with toxic effect against insect vectors, 28 samples of bacteria identified as B. thuringiensis were isolated from different soils and muds around the city of Valledupar. Using a biological test, five isolates of B. thuringiensis showed toxic effect against larvae of Aedes aegypti. PCR methods were used to detect cry1, cry2, cry4B, cry10 and cyt1 genes. Cry1 and cry2 genes were detected in 35.7% and

Pedro Fragoso, Alicia Armijo, Doris Gómez, Claudio Gómez, Marco Bugueño, Gittith Sánchez, Juan Venegas

Polish Journal of Microbiology , ISSUE 1, 19–26

Short Communication

Detection of Polioviruses in Sewage Using Cell Culture and Molecular Methods

The work presented here demonstrates the utility of a two-step algorithm for environmental poliovirus surveillance based on: preselection of sewage samples tested for the presence of enteroviral genetic material-RT-PCR assay and detection of infectious viruses by cell culture technique (L20B for polioviruses and RD for polio and other non-polio enteroviruses). RD and L20B cell lines were tested to determine their sensitivity for isolation of viruses from environmental samples (sewage). Finally

Agnieszka Figas, Magdalena Wieczorek, Bogumiła Litwińska, Włodzimierz Gut

Polish Journal of Microbiology , ISSUE 4, 479–483

Research Article

High Mitochondrial Genome Diversity and Intricate Population Structure of Bursaphelenchus xylophilus in Kyushu, Japan

Mitogenomic diversity and genetic population structure of the pinewood nematode (PWN) Bursaphelenchus xylophilus inhabiting Kyushu, Japan were analyzed. A method for performing long PCR using single nematodes and sequencing nematode mitochondrial genomes individually is presented here. About 8 kb (∼55%) of the complete mitochondrial genome was successfully obtained from 285 individuals collected from 12 populations. The 158 single nucleotide polymorphisms detected corresponded to 30 haplotypes

Hanyong Zhang, Erika Okii, Eiji Gotoh, Susumu Shiraishi

Journal of Nematology , ISSUE 3, 281–302

Original Paper

Comparison of Microbial Communities Associated with Halophyte (Salsola stocksii) and Non-Halophyte (Triticum aestivum) Using Culture-Independent Approache

, root and shoot samples was isolated with the help of FastDNA spin kit. Through PCR, the 16S rRNA gene from four different Salsola plants and wheat plants was amplified and cloned in InsTAclone PCR cloning kit. Metagenomic analyses from rhizosphere, endosphere and phyllosphere of Salsola showed that approximately 29% bacteria were uncultured and unclassified. Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria were the most abundant phyla in Salsola and wheat. How­ever, Firmicutes, Acidobacteria, Bacteriodetes

Salma Mukhtar, Ayesha Ishaq, Sara Hassan, Samina Mehnaz, Muhammad S. Mirza, Kauser A. Malik

Polish Journal of Microbiology , ISSUE 3, 353–364

Original Paper

The Very Low Frequency of Epstein-Barr JC and BK Viruses DNA in Colorectal Cancer Tissues in Shiraz, Southwest Iran

extracted, then qualified samples introduced to polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The EBV, JCV and BKV genome sequences were detected using specific primers by 3 different in-house PCR assays. Out of 210 subjects, 98 cases were female and the rest were male. The mean age of the participants was 52 ± 1.64 years. EBV and JCV DNA was detected just in one (1.42%) out of seventy adenocarcinoma colorectal tissues. All adenomatous polyp and normal colorectal tissues were negative for EBV and JCV DNA sequences

Jamal Sarvari, Shahab Mahmoudvand, Neda Pirbonyeh, Akbar Safaei, Seyed Younes Hosseini

Polish Journal of Microbiology , ISSUE 1, 73–79

Short Communication

Development and Evaluation of a Latex Agglutination Test for the Identification of Francisella tularensis Subspecies Pathogenic for Human

Francisella tularensis are highly infectious bacteria causing a zoonotic disease called tularemia. Identification of this bacterium is based on antigen detection or PCR. The paper presents a latex agglutination test (LAT) for rapid identification of clinically relevant F. tularensis subspecies. The test can be performed within three minutes with live or inactivated bacteria. The possibility to test the inactivated samples reduces the risk of laboratory acquired infection and allows performing


Polish Journal of Microbiology , ISSUE 2, 241–244

Original Paper

Natural Attenuation Potential of Polychlorinated Biphenyl-Polluted Marine Sediments

petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs). Then we adopted both culture-dependent and culture-independent (PCR-DGGE) approaches to identify bacterial inhabitants of the polluted marine sediments from Shuwaikh harbor. The chemical analysis revealed spatial variation among the sampling stations in terms of total amount of PCBs, TPHs and the PCB congener fingerprints. Moreover, in all analyzed sediments, the medium-chlorine PCB congeners were more abundant than the low-chlorine and high-chlorine counterparts. PCR-DGGE

Sarah Aldhafiri, Huda Mahmoud, Mohammed Al-Sarawi, Wael A. Ismail

Polish Journal of Microbiology , ISSUE 1, 37–48

Original Paper

Characterization of a Highly Enriched Microbial Consortium Reductively Dechlorinating 2,3-Dichlorophenol and 2,4,6-Trichlorophenol and the Corresponding cprA Genes from River Sediment

acceptors. When acetate, formate, or pyru­vate were used as electron donors, dechlorination activity was lost. Only lactate can replace dihydrogen as an electron donor. However, the dechlorination potential was decreased after successive transfers. To reveal chlororespiring species, the microbial community structure of chlorophenol-reductive dechlorinating enrichment cultures was analyzed by PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of 16S rRNA gene fragments. Eight dominant bacteria were

Wael S. El-Sayed

Polish Journal of Microbiology , ISSUE 3, 341–352

Short Communication

Analyses of Plasmids Harbouring Quinolone Resistance Determinants in Enterobacteriaceae Members

The aim of this study was to explore the plasmid characteristics of eight clinical Enterobacteriaceae strains containing extended broad spec­trum beta-lactamases and plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance. Plasmids were transferred by conjugation or transformation and resist­ance determinants were investigated by PCR. We showed that at least one plasmid harbouring qnrB or qnrS determinant was transferred by conjugation in five isolates. QepA determinant was confirmed to be on a non

Bayri Erac, Fethiye Ferda Yilmaz, Ismail Ozturk, Sabire Sohret Aydemir, Mine Hosgor-Limoncu

Polish Journal of Microbiology , ISSUE 4, 529–532

Original Paper

Bacterial Communities from the Arsenic Mine in Złoty Stok, Sudety Mountains, Poland

Investigations of bacterial communities and characterization of mineralogy of the environment in the Złoty Stok As-Au deposit werecarried out. PXRD analysis revealed the presence of picropharmacolite as the most common secondary arsenic mineral in the mine. Total DNA was extracted from slime streams or slime biofilms samples to investigate the bacterial communities. PCR amplification of 16S rDNA was performed followed by subcloning of its products. Over 170 clones were analyzed by means of RFLP

Tomasz Cłapa, Dorota Narożna, Rafał Siuda, Andrzej Borkowski, Marek Selwet, Cezary J. Mądrzak, Ewa Koźlecka

Polish Journal of Microbiology , ISSUE 3, 375–381

Original Paper

Characterization of Rhizobial Bacteria Nodulating Astragalus corrugatus and Hippocrepis areolata in Tunisian Arid Soils

Fifty seven bacterial isolates from root nodules of two spontaneous legumes (Astragalus corrugatus and Hippocrepis areolata) growing in the arid areas of Tunisia were characterized by phenotypic features, 16S rDNA PCR-RFLP and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Phenotypically, our results indicate that A. corrugatus and H. areolata isolates showed heterogenic responses to the different phenotypic features. All isolates were acid producers, fast growers and all of them used different compounds as sole

Mosbah Mahdhi, Nadia Houidheg, Neji Mahmoudi, Abdelhakim Msaadek, Mokhtar Rejili, Mohamed Mars

Polish Journal of Microbiology , ISSUE 3, 331–339

Research Article

First report of Pratylenchus vulnus associated with apple in Tunisia

. Microscopic observation of females and males demonstrated the occurrence of Pratylenchusd vulnus on apple trees. The ribosomal DNA D2-D3 expansion segments of the 28S rRNA and of the Pratylenchus populations were PCR amplified and sequenced. The sequences were compared with those of Pratylenchus species in the GenBank database with high similarity (99%). This comparison reconfirmed the morphological identifications. Phylogenetic studies placed those populations with P. vulnus. This is the first report of

Noura Chihani-Hammas, Lobna Hajji-Hedfi, Hajer Regaieg, Asma Larayedh, Ahmed Badiss, Yu Qing, Horrigue-Raouani Najet

Journal of Nematology , ISSUE 4, 579–586

Original Paper

Expression of the Fluoroquinolones Efflux Pump Genes acrA and mdfA in Urinary Escherichia coli Isolates

Escherichia coli is one of the most frequent causes of urinary tract infections. Efflux system overexpression is reported to contribute to E. coli resistance to several antibiotics. Our aim in this study was to investigate the relation between antibiotic resistance and the expres­sion of the efflux pump genes acrA and mdfA in E. coli by real-time reverse transcription-PCR. We tested the in vitro susceptibilities to 12 antibiotics in 28 clinical isolates of E. coli obtained from urine

Sarah M. Abdelhamid, Rania R. Abozahra

Polish Journal of Microbiology , ISSUE 1, 25–30

Original Paper

The Prevalence of Exoenzyme S Gene in Multidrug-Sensitive and Multidrug-Resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa Clinical Strains

to evaluate, using PCR, the occurrence of exoenzyme S-coding gene (exoS) in two distinct groups of P. aeruginosa strains: 83 multidrug-sensitive (MDS) and 65 multidrug-resistant (MDR) isolates. ExoS gene was noted in 72 (48.7%) of the examined strains: 44 (53.0%) MDS and 28 (43.1%) MDR. The observed differ­ences were not statistically significant (p = 0.1505). P. aeruginosa strains virulence is rather determined by the expression regulation of the possessed genes than the difference in genes

Tomasz Bogiel, Aleksander Deptuła, Joanna Kwiecińska-Piróg, Małgorzata Prażyńska, Agnieszka Mikucka, Eugenia Gospodarek-Komkowska

Polish Journal of Microbiology , ISSUE 4, 427–431

Original Paper

Carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii from Air and Patients of Intensive Care Units

isolates. Resistance and resistance genes were detected by drug susceptibility test and PCR. The results demonstrated that all isolates can be classified into eight PFGE types and four sequence types (ST208, ST195, ST369 and ST530). A pair of isolates from patients (TAaba004) and from the air (TAaba012) that share 100% similarity in PFGE was identified, indicating that air might be a potential and important transmission route for A. baumannii. More than 80% of the isolates were resistant to carbapenems


Polish Journal of Microbiology , ISSUE 3, 333–338

Original Paper

Culturable Endophytes Diversity Isolated from Paeonia ostii and the Genetic Basis for Their Bioactivity

were classed into six families and 12 genera based on ITS gene sequence. The biosynthetic potential of all the endophytes was further investigated by the detection of putative polyketide synthase (PKS) and nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) genes. The PCR screens were successful in targeting thirteen bacterial PKS, five bacterial NRPS, ten fungal PKS and nine fungal NRPS gene fragments. Bioinformatic analysis of these detected endophyte gene fragments facilitated inference of the potential


Polish Journal of Microbiology , ISSUE 4, 441–454


Antibiotic Susceptibility of Cronobacter spp. Isolated from Clinical Samples

genes (encoding TEM, SHV, and CTX-M types of β-lactamases) was performed by PCR in all Cronobacter spp. isolates examined. As positive controls, the following strains were used: Escherichia coli NCTC 13400 (blaCTX-M-15), E. coli NCTC 13351(blaTEM-3) and Klebsiella pneumoniae NCTC 13368 (blaSHV-18). Total bacterial DNA was isolated from an overnight culture of the isolates (16 h, 37°C) grown on meatpeptone agar. Two colonies were suspended in 100 μl of water and heated at 95°C for 10 min. After


Polish Journal of Microbiology , 1–10

Research Article

First Reports, Morphological, and Molecular Characterization of Longidorus caespiticola and Longidorus poessneckensis (Nematoda: Longidoridae) from Ukraine

processed to glycerol and mounted on permanent slides and subsequently identified morphologically and molecularly. Nematode DNA was extracted from single individuals and PCR assays were conducted as previously described for D2–D3 expansion segments of 28S rRNA. Sequence alignments for D2–D3 from L. caespiticola showed 97%–99% similarity to other sequences of L. caespiticola deposited in GenBank from Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Russia, Slovenia, and Scotland. Similarly, D2–D3 sequence alignments


Journal of Nematology , ISSUE 4, 396–402

Original Paper

Gas Gangrene of Different Origin Associated with Clostridium perfringens Type A in Three Patients Simultaneously Hospitalized in a Single Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology in Poland

April 2015 and 20th April 2015. The three C. perfrin­gens isolates studied had identical biochemical profiles. Two isolates had identical resistance patterns, while the third presented a different profile. Using the multiplex PCR method, all isolates showed the presence of cpa gene encoding α-toxin; furthermore, the presence of the cpb2 gene encoding β2-toxin was confirmed in two isolates. Genotyping with the use of pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) indicated that the isolates

Monika Brzychczy-Włoch, Dorota Ochońska, Anna Piotrowska, Małgorzata Bulanda

Polish Journal of Microbiology , ISSUE 4, 399–406

Original Paper

Molecular Study of Indigenous Bacterial Community Composition on Exposure to Soil Arsenic Concentration Gradient

Community structure of bacteria present in arsenic contaminated agricultural soil was studied with qPCR (quantitative PCR) and DGGE (Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis) as an indicator of extreme stresses. Copy number of six common bacterial taxa (Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, α-, β- and γ-Proteobacteria, Firmicutes) was calculated using group specific primers of 16S rDNA. It revealed that soilcontaminated with low concentration of arsenic was dominated by both

Semanti Basu, Tanima Paul, Priya Yadav, Abhijit Debnath, Keka Sarkar

Polish Journal of Microbiology , ISSUE 2, 209–221

Original Paper

Emergence of High-level Gentamicin Resistance among Enterococci Clinical Isolates from Burn Patients in South-west of Iran: Vancomycin Still Working

concentration (MIC) was evaluated by agar microdilution. Vancomycin and gentamicin resistance associated genes including vanA, vanB, vanC, aac (6’)-Ie aph(2’’), aph(3’)-IIIa and ant(4’)-Ia were detected by PCR and their statistical relation with antibiotic resistance was evaluated. E. faecalis was the more prevalent strain among our local isolates and showed a higher antibiotic resistance in comparison to E. faecium. Vancomycin had a good antibacterial effect on the


Polish Journal of Microbiology , ISSUE 4, 401–406

Research paper

Aberrant changes of somatostatin and neuropeptide Y in brain of a genetic rat model for epilepsy: tremor rat

(TRM)is a genetic epileptic animal model which can manifest tonic convulsions without any external stimuli. The present study aimed to investigate the distribution and expression of SST and NPY in TRM brains, including hippocampus, temporal lobe cortex and cerebellum.Our RT‑PCR data showed that up‑regulated mRNA expression of SST and NPY was discovered in TRM hippocampus and temporal lobe cortex compared with control (Wistar) rats. The peptide levels of these neuropeptides in brain areas mentioned

Xiaoxue Xu, Feng Guo, Xinze Cai, Jun Yang, Jiuhan Zhao, Dongyu Min, Qianhui Wang, Liying Hao, Jiqun Cai

Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis , ISSUE 3, 165–175

Original Paper

Streptococcus anginosus (milleri) Group Strains Isolated in Poland (1996–2012) and their Antibiotic Resistance Patterns

diffusion tests and E-Tests. We also performed PCR detection of resistance determinants in antibiotic resistant strains. Clonal structure of analyzed strains was evaluated with PFGE and MLVF methods. All three species are difficult to distinguish using automated diagnostic methods and the same is true for automated MIC evaluation. Our analysis revealed SAG strains are rarely isolated in Poland, predominantly from purulent infections. All isolates are very diverse on the genomic level as estimated by

Katarzyna Obszańska, Izabella Kern-Zdanowicz, Aleksandra Kozińska, Katarzyna Machura, Elżbieta Stefaniuk, Waleria Hryniewicz, Izabela Sitkiewicz

Polish Journal of Microbiology , ISSUE 1, 33–41

Original Paper

Non-invasive Diagnostic of Helicobacter pylori in Stools by Nested-qPCR

The aim of this study was to develop a non-invasive diagnostic test for the detection of Helicobacter pylori in stool samples from digestive symptomatic patients, using a new protocol of nested-qPCR. A total of 143 patients were invited to participate in the study. A gastric biopsy of each patient was collected for Rapid Urease Testing (RUT) and histology by Giemsa stain. A fecal sample for nested-qPCR analysis was also obtained. DNA was extracted from the fecal samples, and conventional PCR

María I. Taborda, Gisela Aquea, Yenny Nilo, Karla Salvatierra, Nicolás López, Sergio López, Gustavo Bresky, Juan A. Madariaga, Vittorio Zaffiri, Sergio Häberle, Giuliano Bernal

Polish Journal of Microbiology , ISSUE 1, 11–18

Original Paper

Evaluation of Modified Hodge Test as a Non-molecular Assay for Accurate Detection of KPC-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae

the capacity of MHT with two carbapenem disks for accurate detection of KPC. MHT was performed according to guidelines of CLSI to identify isolates with carbapenem resistance. In doing so, two substrates of MHT were assigned into two groups for examination: meropenem and ertapenem groups. A total of 96 non-repetitive clinical isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae were tested. The presence of the blaKPC gene in each MHT-positive isolate was examined by PCR. A total of 54 isolates exhibited reduced


Polish Journal of Microbiology , ISSUE 3, 291–295

Original Paper

Epilithic Biofilms in Lake Baikal: Screening and Diversity of PKS and NRPS Genes in the Genomes of Heterotrophic Bacteria

synthetases) genes. PKS genes were detected in 41 strains (25%) and NRPS genes in 73 (43%) strains by PCR analysis. The occurrence of PKS genes in members of the phylum Firmicutes (the genera Bacillus and Paenibacillus) was 34% and NRPS genes were found in 78%. In Proteobacteria, PKS and NRPS genes were found in 20% and 32%, and in 22% and 22% of Actinobacteria, respectively. For further analysis of PKS and NRPS genes, six Bacillus and Paenibacillus strains with antagonistic activity were selected and


Polish Journal of Microbiology , ISSUE 4, 501–516

Original Paper

The Heavy-Metal Resistance Determinant of Newly Isolated Bacterium from a Nickel-Contaminated Soil in Southwest Slovakia

. Finally, the results from RT-PCR analysis showed that MR-CH-I2-nccA gene was significantly induced only by the addition of nickel.


Polish Journal of Microbiology , ISSUE 2, 191–201

Original Paper

Molecular Characterization of Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli Strains Isolated in Poland

distribution of various virulence determinants among STEC strains isolated in Poland from different sources. A total of 71 Shiga toxin-producing E. coli strains isolated from human, cattle and food over the years 1996–2010 were characterized by microarray and PCR detection of virulence genes. As stx1a subtype was present in all of the tested Shiga toxin 1 producing E. coli strains, a greater diversity of subtypes was found in the gene stx2, which occurred in five subtypes: stx2a, stx2b, stx2c, stx2d

Aleksandra Januszkiewicz, Waldemar Rastawicki

Polish Journal of Microbiology , ISSUE 3, 261–269

Original Paper

Genetic Characterization of a Novel Composite Transposon Carrying armA and aac(6)-Ib Genes in an Escherichia coli Isolate from Egypt

the frequency of 16S-RMTase among third generation cephalosporin-resistant clinical isolates in Egypt. One hundred and twenty three cephalosporin resistant Gram-negative clinical isolates were screened for aminoglycosides resistance by the Kirby Bauer disk diffusion method and tested for possible production of 16S-RMTase. PCR testing and sequencing were used to confirm the presence of 16S-RMTase and the associated antimicrobial resist­ance determinants, as well as the genetic region

Mona T. Kashef, Omneya M. Helmy

Polish Journal of Microbiology , ISSUE 2, 163–169


First Report of the Spiral Nematode Rotylenchus incultus (Nematoda: Hoplolaimidae) from Cultivated Olive in Tunisia, with Additional Molecular Data on Rotylenchus eximius

shovel from the upper 50 cm of soil from arbitrarily chosen olive trees. Nematodes were extracted from 500 cm3 of soil by centrifugal flotation method (Coolen, 1979). Specimens were heat killed by adding hot 4% formaldehyde solution and processed to pure glycerin using the De Grisse’s (1969) method. Measurements were done using a drawing tube attached to a Zeiss III compound microscope. Nematode DNA was extracted from single individuals and PCR assays were conducted as described by Castillo et


Journal of Nematology , ISSUE 3, 136–138

Research paper

BDNF expression in cat striate cortex is regulated by binocular pattern deprivation

months (2BD, 4BD, 6BD), and late onset BD for 2 months upon 2 months of normal vision (2N2BD), as animal models of congenital and delayed onset cataract. During normal cortical development the BDNF transcript levels, measured by quantitative RT-PCR, remained stable. Higher BDNF mRNA levels were found in central area 17 of 2BD and 6BD animals compared to age-matched controls. In central area 17, the high BDNF mRNA levels at the end of the BD period may activate a mechanism by which plastic processes

Karolina Laskowska-Macios, Lutgarde Arckens, Małgorzata Kossut, Kalina Burnat

Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis , ISSUE 3, 199–204


In Vitro and In Vivo Activity of Zabofloxacin and Other Fluoroquinolones Against MRSA Isolates from A University Hospital in Egypt

by culturing the bacteria on Muller-Hinton agar (Oxoid) at 37°C for 18 h following serial dilution. The anti bio tic was considered as bactericidal at a concentration, which decreased the control count by 3 log CFU/ml (99.9%) at specified time intervals. The procedure was performed in triplicates and a graph of the log CFU/ml was then plotted against time with calculation of standard deviation. Quinolone resistance-determining region (QRDR) sequence analysis. PCR was used to amplify the QRDRs of


Polish Journal of Microbiology , 1–11

Research Article

First Report of Stubby-Root Nematode, Paratrichodorus minor, on Onion in Georgia, U.S.A

of females (n = 20) included: body length 671.1 (570.1–785.3) µm; body width 32.5 (27.8–37.0) µm; onchiostyle 32.5 (31.1–34.8) µm; anterior end to esophagus-intestinal valve 117.6 (101.2–128.5) µm; a 21.5 (15.3–28.1) µm; b 5.2 (4.9–6.3) µm; V 52.9% (48.1–55.4%) µm; and vagina length 8.7 (7.8–10.7) µm. To confirm the identity of P. minor, DNA was extracted from single females (n = 3) using Extract-N-Amp™ Tissue PCR Kit (Sigma-Alredich Inc., St. Louis, MO). The partial 18S rRNA, the D2-D3 expansion

Abolfazl Hajihassani, Negin Hamidi, Bhabesh Dutta, Chris Tyson

Journal of Nematology , ISSUE 3, 453–455

Original Paper

Trends of Bloodstream Infections in a University Greek Hospital during a Three-Year Period: Incidence of Multidrug-Resistant Bacteria and Seasonality in Gram-negative Predominance

. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed by the disk diffusion method and E-test. Resistance genes (mecA in staphylococci; vanA/vanB/vanC in enterococci; blaKPC/blaVIM/blaNDM in Klebsiella spp.) were detected by PCR. In total, 4607 (9.7%) blood cultures were positive from 47451 sets sent to Department of Microbiology, represent­ing 1732 BSIs. Gram-negative bacteria (52.3%) were the most commonly isolated, followed by Gram-positive (39.5%), fungi (6.6%) and anaerobes bacteria (1.8%). The

Fevronia Kolonitsiou, Matthaios Papadimitriou-Olivgeris, Anastasia Spiliopoulou, Vasiliki Stamouli, Vasileios Papakostas, Eleni Apostolopoulou, Christos Panagiotopoulos, Markos Marangos, Evangelos D. Anastassiou, Myrto Christofidou, Iris Spiliopoulou

Polish Journal of Microbiology , ISSUE 2, 171–180

Research Article

First Report of Cactodera estonica in Canada

consistent with those of C. estonica, for which the elongated cyst and short hyaline in J2 are characteristic for the species. Ribosomal DNA of the ITS, 18S, and D2/D3 of 28S regions were PCR amplified from cysts and J2s using primers 18S (5′-TTGATTACGTCCCTGCCCTTT-3′) and 26S (5′-TTTCACTCGCCGTTACTAAGG-3′) (Vrain et al., 1992), D2A (5′-ACAAGTACCGTGAGGGAAAGT-3′) (Nunn, 1992) and D3B (5′-GACCCGTCTTGAAACACGGA-3′) (De Ley et al., 1999), and sequenced. The sequences of the ITS and D2/D3 regions of 1,480 and


Journal of Nematology , ISSUE 4, 403–403


First Report of the Spiral Nematode Helicotylenchus microlobus Infecting Soybean in North Dakota

identified as Helicotylenchus microlobus according to morphological and morphometric characteristics (Subbotin et al., 2015). DNA was extracted from single nematodes (n = 8) using the Proteinase K method (Kumari and Subbotin, 2012). The internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of rDNA was amplified with the primers rDNA2/rDNA1.58S (Cherry et al., 1997). The PCR products were then purified and sequenced. The consensus ITS rDNA sequence (accession no. KY271078, 822 bp) that was


Journal of Nematology , ISSUE 1, 1–1

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