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  • Immunohematology

 

Article | 14-October-2020

Screening for RBC antibodies— what should we expect from antibody detection RBCs

In the United States, the Food and Drug Administration mandates that red blood cells (RBCs) for antibody detection possess the following antigens: C, D, E, c, e, M, N, S, s, P1, Lea , Leb , K, k, Fya, Fyb, Jka, and Jkb. Although not required, it is generally agreed that homozygosity for C, D, E, c, e, Fya, and Jka is also preferable.There is no requirement for low-frequency antigens to be present.However, manufacturers of antibody detection RBCs receive requests for these RBCs to possess Cw

George Garratty

Immunohematology, Volume 18 , ISSUE 3, 71–77

Article | 14-October-2020

Selecting an acceptable and safe antibody detection test can present a dilemma

The Transfusion Service at Duke University Hospital has changed antibody detection methods from the use of albumin in indirect antiglobulin tests to low-ionic-strength solution (LISS), and from LISS to polyethylene glycol (PEG) in an effort to enhance the rapid detection of clinically significant antibodies. In 1996, staffing issues required the consideration of automation. Although previous studies indicated that the gel test was not as sensitive as PEG for detection of clinically significant

Martha Rae Combs, Steven J. Bredehoeft

Immunohematology, Volume 17 , ISSUE 3, 86–89

Article | 26-October-2020

A comparison of a new affinity column system with a conventional tube LISS-antiglobulin test for antibody detection

A recently introduced system for antibody detection (ReACT™) consists of affinity columns (AFC) that contain protein A and protein Gcoated agarose. We compared the ReACT™ system to a conventional tube low-ionic-strength saline antiglobulin test (LISS-AGT). We selected 100 LISS-AGT positive samples with clinically important and benign antibodies of varying strengths and 130 LISS-AGT negative samples to evaluate by the AFC method. AFC tests were positive with all 84 clinically

R. Sue Shirey, Joan S. Boyd, Christine Barrasso, Karen E. King, Paul M. Ness

Immunohematology, Volume 15 , ISSUE 2, 75–77

Article | 06-December-2020

Antibody detection errors due to acidic or unbuffered saline

Isotonic saline solutions, buffered with potassium phosphate or sodium phosphate salts, were evaluated in parallel with unbuffered saline to determine if they improved antibody detection by solid phase red cell adherence or hemagglutination methods. Saline buffered to a pH of 7.0 to 7.5, when used to suspend red cells or to wash sensitized red cells in preparation for the antiglobulin test, produced the best positive solid phase and hemagglutination results. The pH range of commercially

Susan Rolih, Ron Thomas, Fern Fisher, Joanne Talbot

Immunohematology, Volume 9 , ISSUE 1, 15–18

Article | 14-December-2020

Antibody detection using pooled sera and a solid phase system

The purpose of the study was to evaluate the feasibility of substituting the Immucor Capture™-R solid phase (SP) antibody detection system for our routine donor antibody screen. Our routine procedure (RP) used a 12-drop pool of six donor sera and one drop of pooled reagent red cells, with 37°C incubation and indirect antiglobulin test readings. The SP system was used according to the manufacturer’s directions except that one drop of the pooled sera (rather than an individual

Malcolm L. Beck, Jill T. Hardman, Alicia M. Briseño

Immunohematology, Volume 7 , ISSUE 3, 73–75

Article | 14-December-2020

The sensitivity of antibody detection testing using pooled versus unpooled reagent red cells

Because the sensitivity of antibody detection testing may be reduced when pooled reagent red blood cells (RBCs) are used, the American Association of Blood Banks (AABB) prohibits the use of pooled reagent RBCs when performing pretransfusion antibody detection testing. This restriction imposed upon the use of pooled reagent RBCs is based, at least in part, on the belief that pooled reagent RBCs are less likely to detect clinically significant antibodies than are sets of unpooled reagent RBCs

Ira A. Shulman, Roland Nakayama, Cintia Calderon

Immunohematology, Volume 7 , ISSUE 1, 16–19

Article | 14-October-2020

One thousand seventy antibodies detected only by a 2-stage papain test: wanted and unwanted positive reactions

Despite the wide use of the antibody detection test for unexpected antibodies, controversy still remains regarding the use of enzymetreated red blood cells. Over a 6-year period, 72,573 samples from 49,863 patients submitted for pretransfusion compatibility testing were examined for unexpected antibodies. The antibody detection tests included a low-ionic-strength solution (LISS) indirect antiglobulin test and a two-stage papain (2SP) test. One thousand and seventy of the 2267 (47%) antibodies

Carmen Martin-Vega, Dolores Castella, Joan Cid, Marta Panadés

Immunohematology, Volume 17 , ISSUE 4, 122–124

Article | 29-December-2020

Micropool procedure for routine donor antibody detection

no difference between the use of serum as opposed to plasma. Micropool methods offer a sensitive, easily mastered alternative to manual tube testing tech­niques for large batch donor antibody detection.

Denzil Smith

Immunohematology, Volume 4 , ISSUE 3, 53–58

Article | 16-October-2019

Low-ionic-strength saline solution–antiglobulin test (LISS-AGT)

The use of low-ionic-strength saline (LISS) solution as an enhancement for antibody screening and crossmatching was first described by Löw and Messeter in 1974. This method allowed for a reduced incubation time while maintaining adequate specificity and sensitivity of the antiglobulin test (AGT). Since then, the LISS-AGT tube method has been widely used in antibody detection and identification, as well as compatibility testing. As initially described, the method used red blood cells

LeeAnn Walker

Immunohematology, Volume 34 , ISSUE 2, 57–60

Article | 17-November-2020

A comparison oftwo solid phase systems for antibody detection

Two solid phase methods of antibody detection, Capture-R (CR) and Capture-R Ready-Screen (RS), were compared to determine their acceptability for use in prenatal antibody screening. Ninety-six serum samples, screened using a saline antiglobulin test, were coded and tested by CR and RS at two laboratory sites using a blinded study design. Thirty of the samples were free of antibody, and 66 samples contained antibody. Parallel testing was also performed in both laboratories on 648 prenatal

Gwen M. Haslam, Margaret Persaud, Yvette Fournier, Joanne Sajur, Janice Aulph, Nancy Heddle

Immunohematology, Volume 11 , ISSUE 1, 8–10

Article | 09-November-2020

The gel test: sensitivity and specificity for unexpected antibodies to blood group antigens

The recently FDA-licensed anti-IgG gel test for pretransfusion antibody detection requires crossover validation before implementation. Six hundred coded samples sent for routine pretransfusion tests were used to compare GEL (ID-MTS, Ortho Diagnostic Systems Inc., Raritan, NJ) with Löw and Messeter’s low-ionic-strength saline (LISS). There were 456 GEL–LISS–, 97 GEL+LISS+, 45 GEL–LISS+, and 2 GEL+LISS– tests. The 144 positive tests involved 157 antibodies; 67

W. John Judd, E. Ann Steiner, Pamela C. Knaf

Immunohematology, Volume 13 , ISSUE 4, 132–135

Article | 03-November-2020

Comparison of gel technology and red cell affinity column technology in antibody detection

Both column (gel) agglutination technology and red cell affinity column technology (ReACT™) have been approved by the Food and Drug Administration for antibody detection and identification. Parallel studies using these two methods were performed on 100 samples to evaluate their sensitivity, advantages, and disadvantages. Sixteen significant antibodies, anti-D(2), -C(1), -E(1), -c(1), -C,D(1), -K(4), -S(1), -Fya(3), -Jka(1), and -Jkb(1), were found during the study. MTS-Gel detected one

Sauvai I. Chanfong, Sherri Hill

Immunohematology, Volume 14 , ISSUE 4, 152–154

Article | 18-October-2020

Comparison of tube and gel techniques for antibody identification

There are several methods for antibody detection and each technique has advantages and limitations. We compared the performance of the tube (polyethylene glycol–indirect antiglobulin test [PEG-IAT]) and gel test technique for antibody identification. From January to May 1999, we performed antibody screening tests by gel and tube techniques on 10,123 random blood samples submitted to our reference laboratory. Six hundred and twentyeight (6.2%) reactive samples were tested for antibody

Marcia Cristina Zago Novaretti, Eduardo Jens Silveira, Edio da Costa Filho, Pedro Enrique Dorlhiac- Llacer, Dalton de Alencar Fischer Chamone

Immunohematology, Volume 16 , ISSUE 4, 138–141

Report | 14-March-2020

Comparison of gel test and conventional tube test for antibody detection and titration in D-negative pregnant women: study from a tertiary-care hospital in North India

for antibody detection and titration. The tube test detected 84 (12.8%) positive samples as compared with 93 (14.2%) by gel test, indicating the latter to be more sensitive (p < 0.01). The gel test picked up weakly reactive anti-D that the tube test missed. We did not use any enhancing media such as LISS in titration studies performed by either method in an effort to establish a correlation. However, much higher titers (one- to fivefold) were obtained by the gel test with no clear correlation

Manish K. Thakur, Neelam Marwaha, Praveen Kumar, Subhash C. Saha, Beenu Thakral, Ratti Ram Sharma, Karan Saluja, Hari Krishan Dhawan, Ashish Jain

Immunohematology, Volume 26 , ISSUE 4, 174–177

Report | 09-October-2019

Stability guidelines for dithiothreitol-treated red blood cell reagents used for antibody detection methods in patients treated with daratumumab

Daratumumab (DARA), a drug used to treat patients with multiple myeloma, causes interference in pre-transfusion testing. Samples from patients receiving DARA exhibit panreactivity in antibody detection and identification tests with red blood cells (RBCs). Many hospitals are sending these samples to reference laboratories. Dithiothreitol (DTT), a sulfhydryl chemical treatment of RBCs, negates this reactivity. This study investigated the stability of the antigens on DTT-treated RBCs to determine

Wendy L. Disbro

Immunohematology, Volume 33 , ISSUE 3, 105–109

Article | 16-February-2021

Addition of fresh serum to plasma to aid in enhancement of complement-dependent antibodies

–antibody–C1q complexes survive the washing step described in the method between the two stages.6 Another limitation is the need to follow current testing practices. Current requirements allow for use of either serum or plasma for antibody detection and identification. The use of specimens anticoagulated with EDTA is helpful in avoiding in vitro uptake of complement components by RBCs. However, it has been pointed out that the use of plasma would not be suitable for detecting some complement-activating

C. Grey

Immunohematology, Volume 35 , ISSUE 3, 102–104

Article | 16-February-2021

Acidification of plasma for detection of pH-dependent antibodies

checked with a pH meter or pH paper (litmus paper) and should be between 6.0 and 6.5. Summary/Conclusions Antibodies with M specificity often show dosage. In addition, they can be weak and look like nonspecific reactivity at the AHG phase, especially when immediate spin or room temperature testing is not part of routine antibody detection or identification. Anti-M is usually clinically insignificant if reactivity is confined to low temperatures and not present at 37°C or at the AHG phase. However

K.L. Bowman, B.C. Dunlap, L.M. Hawthorne, K.L. Billingsley

Immunohematology, Volume 35 , ISSUE 3, 116–118

Case report | 09-October-2019

Hemolytic transfusion reaction attributable to anti-Dia  

In situations when a patient's antibody detection test is negative, many institutions have moved from an indirect antiglobulin test (IAT) crossmatch to an electronic crossmatch system. Here we report a case of an acute hemolytic transfusion reaction attributable to anti-Dia in a patient with a negative antibody detection test. A 22-year-old female patient with a diagnosis of β thalassemia and sickle cell anemia commenced a routine exchange transfusion of 5 units of red blood cells

Arthur J. Joyce, Kelli M Quantock, Ray Banh, Yew-Wah Liew

Immunohematology, Volume 33 , ISSUE 1, 6–8

Report | 16-October-2019

Method-specific and unexplained reactivity in automated solid-phase testing and their association with specific antibodies

antibodies (Abs). In this study, nonspecific reactivity (NS) is defined as methodspecific panreactivity detected by solid-phase testing only, with no reactivity in other methods. Unexplained reactivity (UR) is defined as reactivity present and detectable in all test methods after all clinically significant antibodies were ruled out following a standard antibody identification algorithm using selected cell panels. This retrospective study evaluated antibody detection tests of patients at a single center

Mary E. Harach, Joy M. Gould, Rosemary P. Brown, Tricia Sander, Jay H. Herman

Immunohematology, Volume 34 , ISSUE 3, 93–97

Article | 16-October-2019

Separation of multiple antibodies by adsorption with allogeneic red blood cells

Principle Antibody detection and identification are processes that are commonly performed in the transfusion service before the transfusion of allogeneic red blood cells (RBCs). Antibody identification usually follows the discovery of a positive antibody detection test, or other factors such as ABO serum/cell discrepancy or incompatible crossmatch.1 Antibody identification is a necessary practice in blood banking to determine blood products that are suitable for transfusion to an individual

E.M. Ekema

Immunohematology, Volume 33 , ISSUE 4, 155–158

Article | 22-January-2021

Anti-Ata in a renal transplant candidate: a case report

/L) and decreased total bilirubin of 0.2 mg/mL (normal 0.3–1.9 mg/dL). These abnormal chemistry results were attributed to renal failure. In her pretransplant evaluation, testing for antibodies to class I and class II human leukocyte antigens (HLAs) was performed. The results showed large amounts of HLA antibodies present, with levels of 99 and 98 percent panel reactive antibodies for class I and class II, respectively. Antibody Detection Testing and Antibody Identification Blood type and

J. Gao, S. Wise, S.H. Tinsley, J.F. Shikle

Immunohematology, Volume 36 , ISSUE 3, 104–107

Review | 01-December-2019

Polyethylene glycol antiglobulin test  (PEG-AGT)

Larry Weldy

Immunohematology, Volume 30 , ISSUE 4, 158–160

Article | 16-October-2019

Cold autoadsorption

Cold-reactive autoantibodies can mask the presence of underlying clinically significant alloantibodies in a patient’s plasma or serum. These autoantibodies are problematic when performing laboratory procedures such as ABO typing, red blood cell (RBC) crossmatching, antibody detection testing, and antibody identification. To avert the masking of clinically significant alloantibodies in a patient’s plasma or serum, adsorption studies can be performed at 4°C using autologous RBCs

Ernest M. Ekema

Immunohematology, Volume 34 , ISSUE 4, 158–160

Article | 13-April-2020

Problems highlighted when using anticoagulated samples in the standard tube low ionic strength antiglobulin test

Amanda J Sweeney

Immunohematology, Volume 22 , ISSUE 2, 72–77

Review | 09-October-2019

How to recognize and resolve reagentdependent reactivity: a review

Reagent-dependent reactivity can be described as agglutination of red blood cells (RBCs) in serologic testing that is not related to the interaction of RBC antigens and antibodies that the test system is intended to detect. In other words, reagent-dependent reactivity results in false-positive agglutination reactions in serologic testing. These false-positive reactions can cause confusion in antigen typing and RBC antibody detection and identification procedures, and may result in delays in

Gavin C. Patch, Charles F. Hutchinson, Nancy A. Lang, Ghada Khalife

Immunohematology, Volume 32 , ISSUE 3, 96–99

Article | 03-November-2020

Implementation of gel column technology, including comparative testing of Ortho ID-MTS with standard polyethylene glycol tube tests

antibody enhancement. Tests were performed as described in the manufacturer’s guidelines and the current edition of the Technical Manual of the American Association of Blood Banks. Testing included antibody detection, antibody identification, direct antiglobulin tests (DATs), antigen phenotyping (K, Fya, Fyb, S, and s), and elution studies. These procedures were evaluated for sensitivity, specificity, and efficiency. Sixty-six samples that had been tested for antibody activity by PEG tube

Diane A. Derr, Stacy J. Dickerson, E.Ann Steiner

Immunohematology, Volume 14 , ISSUE 2, 72–74

Article | 16-February-2021

Saline–indirect antiglobulin test

designed for maximum antibody binding, since an increased amount of patient sample is required. Even so, saline-IAT remains a useful test in a laboratory’s antibody identification repertoire. Reagents/Supplies Reagents Supplies Antibody detection or identification RBCs 0.9 percent saline or PBS, pH 6.5–7.5 Antihuman globulin (polyspecific or anti-IgG) IgG-coated reagent RBCs Test tubes (10 × 75 or 12 × 75 mm) Pipettes Calibrated serofuge and/or cell washer Calibrated timer RBCs

J.R. Hamilton

Immunohematology, Volume 35 , ISSUE 4, 156–158

Review | 20-March-2020

Detection and identification of platelet antibodies and antigens in the clinical laboratory

As a result of the unique functional properties of platelets, morerobust methods were required for detection of antibodies raised against them. Immunofluorescence detection by flow cytometry, solid-phase red cell adherence, and antigen capture ELISAs are some of the current tests that have been developed to meet the challenges of platelet antibody detection and identification and antigen phenotyping. Recently developed protein liquid bead arrays are becoming the next-generation platelet

Brian R. Curtis, Janice G. McFarland

Immunohematology, Volume 25 , ISSUE 3, 125–135

Article | 15-February-2021

Serologic problems associated with administration of intravenous immune globulin (IVIg)

anemia.13,17 Thrombosis can also result from IVIg infusion, but this is quite rare compared with IVIg-associated hemolysis.18 In addition to adverse events, administration of IVIg can create challenges for the transfusion service including ABO discrepancies, positive direct antiglobulin tests (DATs), positive antibody detection tests, and incompatible crossmatches. Reverse ABO Grouping Because up to 4 g/kg of IVIg may be given to an individual with blood group A, B, or AB, these patients will often

D.R. Branch

Immunohematology, Volume 35 , ISSUE 1, 13–15

Article | 15-February-2021

Rh immune globulin: an interfering substance in compatibility testing

alloimmunization. However, the patient had received RhIG for immunoprophylaxis after transfusion of Rh-positive RBCs or transfusion of whole blood–derived platelets containing a relatively large content of donor’s Rh-positive RBCs. In the third scenario, an Rh-positive patient was treated with intravenous (IV) RhIG for ITP, the laboratory was not informed, and the laboratory reports a positive antibody detection test, with or without identification of anti-D and a positive direct antiglobulin test (DAT). The

T.S. Casina, S.G. Sandler, S.M. Autenrieth

Immunohematology, Volume 35 , ISSUE 2, 51–60

Article | 14-October-2020

Comparison of three low-ionic diluents for dilution and storage of reagent A1 and B cells for testing in gel technology

Currently, ABO serum grouping performed by gel technology employs a red cell diluent containing EDTA (MTS Diluent 2 Plus™) that does not permit extended storage of the red cell suspensions. A diluent currently used for suspension and long-term storage of reagent red cells for antibody detection and identification (Ortho 0.8% Red Cell Diluent™) was evaluated for use with A1 and B cells. Because this diluent does not contain EDTA, testing was limited to EDTA samples. As a comparison

E. Ann Steiner, LouAnn Dake

Immunohematology, Volume 17 , ISSUE 2, 53–56

Article | 15-April-2020

In search of the Holy Grail: comparison of antibody screening methods

Tony S. Casina

Immunohematology, Volume 22 , ISSUE 4, 196–202

Article | 14-October-2020

Evaluation of a new solid-phase immunoassay for alloantibody detection using bromelin-treated and untreated red blood cells

detected with enzyme-treated intact RBCs and untreated RBCs by M-MPHA. The slight increase in reactivity using M-MPHA was not seen using dried RBC stroma (M-MPHA-Dry). All donor-derived IgG alloantibodies, which were detected by either a conventional tube enzyme test or an indirect antiglobulin test, were detected by M-MPHA without using enzyme-treated RBCs. Both M-MPHA and M-MPHA-Dry can be used for antibody detection without using enzyme-treated RBCs and are also useful for antibody identification.

Toyohiro Tamai, Toshio Mazda

Immunohematology, Volume 17 , ISSUE 1, 17–21

Article | 21-April-2020

Acute hemolytic transfusion reaction secondary to anti-Fy3

was red. Her Hb dropped from 8.4 to 6.4 g/dL over 24 hours after the transfusion. Her total bilirubin rose to 4.0 mg/dL, with an LDH value of 1558 U/L and a haptoglobin of 10.9 mg/dL. Both the antibody detection test and the DAT were positive. An anti-Fy3 was identified in the serum and in the eluate. To the best of our knowledge,this is the first case of acute intravascular hemolysis due to anti-Fy3 in a patient without sickle cell disease.

Horatiu Olteanu, David Gerber, Kara Partridge, Ravindra Sarode

Immunohematology, Volume 21 , ISSUE 2, 48–52

Article | 03-November-2020

Comparison of affinity column technology and LISS tube tests

column technology and by LISS tube technique. Both methods detected antibodies directed at common RBC antigens, high-incidence and low-incidence RBC antigens, and warm-reacting autoantibodies. IgM antibodies were not detected by affinity column technology. Affinity column technology compares favorably with the LISS tube technique for IgG antibody detection and identification.

Kayla D. Champagne, Peggy Spruell, Jane Chen, Leslie Voll, Gloria Schlanser, Marilyn Moulds

Immunohematology, Volume 14 , ISSUE 4, 149–151

Article | 22-November-2020

Application of the Inverness Blood Grouping System for semiautomated ABO and D testing of patients' samples

We evaluated the performance of the Inverness Blood Grouping System (IBG Systems, Inc., Laytonsville, MD) for the ABO and D red cell grouping of patients' samples. The IBG System is a semiautomated microplate device for blood grouping and antibody detection. We tested 2,051 samples using the IBG System and by manual grouping techniques. In no instance did the IBG System give a final ABO interpretation different from the final manual technique. For three samples, the IBG System's ABO

Paul D. Mintz, Garth Anderson, Christine Barrasso, Elizabeth Sorenson

Immunohematology, Volume 10 , ISSUE 2, 60–63

Article | 26-October-2020

Naturally-occurring anti-Jka in infant twins

with ficin- or papain-treated RBCs. Monocyte monolayer assays using Jk(a+) RBCs sensitized by either twins' serum were nonreactive (0%). RBCs from both parents typed as Jk(a+b+). Both parents’ antibody detection test results by SPRCA assay were negative. The absence of a history of exposure to allogeneic RBCs or possible passive transfer of maternal or other alloantibody classifies these antibodies as naturally-occurring anti-Jka.

Dawn H. Rumsey, Sandra J. Nance, Mary Rubino, S. Gerald Sandler

Immunohematology, Volume 15 , ISSUE 4, 159–162

Article | 17-February-2021

Two Thai Burmese descendants with A4GALT*01N.21, p phenotype, and anti-PP1Pk

.3–5 ABO discrepancies caused by unexpected reactions, either hemolysis or agglutination in the reverse grouping, usually occurs. Moreover, panagglutination can be observed in antibody detection and identification testing, requiring further antigen typing to exclude the high-prevalence antigens and to confirm the antibody specificity. Currently, commercial anti-PP1Pk is unavailable for routine testing, so finding a way to solve serologic problems caused by this suspected antibody or a compatible

K. Intharanut, W. Sasikarn, W. Chusri, O. Nathalang

Immunohematology, Volume 36 , ISSUE 2, 64–68

Article | 10-April-2021

Group O blood donors in Iran: evaluation of isoagglutinin titers and immunoglobulin G subclasses

separated, aliquoted, and stored at –30°C until testing. A total of 358 plasma samples from both men and women donors with an age range of 18–68 years were tested. The samples were collected randomly within 11 months between November 2014 and October 2015. Preparation of A1 and B RBC Suspensions To prepare A1 and B RBCs for use in testing, 2 group A1, D– packed RBC units and 2 group B, D– packed RBC units were separately pooled. Testing of the pools confirmed their ABO group, a negative antibody

S. Arabi, M. Moghaddam, A.A. Pourfathollah, A. Aghaie, M. Mosaed

Immunohematology, Volume 37 , ISSUE 1, 5–12

Case report | 09-October-2019

Two cases of the variant RHD*DAU5 allele associated with maternal alloanti-D  

(HDFN) as D alloimmunization can occur with some D variants. Here, we describe two cases of the RHD*DAU5 allele associated with maternal alloanti-D in patients of African ancestry. Two obstetric patients were initially serologically classified as D+ with negative antibody detection tests on routine prenatal testing. Repeat testing at delivery identified anti-D in both patients with no history of RhIG administration or transfusion. DNA sequencing revealed that both patients possessed the RHD*DAU5

Jennifer A. Duncan, Susan Nahirniak, Rodrigo Onell, Gwen Clarke

Immunohematology, Volume 33 , ISSUE 2, 60–63

Case report | 16-October-2019

Management of pregnancy sensitized with anti-Inb with monocyte monolayer assay and maternal blood donation

medicine workup of a patient who presented for obstetrical care in the United States in the third trimester and had a rare antibody (anti-Inb). Prenatal antibody detection testing demonstrated maternal anti-Inb in a 28-year-old woman (gravida 4 para 1021). Ultrasound could not rule out fetal anemia. Monocyte monolayer assay was performed to assess for the clinical significance of the anti-Inb and revealed that the antibody may be capable of causing accelerated clearance of antigen-positive RBCs. A

Raj Shree, Kimberly K. Ma, Lay See Er, Meghan Delaney

Immunohematology, Volume 34 , ISSUE 1, 7–10

Review | 13-April-2020

Review:monoclonal reagents and detection of unusual or rare phenotypes or antibodies

another manufacturer to perform blood typing or antibody detection or identification testing. A number of factors contribute to differences in reactivity of reagents that are of the same specificity but are from more than one source. One factor is the use of different clones of the same specificity to manufacture blood bank reagents. Another is the effect of the various diluents used by different manufacturers to formulate reagents that contain the same clone(s). In addition,RBCs having unusual or

Marilyn K. Moulds

Immunohematology, Volume 22 , ISSUE 2, 52–63

Article | 10-April-2021

An automated approach to determine antibody endpoint titers for COVID-19 by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay

A.D. Ho, H. Verkerke, J.W. Allen, B.J. Saeedi, D. Boyer, J. Owens, S. Shin, M. Horwath, K. Patel, A. Paul, S.-C. Wu, S. Chonat, P. Zerra, C. Lough, J.D. Roback, A. Neish, C.D. Josephson, C.M. Arthur, S.R. Stowell

Immunohematology, Volume 37 , ISSUE 1, 33–43

Article | 14-October-2020

Detection of granulocyte antibodies by flow cytometry without the use of pure granulocyte isolates

Established methods used to detect serum antibodies to granulocytes require the isolation of granulocytes. Flow cytometric analysis of granulocytes with monoclonal antibodies eliminates the need for granulocyte isolation. The purpose of this study was to develop a method to evaluate reactions of antibodies to granulocytes without separating granulocytes from other leukocytes. Three screening cell samples for granulocyte antibody detection were prepared from whole-blood samples in which the red

Karen M. Kiekhaefer, Karen M. Cipolone, Jo L. Procter, Kazuhiko Matsuo, David F. Stroncek

Immunohematology, Volume 17 , ISSUE 3, 70–75

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