, which determine their pathogenic nature and allow survival in extreme conditions. Comparison of the antibiotic resistance genes found in the microorganisms living in humans and animals indicates that many of them are identical and only few are present exclusively in bacteria that live in humans or certain species of animals . In recent decades, the number of companion animals, i. e. dogs, cats or horses, has increased significantly. The social function of these animals has also changed and they
Postępy Mikrobiologii - Advancements of Microbiology , ISSUE 3, 259–270
Anaerobic Bacteroides species are dominant microbiota of the digestive tract of mammals. Along with other symbiotic bacteria located in the gastrointestinal tract, they contribute to the proper functioning of the organism. Some Bacteroides species are highly pathogenic. Virulence of these bacteria is related to their polysaccharide capsule, lipopolysaccharide and a variety of enzymes and enterotoxin. In recent years, an increase of antibiotic resistance in Bacteroides spp. has been noted
Postępy Mikrobiologii - Advancements of Microbiology , ISSUE 1, 67–76
This work aims to provide an insight into staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec elements and antibiotic resistance in clinical isolates of Staphylococcus epidermidis. The dominating type was SCCmec – IV. Fifteen isolates were assigned to SCCmec type III, two isolates to SCCmec type II. Most isolates were resistant to at least three of the non-β-lactam antibiotics tested. None of the strains exhibited resistance to new generation antibiotics, such as daptomycin and linezolid. Also
Polish Journal of Microbiology , ISSUE 2, 215–217
The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of current knowledge about the mechanism of antibiotic resistance in bacteria on the example of the Pseudomonas species, antimicrobial activity as well as EOs mode of action and their constituents.
The characteristics of Pseudomonas genus
The genus Pseudomonas was first described by Migula in 1894 in just two concise sentences: “Cells with polar organs of motility. Formation of spores occurs in some species, but it is rare” [61
Postępy Mikrobiologii - Advancements of Microbiology , ISSUE 2, 177–190
of the lower UTI) (Terlizzi et al. 2017) (Fig. 1). The presence of numerous UPEC cells in the urine (≥ 105 CFU/ml) without the clinical symptoms is called asymptomatic bacteriuria (ABU) and in healthy non-pregnant women is not treated in 20–80% of cases (Schneeberger et al. 2014).
Classification of urinary tract infections (Bartoletti et al. 2016).
The increase of antibiotic resistance and appearance of multi-drug resistant (MDR) pathogens in the course of UTI is related to high rates
Polish Journal of Microbiology , ISSUE 4, 403–415
have investigated the antibacterial properties of two phytochemicals; carvacrol (the active ingredient of oregano) and oregano using wild-type E. coli strain of poultry origin as a starter strain, which to our knowledge, this has not been done before. This initial in vitro study aimed at increasing our understanding of the mechanism of action of these phytochemicals to control APEC strain (the causative agent of colibacillosis disease in poultry) with multiple antibiotic-resistance, which will
AFNAN A. AL-MNASER,
MARTIN J. WOODWARD
Polish Journal of Microbiology , ISSUE 1, 121–125
To understand the molecular epidemiology and antibiotic resistance of air and clinical isolates of Acinetobacter baumannii, the intensive care unit settings of a hospital in Northern China were surveyed in 2014. Twenty non-duplicate A. baumannii isolates were obtained from patients and five isolates of airborne A. baumannii were obtained from the wards’ corridors. Pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) were used to analyze the homology relationships of
Polish Journal of Microbiology , ISSUE 3, 333–338
. Multiple enterocin structural genes were found in 7 strains. None of the tested enterococci demonstrated anyβ-haemolytic activity and only one strain had gelatinase activity. Six strains showed multiple antibiotic resistance patterns and in addition, vanA and several virulence genes were detected in many strains. Only E. faecalis MBE1-9 showed tyrosine decarboxylase activity and tdc gene was detected only in this strain.
Banu Özden Tuncer
Polish Journal of Microbiology , ISSUE 2, 223–233
microbiology laboratory as less virulent “viridans streptococci”. Epidemiological situation regarding SAG infections in Poland has been unrecognized, therefore we performed a retrospective analysis of strains isolated between 1996 and 2012. Strains suspected of belonging to SAG were re-identified using an automated biochemical approach (Vitek2) and MALDI-TOF MS. We performed first analysis of antibiotic resistance among SAG strains isolated in Poland using automated methods (Vitek2), disk
Polish Journal of Microbiology , ISSUE 1, 33–41
Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium are among the main agents associated with nosocomial infections with high mortality in immunocompromised patients. Antibiotic resistance, especially against gentamicin and vancomycin among Enterococci, is a risk factor that could increase the morbidity and mortality rate. 179 Enterococci isolates from burn patients were included in this study. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was done using the disk diffusion test and minimum inhibitory
GHOLAM ABBAS KAYDANI,
Polish Journal of Microbiology , ISSUE 4, 401–406
Postępy Mikrobiologii - Advancements of Microbiology , ISSUE 2, 180–186
Escherichia coli is one of the most frequent causes of urinary tract infections. Efflux system overexpression is reported to contribute to E. coli resistance to several antibiotics. Our aim in this study was to investigate the relation between antibiotic resistance and the expression of the efflux pump genes acrA and mdfA in E. coli by real-time reverse transcription-PCR. We tested the in vitro susceptibilities to 12 antibiotics in 28 clinical isolates of E. coli obtained from urine
Sarah M. Abdelhamid,
Rania R. Abozahra
Polish Journal of Microbiology , ISSUE 1, 25–30
The aim of this study was to examine over time the changes in antibiotic resistance of different Cronobacter spp. strains and to determine the susceptibility of Cronobacter isolates from clinical samples to 17 types of antibiotics.
Materials and Methods
Bacterial strains and cultivation. The 52 isolates were collected during a survey of Cronobacter spp. carriage in patients of two hospitals over the 6-year period from May 2007 to August 2013. All strains were isolated from
Polish Journal of Microbiology , ISSUE 1, 5–14
scepticemia, skin, eye, wound and respiratory tract infections in humans. Several virulence and antibiotic resistance genes have been identified and isolated from this group, which if present in their mobile genetic elements, may be horizontally transferred to other naive environmental bacteria posing threat to the society. The extensive and indiscriminate use of antibiotics has given rise to many resistant varieties of bacteria. Multidrug resistance genes, such as NDM1, have been identified in this group
UTTARA DEY BHOWMICK,
Polish Journal of Microbiology , ISSUE 2, –
penicillin and, which is interesting, does not bind to carbapenems as strongly as IMP-1 or VIM-2, but still hydrolyses them in a similar amount [48, 91]. Moreover, in the bacilli of K. pneumoniae blaNDM genes are located mainly on the following plasmids, i.e. IncA/C, IncF, IncR, IncH, IncN, IncL/M or IncX .
It should be noted that among the NDM (+) strains, the presence of other determinants of antibiotic resistance has been established a number of times, among others resistance to aminoglycosides
Sylwia Joanna Chmielewska,
Postępy Mikrobiologii - Advancements of Microbiology , ISSUE 3, 271–289
AGNIESZKA EWA LAUDY
Polish Journal of Microbiology , ISSUE 2, 129–135
Postępy Mikrobiologii - Advancements of Microbiology , ISSUE 3, 244–250
characterized by high mortality and often the need of hospitalization. The disease most often manifests itself in the form of bacteremia, meningitis and encephalitis as well as perinatal infections. The way Listeria spreads in the body contributes to the identification of new types of the disease. Recent studies on the acquisition of pathogenicity traits, dose and development of antibiotic resistance as well as numerous reports on incidence of these bacteria and the epidemics they caused, have led to more
Postępy Mikrobiologii - Advancements of Microbiology , ISSUE 2, 106–116
Polish Journal of Microbiology , ISSUE 4, 439–448
graphically (Fig. S2).
Petrol removal efficiency. Petrol removal efficiency for all nine bacteria was measured. Maximum degra dation efficiency (69.5% ± 13.44) was observed for IUBP15, while isolate IUBP1 exhibited minimum petrol removal efficiency (41% ± 32.6) (Table SV).
Antibiotic resistance profile. All isolates tested were found sensitive to teicoplanin and linezolid and exhibited resistance to chloramphenicol and oxacillin. Zone of inhibition was recorded. Maximum zone of inhibition (37.5 mm ± 0.071
Polish Journal of Microbiology , ISSUE 2, 193–201
Antimicrobial resistance has been one of the biggest global current issues in medicine and public health. Overuse and imprudent use of antimicrobial agents are recognized as one of the leading causes of antibiotic resistance. The aim of this study was to analyze the attitudesof Polish physicians practicing at the community level towards antibiotics and antimicrobial resistance. The majority of physicians taking part in the survey believed that Polish people overuse antibiotics (98%). Most
Polish Journal of Microbiology , ISSUE 3, 309–319
provides useful information for prevention and helps clinicians prescribe the effective antibiotic therapy (Ventola 2015), as well as optimize the use of antibiotics, which has become one of the most important parts of drug resistance control (Lafaurie et al. 2012; Wang et al. 2018). In this study, the significant changes and trends in antibiotic resistance of clinically important pathogens isolated from a general hospital in Zhengzhou, Henan Province, China, from 2011 to 2016 were described to provide
Polish Journal of Microbiology , ISSUE 2, 225–232