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Research Article

Familiality of Quantitative Autism Traits

Autistic traits exist along a continuum that extends into social functioning in the general population, and they aggregate in the family members of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Quantitative measures are therefore essential when investigating the patterns of familiality of these traits. Prior studies have suggested differential inheritance patterns of autistic traits that depend on the cognitive level of the child with ASD as well as the family type.Our goal was to examine the

Katja Jussila, Kristen Lyall, Sanna Kuusikko-Gauffin, Marja-Leena Mattila, Rachel Pollock-Wurman, Tuula Hurtig, Leena Joskitt, Risto Bloigu, Hanna Ebeling, Irma Moilanen, David Pauls

Scandinavian Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Psychology , ISSUE 2, 126–135

Research paper

Analysis of methionine synthase (rs1805087) gene polymorphism in autism patients in Northern Iran

Autism is characterized by impairment in reciprocal communication and speech, repetitive behaviors, and social communication. The genetic and environmental factors play roles in the pathogenesis of autism. It was recently shown that the genes involved in the folate/homocysteine pathway may be risk factors for autistic children. One of the genes that may be the risk factor for autism is Methionine synthase (MTR). MTR is responsible for the regeneration of methionine from homocysteine. The aim of

Rosa Haghiri, Farhad Mashayekhi, Elham Bidabadi, Zivar Salehi

Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis , ISSUE 4, 318–323

Research Article

How do Girls with Low Functioning Autism Compare to Boys with Autism and Typically Developing Girls with regard to Behavior, Cognition, and Psychopathology?

The female autism spectrum disorder (ASD) phenotype is currently underresearched. Girls with ASD may differ from boys with ASD, yet few studies have tested this hypothesis, particularly among low functioning individuals. This study compared girls and boys with predominantly low functioning ASD and typically developing girls during middle and late childhood across autism symptoms, cognition, sensory overresponsivity, and co-occurring psychopathology.Three mental-age–matched groups were compared

Camilla Nguyen, Angelica Ronald

Scandinavian Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Psychology , ISSUE 2, 55–65

Research paper

AUGMENTED REALITY GAME THERAPY FOR CHILDREN WITH AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDER

This paper presents progress on treating children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) using Augmented Reality based games. The aim of these games is to enhance social interaction and hand-eye coordination in children with ASD thus easing them into becoming more comfortable around unfamiliar people. Colour detection and tracking and motion tracking concepts in augmented reality have been used to develop games for young children with ASD. The idea is that these games will encourage concentration

S.K. Bhatt, N.I. De Leon, Adel Al-Jumaily

International Journal on Smart Sensing and Intelligent Systems , ISSUE 2, 519–536

Research Article

An exploration of the experience of parents with children with autism spectrum disorder after diagnosis and intervention

Delays and difficulties in both diagnosis and access to services can compound existing stressors experienced by families with children with autism spectrum disorder. Early and accurate diagnosis and appropriate intervention may not only improve child-specific outcomes but may also mitigate some of the stressors impacting family relationships and quality of life. We aimed to understand the experience of over 500 families that had sought autism spectrum disorder diagnosis and intervention, their

Ben Milbourn, Marita Falkmer, Melissa H. Black, Sonya Girdler, Torbjorn Falkmer, Chiara Horlin

Scandinavian Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Psychology , ISSUE 3, 104–110

Research Article

Long-term outcome of children with autism who received different forms of early intervention during their preschool years: a pilot study of 15 young adults

Background:Studies on early intervention have reported significant gains for many children with autism. Knowledge on how these children fare in adulthood is limited.Objective:To examine long-term outcome of children with autism who received different forms of early intervention.Method:Participants were 15 young people who had all been diagnosed with ICD-10 childhood autism during the preschool years. Five received intervention based on the UCLA model for early intensive behavioral intervention

Sigrídur Lóa Jónsdóttir, Birta Brynjarsdóttir, Evald Saemundsen, Jón Fridrik Sigurdsson

Scandinavian Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Psychology , ISSUE 1, 28–39

Review

Immune dysfunction and neuroinflammation in autism spectrum disorder

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a complex heterogeneous neurodevelopmental disorder with a complex pathogenesis. Many studies over the last four decades have recognized altered immune responses among individuals diagnosed with ASD. The purpose of this critical and comprehensive review is to examine the hypothesis that immune dysfunction is frequently present in those with ASD. It was found that often individuals diagnosed with ASD have alterations in immune cells such as T cells, B cells

Geir Bjørklund, Khaled Saad, Salvatore Chirumbolo, Janet K. Kern, David A. Geier, Mark R. Geier, Mauricio A. Urbina

Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis , ISSUE 4, 257–268

Review

Cerebral hypoperfusion in autism spectrum disorder

Cerebral hypoperfusion, or insufficient blood flow in the brain, occurs in many areas of the brain in patients diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Hypoperfusion was demonstrated in the brains of individuals with ASD when compared to normal healthy control brains either using positron emission tomography (PET) or single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). The affected areas include, but are not limited to the: prefrontal, frontal, temporal, occipital, and parietal cortices

Geir Bjørklund, Janet K. Kern, Mauricio A. Urbina, Khaled Saad, Amira A. El-Houfey, David A. Geier, Salvatore Chirumbolo, Mark R. Geier, Jyutika A. Mehta, Jan Aaseth

Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis , ISSUE 1, 21–29

research-paper

Autism spectrum disorder and mercury toxicity: use of genomic and epigenetic methods to solve the etiologic puzzle

INTRODUCTION Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is an increasingly prevalent neurodevelopmental condition of unknown etiology. Importantly, reported manifestations of low-level exposure to mercury, a highly neurotoxic heavy metal, are similar to those of ASD. In the past several years, evidence has accumulated linking the risk of toxic manifestations of low-level mercury exposure to particular genes, mutations, and epigenetic changes. The fields of genomics, genetics, and epigenetics are rapidly

Mark E. McCaulley

Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis , ISSUE 2, 113–125

Research Article

Emotion recognition from the eye region in children with and without Autism Spectrum Disorder in Arab and Scandinavian countries

Background:Difficulties in facial emotion recognition (ER) skills are linked to autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in studies performed in Western and Eastern Asian countries. However, there is a paucity of research examining ER skills in Arab countries, where face-covering veils are more common than in Western countries.Objective:Our aim was to examine basic ER and ER error patterns in Egyptian and Finnish children with and without ASD.Method:We employed the eye-submodule of the Frankfurt Test and

Sanna Kuusikko-Gauffin, Sherin Elsheikh, Sven Bölte, Manal Omar, Geylan Riad, Hanna Ebeling, Arja Rautio, Irma Moilanen

Scandinavian Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Psychology , ISSUE 4, 159–169

Research Article

Underidentification of Autism Spectrum Disorder in Females: A Case Series Illustrating the Unique Presentation of this Disorder in Young Women

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is diagnosed more often in males than females, with the male-to-female gender ratio reported to be around 4.3:1 to 5:1. It is possible that the underrecognition of ASD in females partially contributes to this uneven ratio. Recent attention has been placed on understanding the processes that give rise to this gender difference in ASD prevalence. Socialization may contribute to the unique presentation of ASD in females, which may underlie this condition’s subsequent

Andrea Trubanova, Katharine Donlon, Nicole L. Kreiser, Thomas H. Ollendick, Susan W. White

Scandinavian Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Psychology , ISSUE 2, 66–76

Research Article

Injury Patterns among Individuals Diagnosed with Infantile Autism during Childhood: A Case-Control Study

To date, injury risk among people with infantile autism (IA) has been a relatively poorly researched issue.The purpose of our study was to compare the prevalence and types of injuries in a clinical sample of 118 patients diagnosed with IA during childhood with those of 336 age- and sex-matched controls from the general population.All participants were screened through the nationwide Danish National Hospital Register. The average amount of time that the participants were observed was 30.3 years

Svend Erik Mouridsen, Bente Rich, Torben Isager

Scandinavian Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Psychology , ISSUE 2, 88–95

research-article

Transitivity Types Predict Communicative Abilities in Infants at Risk of Autism*

variation in social and communicative outcomes in humans, we explored human infants at risk for developing autism. Studying this population allowed the investigation of non-autistic infants (those who did not receive a diagnosis), infants with communicative delays (those diagnosed with language delays), and infants with social and communicative atypicalities (those diagnosed with autism). The interactions analyzed occurred in home settings, in which infant and caregiver were told to interact and play

Rebekka Schleier, Jana M. Iverson, Andrew P. King, Meredith J. West

Journal of Social Structure , ISSUE 3, 119–139

Research paper

Face processing in a case of high functioning autism with developmental prosopagnosia

The ability to “read” the information about facial identity, expressed emotions, and intentions is crucial for non-verbal social interaction. Neuroimaging and clinical studies consequently link face perception with fusiform gyrus (FG) and occipital face area (OFA) activity. Here we investigated face processing in an adult, patient PK, diagnosed with both high functioning autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and developmental prosopagnosia (DP). Both disorders have a significant impact on face

Hanna B. Cygan, Hanna Okuniewska, Katarzyna Jednoróg, Artur Marchewka, Marek Wypych, Anna Nowicka

Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis , ISSUE 2, 114–131

Research Article

Toward the Successful Employment of Adults with Autism: A First Analysis of Special Interests and Factors Deemed Important for Vocational Performance

Adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and with intelligence quotients in the normal range are disproportionately affected by unemployment.We sought to assess special interests that could bear potential for employment as well as factors deemed relevant for work performance in adults with ASD.A newly compiled self-report online questionnaire was administered to high-functioning adults with ASD to assess special interests as well as factors that both interfere with and facilitate work

Jennifer Christina Kirchner, Isabel Dziobek

Scandinavian Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Psychology , ISSUE 2, 77–85

research-article

Putative shared mechanisms in autism spectrum disorders and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, a systematic review of the role of oxidative stress

INTRODUCTION Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are a heterogeneous group of neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by impairments in communication and in reciprocal social interaction along with restrictive and repetitive behaviours (American Psychiatric Association, 2013). Questions regarding the etiopathological mechanism of this complex disorder remain unanswered (Lai et al., 2014; Happe et al., 2006; Antshel and Russo, 2019). Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a frequent

Filipa Sa-Carneiro, Conceição Calhau, Rui Coelho, Margarida Figueiredo-Braga

Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis , ISSUE 2, 129–138

Review

A Systematic Review of Social Communication and Interaction Interventions for Patients with Autism Spectrum Disorder

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is currently not curable, but it may be malleable to varying degrees in response to different interventions to improve outcomes.We conducted a systematic review of interventions aimed at ameliorating social communication impairments in patients with ASD. This study was registered in the International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (no. CRD42013003780).We focused on the ASD interventions that are frequently applied in Swedish clincial practice to

Tatja Hirvikoski, Ulf Jonsson, Linda Halldner, Aiko Lundequist, Elles de Schipper, Viviann Nordin, Sven Bölte

Scandinavian Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Psychology , ISSUE 3, 147–168

Research Article

Cross-Cultural Adaptation of the KONTAKT Social Skills Group Training Program for Children and Adolescents with high-functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder: A feasibility Study

Social skills group training is an intervention method that has demonstrated moderate evidence of improvement among children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). KONTAKT is a manualized social skills group training program that was developed in Germany and that has demonstrated preliminary evidence of positive effect. In this study, we describe its adaptation to Scandinavian settings.The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical feasibility of the Swedish version of KONTAKT

Nora Choque Olsson, Agneta Karlsson, Sofia Andersson, Annie Boström, Mari Ljungström, Sven Bölte

Scandinavian Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Psychology , ISSUE 2, 46–54

Article

Teaching Orientation and Mobility Skills to Students with Autism and Vision Impairment in Public Schools: A Data-Based Study

Two students with autism, vision impairment, and intellectual disability participated in an orientation and mobility (O&M) intervention to travel in school settings using their folding canes. A multiple-baseline across participants design to determine the effectiveness of the intervention was used. The dependent variable was time taken to travel the specified route. The independent variable was O&M training. Results indicated that both participants took less time to travel during the

Devender R. Banda, Ph.D., BCBA-D, Phoebe A. Okungu, Ph.D., Nora Griffin-Shirley, Ph.D., Melanie K. Meeks, Ph.D., Olaya Landa-Vialard, Ph.D.

International Journal of Orientation & Mobility , ISSUE 1, 34–43

Research Article

The Early Diagnosis of Preschool Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder in Norway: a Study of Diagnostic Age and Its Associated Factors

The early identification of autism spectrum disorder is important to ensure access to early intervention. Much research has focused on the identification of early behavioral symptoms and screening. This study examines referral for diagnostic assessment, diagnostic age, and factors associated with diagnostic age for children with autism spectrum disorder. The results of this study indicate that children are referred and diagnosed later than they should be. Previous research has identified a

Kenneth Larsen

Scandinavian Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Psychology , ISSUE 2, 136–145

Research Article

Recognition Memory for High and Low Associative Stimuli in Autistic Individuals with Outstanding Memory Skill

Individuals with autism exhibit typical recognition memory performance, but they show a reduced use of context and relational processing in more complex memory tasks. It is unclear whether the same is true for autistic individuals with exceptional memory skill for whom superior rote memory skill has been assumed.In this study, we investigated recognition memory for high and low associative stimuli in autistic memory experts. In accord with the rote memory notion, we expected an equal

Nicola Neumann, Christoph Braun, Anna M. Dubischar-Krivec, Sven Bölte

Scandinavian Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Psychology , ISSUE 2, 43–50

Research Article

How Prevalent Are Autistic Traits Among Children With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder? A Qualitative Review of the Literature

Twin, family, and linkage studies have indicated that attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) share a portion of their heritable etiology. This suggests that individuals with ADHD may manifest different forms of ASDs that may range from fully developed syndromic forms of the disorder to milder manifestations of ASD symptomatology, which will henceforth be referred to as autistic traits.The main purpose of this study was to conduct a literature search

Mai Uchida, Stephen V. Faraone, Gagan Joshi, Andrea Spencer, Tara Kenworthy, K. Yvonne Woodworth, Joseph Biederman

Scandinavian Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Psychology , ISSUE 1, 33–40

research-article

The use of wearable technology to measure and support abilities, disabilities and functional skills in autistic youth: a scoping review

conditions (3). Unlike traditional methods of monitoring physiological activity and behavior, WTs have the potential to provide real-time and objective measures of activity during day to day life (3, 4). These technologies may show promise in expanding opportunities to improve understanding of clinical conditions and through providing a means to continuously measure and monitor daily life functioning, may contribute novel individualized intervention and treatment (4, 5). Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is

Melissa H. Black, Benjamin Milbourn, Nigel T. M. Chen, Sarah McGarry, Fatema Wali, Armilda S. V. Ho, Mika Lee, Sven Bölte, Torbjorn Falkmer, Sonya Girdler

Scandinavian Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Psychology , 48–69

Research Article

Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, Autistic Traits, and Substance Use Among Missouri Adolescents

Although existing literature demonstrates the association of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) with both substance use (SU) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD), few studies have examined rates of SU among adolescents with elevated ASD symptoms, with or without comorbid ADHD. Clinic-based studies suggest a possible protective effect of ASD against SU, but this has not been confirmed in population-based studies.We examined alcohol, tobacco, and drug use in adolescents with either

Richard C. Mulligan, Angela M. Reiersen, Alexandre A. Todorov

Scandinavian Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Psychology , ISSUE 2, 86–92

Review

Developmental neurotoxicants and the vulnerable male brain: a systematic review of suspected neurotoxicants that disproportionally affect males

The prevalence of neurodevelopmental disorders (NDs), including autism spectrum disorder, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, tic disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and emotional disturbances, has increased notably in the past few decades. To date, debate continues as to the origins of NDs. Increases in widespread exposure to and bioaccumulation of chemical neurotoxicants have paralleled the upsurge in NDs, and are suggested to be causal agents for NDs. One consistent aspect of NDs

Janet K. Kern, David A. Geier, Kristin G. Homme, Paul G. King, Geir Bjørklund, Salvatore Chirumbolo, Mark R. Geier

Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis , ISSUE 4, 269–296

Clinical Practice

Toward a new generation of quality registries for neurodevelopmental disorders: the example of NEUROPSYK

adequate follow-up related to the implementation of existing regional and national guidelines for assessment and treatment; 2) providing clinical decision-making aids; and 3) conducting large-scale clinical epidemiological research. The registry incorporates all legal requirements for quality registries in Sweden.NEUROPSYK includes patients of all ages diagnosed with NDDs per the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition. These diagnoses include autism spectrum disorder

Anna Löfgren Wilteus, Frida Bartonek, Jacqueline Borg, Sven Bölte

Scandinavian Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Psychology , ISSUE 3, 141–146

research-article

A ten year longitudinal examination of the incidence rate and age of childhood encephalopathy diagnoses in an autism spectrum disorder diagnosed cohort

INTRODUCTION Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is defined by persistent deficits in social communication and social interaction, and restricted, repetitive patterns of behavior, interests, or activities (American Psychiatric Association, 2013). Although an ASD diagnosis is defined behaviorally by the American Psychiatric Association (APA), other features, more physical or health related, are associated with an ASD diagnosis (Geier et al., 2012; Kern et al., 2014a). Among the most common are

Janet K. Kern, David A. Geier, Kristin G. Homme, Mark R. Geier

Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis , ISSUE 1, 66–75

Article

Student Portfolios in O&M: A window into the child’s learning experience

Two students with autism, vision impairment, and intellectual disability participated in an orientation and mobility (O&M) intervention to travel in school settings using their folding canes. A multiple-baseline across participants design to determine the effectiveness of the intervention was used. The dependent variable was time taken to travel the specified route. The independent variable was O&M training. Results indicated that both participants took less time to travel during the

Fabiana Perla, Ed.D. COMS, CLVT, Jamie Maffit, M.S., COMS, CLVT

International Journal of Orientation & Mobility , ISSUE 1, 44–51

Research Article

Participation profiles and the barriers and facilitators that impact on participation of children with Autism Spectrum Disorders living in regional and remote Western Australia

Background: Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a heterogeneous condition, influencing participation in activity and occupation. Approximately, 1% of Australian children have an ASD diagnosis, with many of these families living in remote and regional areas. Given the environments role in facilitating or hindering participation, there is a need to understand how geographical location impacts the participation profiles of children with ASD. Objective: This study aims to describe the participation

Shani Mattinson, Marita Falkmer, Melissa H Black, Sonya Girdler

Scandinavian Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Psychology , ISSUE 4, 170–182

Case report

Clinical report: a rare co-occurrence of tuberous sclerosis complex and Rett syndrome in a girl with mental retardation, epilepsy and autism

Introduction. There are some genetic disorders with combination of mental retardation, epilepsy and autism in which the abnormal mammalian Target of Rapamycin (m-TOR) signaling is implicated. The most important of them is tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC), but the disturbances of the m-TOR pathway can also be detected in Rett syndrome (RS), Fragile X syndrome and Down syndrome. We describe the rare case of co-occurrence of TSC and RS. Case study. The female child was born at term by normal

Elena Belousova, Vladimir Sukhorukov, Marina Dorofeeva, Lev Shagam, Dmitrii V. Vlodavetz

Journal of Epileptology , ISSUE 1-2, 47–51

Editorial

Special Issue on the Topic of Autism Spectrum Disorder

Angela M. Reiersen, Sven Bölte

Scandinavian Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Psychology , ISSUE 2, 52–54

Review

The gut microbiota in neuropsychiatric disorders

brain and gut microflora have been shown. Recent findings suggest that specific bacteria can be involved in the development of clinical conditions, such as Autism Spectrum Disorders, depression and schizophrenia, and microbiota may be a target for therapeutic intervention providing novel treatment strategies.

Marta Grochowska, Marcin Wojnar, Marek Radkowski

Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis , ISSUE 2, 69–81

Commentary

Rethinking the Concept of Psychosis and the Link Between Autism and Schizophrenia

Bodil Aggernæs

Scandinavian Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Psychology , ISSUE 1, 4–11

Research Article

ROLE OF MICROBIOTA IN MAINTAINING THE HOMEOSTASIS IN THE HUMAN BODY

and number of intestinal microbiota may contribute to the development of numerous infectious (HIV), metabolic (diabetes, obesity) and immunological (allergy, asthma, rheumatoid arthritis) diseases, as well as conditions associated with various organs (kidneys, liver, heart, inflammatory bowel disease, Crohn’s disease), cancer (colon) and the nervous system (autism, sleeping problems, stress, chronic fatigue syndrome, schizophrenia, Alzheimer’s disease). The composition of the

Katarzyna Góralska, Magdalena Dzikowiec

Postępy Mikrobiologii - Advancements of Microbiology , ISSUE 1, 5–11

Commentary

A conceptual framework for understanding characteristics of self-awareness associated with autism spectrum disorder

Mette Elmose

Scandinavian Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Psychology , ISSUE 3, 109–114

research-article

“The big wide world of school”: Supporting children on the autism spectrum to successfully transition to primary school: Perspectives from parents and early intervention professionals

supports, coupled with the need to establish new supports and relationships with school teachers and peers (7-9). The experience of transitioning is often associated with increased anxiety, and uncertainty for both the child and their family (10). While adapting to new environments and coping with uncertainty are difficult for all children, this time can be particularly challenging for families who have a child with a disability, such as Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) (1, 11). The complex nature of ASD

Nigel Chen, Scott Miller, Ben Milbourn, Melissa H. Black, Kathryn Fordyce, Gerdamari Van Der Watt, Tasha Alach, Anne Masi, Grace Frost, Madonna Tucker, Valsamma Eapen, Sonya Girdler

Scandinavian Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Psychology , 91–100

Research Article

Changes in the frequency and characteristics of children diagnosed with autistic disorder in two Norwegian cohorts: 1992 and 2009

compared with children with IQ values of less than 50 without genetic syndromes (3.5 years).Conclusions:The increase in the number of children diagnosed with AD is consistent with findings from international studies. Contrary to predictions, the age at diagnosis was not reduced over time. A higher proportion of children with IQ values in the average range in the latter cohort may have contributed to this. A delayed diagnosis of AD among children with genetic syndromes may indicate that early autism

Sidsel Romhus, Gyro Aas Herder, Elisabeth Grindheim, Synnve Schjølberg, Patricia Howlin

Scandinavian Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Psychology , ISSUE 1, 3–12

research-article

Pragmatic language impairment general and specific associations to mental health symptom dimensions in a child psychiatric sample

symptoms with social-emotional and developmental problems. There is still a controversy whether PLI is a separate developmental disorder, a specific “language disorder,” or an aspect or symptom of low-grade or high-function autism (3,13,14). This is the case despite the establishment of the diagnosis “social communication disorder” in the DSM5, which was tailored to label PLI as a separate disorder and has the additional requirement of both non-verbal and verbal communication problems (15). Later

Edel Brenne, Tormod Rimehaug

Scandinavian Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Psychology , 3–12

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