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Review | 14-October-2020

Review: Biochemistry of carbohydrate blood group antigens

This review presents the basics of the structural chemistry of blood group glycoconjugates,with special reference to red cell serology. Its aim is to create an appreciation of the inherent subtleties of the carbohydrate blood group antigens, which are currently poorly understood within the field of blood transfusion. It is hoped that a better understanding of the intricacies of the carbohydrate blood group systems will lead to further contributions to the body of knowledge within this growing

Lissa G. Gilliver, Stephen M. Henry

Immunohematology, Volume 19 , ISSUE 2, 33–42

Report | 25-March-2020

Value of DNA-based  assays for donor screening and  regulatory issues

Hemagglutination, the gold standard method to detect the presence or absence of blood group antigens on RBCs, has served the transfusion community well for decades.  It is simple, and, when done correctly, it has a specificity and sensitivity that is appropriate for most testing in the vast majority of patients requiring blood transfusion.  The limitations of hemagglutination for screening donor blood include that both testing and data entry are labor-intensive, that the required

Donna Strauss, Marion E. Reid

Immunohematology, Volume 24 , ISSUE 4, 175–179

Article | 26-October-2019

Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification assay for blood group genotyping, copy number quantification, and analysis of  RH variants

The blood group multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) is a comprehensive assay, developed for genotyping the majority of clinically relevant blood group antigens in both patients and donors. The MLPA is an easy method to apply and only requires a thermal cycler and capillary electrophoresis equipment. Because the molecular basis of blood group antigens can be a single nucleotide polymorphism, an insertion/deletion polymorphism, or genetic recombination, a single assay such as

Barbera Veldhuisen, C. Ellen van der Schoot, Masja de Haas

Immunohematology, Volume 31 , ISSUE 2, 58–61

Article | 14-December-2020

Phosphatidylinositol-linked red blood cell membrane proteins and blood group antigens

the lack of expression of GPI-anchored proteins that is responsible for manifestations of the acquired hematologic disease paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria. Recently, several investigators have also demonstrated that a number of erythrocyte blood group antigens reside on this class of proteins. These antigens include those of the Cromer blood group, JMH, Holley/Gregory, Cartwright, and Dombrock. The biochemical basis for the Cromer, JMH, and Holley/Gregory antigens have so far been partly

Marilyn J. Telen

Immunohematology, Volume 7 , ISSUE 3, 65–72

Article | 26-October-2019

An overview of the use of SNaPshot for predicting blood group antigens

The use of SNaPshot (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA) for predicting blood group antigens has emerged as an alternative to hemagglutination testing and also to the current low- and highthroughput blood group genotyping methods. Several groups have developed multiplex–polymerase chain reaction SNaPshot assays to determine single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in blood group genes with the purpose of identifying clinically relevant antigens and rare alleles. The selection of SNPs is

Flavia R.M. Latini, Lilian M. Castilho

Immunohematology, Volume 31 , ISSUE 2, 53–57

Article | 16-November-2020

Effect of pronase on highincidence blood group antigens and the prevalence of antibodies to pronase-treated erythrocytes

Pronase is a useful and relatively nonspecific protease that cleaves many red blood cell (RBC) membrane proteins that carry blood group antigens. Unexpected findings in tests using pronase-treated RBCs during the investigation of a patient’s blood sample led us to test which high-incidence blood group antigens were sensitive and which were resistant to pronase treatment, and to determine the prevalence of antipronase in the serum of blood donors. Our results show that antigens in the

Marion E. Reid, Carole A. Green, Jack Hoffer, Ragnhild Øyen

Immunohematology, Volume 12 , ISSUE 4, 139–142

Article | 20-December-2020

Cromer-related blood group antigens and the glycosyl phosphatidylinositol-linked protein, decay-accelerating factor DAF (CD55)

Cromer-related blood group antigens are located on the complement regulatory glycoprotein, decay-accelerating factor (DAF). DAF is not detectable on red cells from individuals with a Cromernull phenotype (termed Inab), which is probably an inherited condition. DAF is also absent from a subpopulation of red cells (PNH III) from patients with paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH), an acquired hematological defect. PNH III red cells, like Inab cells, lack all the Cromer-related antigens

Marion Reid

Immunohematology, Volume 6 , ISSUE 2, 27–29

Report | 26-October-2019

Red cell antigen prevalence predicted by molecular testing in ethnic groups of South Texas blood donors

Alloimmunization to red blood cell antigens is seen in patients receiving chronic blood transfusion. Knowing the prevalence of blood group antigens of the different ethnicities of South Texas donors can provide better management of rare blood inventory for patients in this geographical area. A total of 4369 blood donors were tested and analyzed for various antigens in the following blood group systems: ABO, Rh, Kell, Duffy, Kidd, MNS, Lutheran, Dombrock, Landsteiner-Wiener, Diego, Colton, and

Lorena I. Aranda, Linda A. Smith, Scott Jones, Rachel Beddard

Immunohematology, Volume 31 , ISSUE 4, 166–173

Review | 11-March-2020

The ISBT 700 series of low-incidence and 901 series of high-incidence blood group antigens

Marion E. Reid

Immunohematology, Volume 27 , ISSUE 4, 131–135

Report | 25-March-2020

From DNA to blood groups

of a gene, its processing from DNA through RNA to an amino acid sequence, and how changes in nucleotides give rise to blood group antigens.

Marion E. Reid

Immunohematology, Volume 24 , ISSUE 4, 166–169

original-report | 30-November-2020

Prevalence of major blood group antigens in blood donors at a main donation center in United Arab Emirates

is critically important to understand the blood group antigens and the significance of their associated antibodies. Alloimmunization is defined as the production of antibodies against a foreign (non-self) antigen when the immune system is exposed to a non-self antigen. This exposure can occur during blood transfusion, pregnancy, or organ transplantation when there is a dissimilarity between the RBC antigens of the donor and the recipient.5,6 The development of such alloantibodies can affect blood

F.H. Sajwani, A.M. Amer, F.M. Khamis, S.R. AlShamsi

Immunohematology, Volume 37 , ISSUE 4, 171–177

Report | 16-October-2019

Validity and reliability of serologic immunophenotyping of multiple blood group systems by ORTHO Sera with fully automated procedure

The increase of immunization against blood group antigens has reinforced the need for automated extensive blood typing. The aim of this study was to assess both the validity and reliability of red blood cell (RBC) automated agglutination technology in testing for antigens of Kidd (Jk), Duffy (Fy), and MNS (Ss) blood systems. ORTHO Sera (Ortho Clinical Diagnostics, Raritan, NJ) anti-Jka, anti-Jkb, Anti-Fya, anti-Fyb, anti-S, and anti-s reagents were each tested on RBC samples previously typed

Ugo Salvadori, Roberto Melotti, Daniela L'Altrella, Massimo Daves, Ahmad Al-Khaffaf, Laura Milizia, Rossana Putzulu, Renata Filippi, Aurelio Carolo, Giuseppe Lippi, Ivo Gentilini

Immunohematology, Volume 34 , ISSUE 4, 140–147

Article | 15-February-2021

An update on the Knops blood group system

J.M. Moulds

Immunohematology, Volume 35 , ISSUE 1, 16–18

Article | 06-December-2020

Alloimmunization by blood group antigens from bone allografts

C. Elizabeth Musclow, Glen Dietz, Robert S. Bell, Madeleine Beaudry-Clouatre

Immunohematology, Volume 8 , ISSUE 4, 102–104

Article | 14-October-2020

DNA analysis for donor screening of Dombrock blood group antigens

Jill R. Storry, Connie M. Westhoff, Dalisay Charles-Pierre, Maria Rios, Kim Hue-Roye, Sunitha Vege, Sandra Nance, Marion E. Reid

Immunohematology, Volume 19 , ISSUE 3, 73–76

Review | 10-November-2020

Review: phenotyping for Lewis and secretor histo-blood group antigens

Steven M. Henry

Immunohematology, Volume 12 , ISSUE 2, 51–61

Review | 30-November-2020

Review: blood group antigens as receptors for bacteria and parasites

Christine Lomas-Francis

Immunohematology, Volume 10 , ISSUE 3, 75–82

Article | 14-December-2020

Primary immune response to blood group antigens in burned children

Nancy E. Bacon, Ethel D. Patten, Janet L. Vincent

Immunohematology, Volume 7 , ISSUE 1, 8–11

Report | 16-October-2019

Blood chimerism in twins

Letícia Tavares, Daiane Cobianchi da Costa, Anna Paula de Borba Batschauer, Luiz Fernando Job Jobim, Gisele Menezes Ewald, Carolina de Mello, Eduardo Samuel Alvarez Velazquez, Alexandre Geraldo

Immunohematology, Volume 34 , ISSUE 4, 151–157

Article | 09-November-2020

The gel test: sensitivity and specificity for unexpected antibodies to blood group antigens

W. John Judd, E. Ann Steiner, Pamela C. Knaf

Immunohematology, Volume 13 , ISSUE 4, 132–135

Book Review | 21-March-2020

Blood Group Antigens & Antibodies: A Guide to Clinical Relevance & Technical Tips

Geralyn M. Meny

Immunohematology, Volume 24 , ISSUE 2, 72–72

Article | 14-October-2020

Loss of enzyme-sensitive antigens due to the presence of leukocytes, neomycin sulfate, and LISS

Randall W. Velliquette, Paula Howard, Harry Malyska, Marion E. Reid

Immunohematology, Volume 19 , ISSUE 4, 109–111

Article | 03-November-2020

The gel test: use in the identification of unexpected antibodies to blood group antigens

W. John Judd, E.Ann Steiner, Pamela C. Knaf, Colleen Masters

Immunohematology, Volume 14 , ISSUE 2, 59–62

Article | 14-December-2020

Decreased ABH blood group antigen expression associated with preleukemic conditions and acute leukemia: loss of detectable B, then A antigens in a group AB patient progressing from a myelodysplastic syndrome to leukemia

Decreased or absent expression of blood group antigens is well known to occur in acute leukemia. In some carcinomas, the malignant solid tumor cells have also been shown to lose normal blood group antigen expression. In both carcinoma and hematologic malignancies, these findings have been associated with a more aggressive behavior of the neoplasm. A 34-year-old, group AB, Rh positive woman was diagnosed with a preleukemic condition, myelodysplastic syndrome, in December 1988. In April 1989 B

Kaaron Benson

Immunohematology, Volume 7 , ISSUE 4, 89–93

Report | 16-October-2019

Rh and Kell blood group antigen prevalence in a multi-ethnic cohort in Nigeria: implications for local transfusion service

Ademola Samson Adewoyin, Grace Ming Lee, Titilope Adenike Adeyemo, Omolade Augustina Awodu

Immunohematology, Volume 34 , ISSUE 2, 61–65

Review | 09-October-2019

DEL phenotype

Dong Hyang Kwon, S. Gerald Sandler, Willy Albert Flegel

Immunohematology, Volume 33 , ISSUE 3, 125–132

Report | 01-December-2019

Blood group antigen distribution in Lao blood donors

Blood group antigens can be distributed differently within different nationalities. Therefore, information about the prevalence of blood group antigens in the Lao population will be useful for providing better blood transfusion services in the Lao People’s Democratic Republic. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of blood group antigens in Lao blood donors. Blood samples from 464 Lao national volunteer blood donors were typed for antigens in various blood group

Chirapha Keokhamphoui, Yupa Urwijitaroon, Douangchanh Kongphaly, Te Thammavong

Immunohematology, Volume 28 , ISSUE 4, 132–136

Article | 10-April-2021

The Ok blood group system: an update

Summary of the Ok Blood Group Antigens To date, the Ok blood group system, system 24 in the International Society of Blood Transfusion (ISBT024), comprises three high-prevalence antigens: Oka, OKGV, and OKVM. Only one example of the OKGV− and OKVM− phenotypes has been described, each identified by the presence of a specific antibody to its respective high-prevalence antigen.1,2 The Ok(a−) phenotype was identified in Japanese people only,3 and the allele frequency in the gnomAD database is 0.1

J.R. Storry

Immunohematology, Volume 37 , ISSUE 1, 18–19

review-article | 30-September-2021

The Cromer blood group system: an update

marker. New Cromer Blood Group Antigens Since the publication of the original review,1 the Cromer blood group system has continued to expand, and a further five high-prevalence antigens have been described (Table 1). Table 1. High-prevalence antigens of the Cromer blood group system: molecular basis and distribution of the antigen-negative phenotype Number Name Nucleotide change Exon Amino acid change Reference rs number* Negative phenotype identified in gnomAD† frequency of the

J.R. Storry, C. Lomas-Francis

Immunohematology, Volume 37 , ISSUE 3, 118–121

Article | 15-February-2021

An update on the Duffy blood group system

expand our understanding of the important role of blood group antigens in homeostasis and disease. Recently, a new nomenclature was adopted and approved; DARC is now known as atypical chemokine receptor 1 (ACKR1).2 Molecular Update As with other blood group systems, the number of variants identified in the Duffy blood group system continues to increase as the use of molecular methods for blood typing patients and donors becomes more widespread. The total number of variants remains small (<50) when

G.M. Meny

Immunohematology, Volume 35 , ISSUE 1, 11–12

Article | 18-October-2020

Preview 2000: proposal for a new terminology to describe carbohydrate histo-blood group antigens/glycotopes within the ISBT terminology framework

Stephen M. Henry, John J Moulds

Immunohematology, Volume 16 , ISSUE 1, 49–56

Article | 09-November-2020

Practical method for determination of the U status of S–s– erythrocytes

Red blood cells (RBCs) lacking S and s blood group antigens are classified as S–s–U– or S–s–U+var but the classification may vary due to the characteristics of anti-U and to the technique used. Tests on RBCs known to lack glycophorin B (GPB) or to possess an altered form of GPB showed that polyethylene glycol-indirect antiglobulin testing or MicroTyping Systems (MTS)-gel techniques can be used as a simple and reliable way to detect RBCs with variant forms of GPB

Marion E. Reid, Jill R. Storry, Joan Maurer, Sandra T. Nance

Immunohematology, Volume 13 , ISSUE 4, 111–114

Article | 06-December-2020

Effect of enzymes on and chemical modifications of high-frequency red cell antigens

Enzyme or chemical modification of intact red cells results in the destruction of some blood group antigens. The pattern of reactions of an antibody with red cells treated with various proteinases, with sialidase, and with the disulfide bond-reducing agent 2-aminoethylisothiouronium bromide (AET) can aid in antibody identification. This information can prove particularly beneficial with antibodies to antigens of very high frequency, where antigen-negative cells may be difficult to obtain

Geoff Daniels

Immunohematology, Volume 8 , ISSUE 3, 53–57

Article | 16-February-2021

Acidification of plasma for detection of pH-dependent antibodies

indicated). Examine tube for agglutination. Indirect antiglobulin testing (IAT) may be included, if desired, using standard methods. HCL = hydrochloric acid; RBCs = red blood cells; PBS = phosphate-buffered saline. Indications Most antibodies to blood group antigens react optimally at a pH range of 6.5–7.5, similar to that of normal plasma or serum. Yet some antibodies, including anti-M, react preferentially or exclusively in an acidic pH below 6.5. Anti-M is generally considered

K.L. Bowman, B.C. Dunlap, L.M. Hawthorne, K.L. Billingsley

Immunohematology, Volume 35 , ISSUE 3, 116–118

Review | 02-May-2020

Review: the Kell, Duffy, and Kidd blood group systems

After the discovery (over 50 years ago) that the IAT could be applied to the detection of antibodies to blood group antigens, there was a rapid increase in the identification of alloantibodies that caused transfusion reactions or HDN. After Rh, antibodies in the Kell, Duffy, and Kidd blood group systems were the next in clinically significant antibodies to be revealed. Much of what has been learned about these blood groups since the journal Immunohematology issued its first edition has to do

Constance M. Westhoff, Marion E. Reid

Immunohematology, Volume 20 , ISSUE 1, 37–49

Article | 10-November-2020

Glycophorin A-deficient red cells may have a weak expression of C4-bound Ch and Rg antigens

The blood group antigens Ch and Rg are polymorphisms of C4d. Antigen-positive red blood cells (RBCs) treated with proteases type as Ch-, Rg-. Although RBCs treated with sialidase may type Ch+ Rg+, they cannot be coated with C4 by the 10 percent sucrose method. Since studies of complement binding have shown that glycophorin A (GPA) is an important component for the uptake of C4 by RBCs, we tested all available GPA-deficient RBCs for their Ch and Rg status. Using eluates of human anti-Ch and anti

Patricia Tippett, Jill Storry, Phyllis Walker, Yasuto Okubo, Marion Reid

Immunohematology, Volume 12 , ISSUE 1, 4–7

Article | 17-November-2020

Identification of the Tcb allele of the Cromer blood group gene by PCR and RFLP analysis

The Cromer blood group antigens reside on the complement regulatory protein, decay-accelerating factor (DAF). The Cromer system comprises 10 antigens, 3 of which are of low incidence. When an individual is homozygous for the allele encoding one of these low-incidence antigens, they are liable to produce an antibody to the anti-thetical high-frequency antigen if challenged by pregnancy or transfusion. These antibodies are often difficult to identify, because of the lack of readily available

Manisha Udani, Nicole Anderson, Neeraja Rao, Marilyn J. Telen

Immunohematology, Volume 11 , ISSUE 1, 1–4

Article | 26-October-2019

HEA BeadChipTM technology in immunohematology

Classic methods to determine human red blood cell (RBC) antigens are based on serologic testing. Thanks to increased knowledge of the molecular basis associated with many blood group antigens, it is currently possible to predict their presence or absence on the red cell membrane. Several molecular techniques have been developed to detect the most important allelic variations attributable to single nucleotide polymorphisms. The human erythrocyte antigen (HEA) BeadChip™ system manufactured

Cinzia Paccapelo, Francesca Truglio, Maria Antonietta Villa, Nicoletta Revelli, Maurizio Marconi

Immunohematology, Volume 31 , ISSUE 2, 81–90

Article | 16-October-2019

Dithiothreitol treatment of red blood cells

C.B. Bub

Immunohematology, Volume 33 , ISSUE 4, 170–172

Report | 01-December-2019

A novel JK null allele associated with typing discrepancies among African Americans

. Results of donor genotyping were compared with previously recorded results of serologic tests, and discrepant results were investigated. Although the two previously identified polymorphisms were not detected in the discrepant samples, a novel allele (191G>A) was identified and was assigned the ISBT number JK*02N.09. This study illustrates a limitation of using single-nucleotide polymorphisms for prediction of blood group antigens.

Katrina L. Billingsley, Jeff B. Posadas, Joann M. Moulds, Lakshmi K. Gaur

Immunohematology, Volume 29 , ISSUE 4, 145–148

Article | 03-November-2020

The immunoglobulin molecule

unique binding site, a diverse array of immunoglobulin is produced not only by random recombination of the genetic components during assembly of the molecule but also due to somatic mutation. These events, as well as gene restriction, which is often seen in IgM antibodies to blood group antigens, are discussed and some of the differences between monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies are addressed.

Janet Sutherland

Immunohematology, Volume 14 , ISSUE 1, 12–18

Review | 15-April-2020

Review: molecular basis of MNS blood group variants

The MNS blood group antigens are expressed in the RBC membrane on glycophorin A (GPA), glycophorin B (GPB), or combinations of both. GPA expresses the M or N antigen,whereas GPB expresses the S or s antigen and the N antigen (′N′). Both glycophorin genes (GYPA and GYPB) are located on the long arm of chromosome 4 and share 95 percent sequence identity. This high degree of sequence identity, together with the rare involvement of a third homologous gene (GYPE), provides an increased

P. Palacajornsuk

Immunohematology, Volume 22 , ISSUE 4, 171–182

Article | 01-April-2020

Reduced red blood cell destruction by antibody fragments

Antibodies to blood group antigens can cause immune RBC destruction directly (extravascular destruction) or indirectly through subsequent complement activation (intravascular hemolysis). The Fc portion of the IgG antibody is responsible for the effector functions of immune RBC destruction. We hypothesized that sensitization of RBCs with blood group antigen–specific IgG antibodies lacking their Fc portion would escape from the recipient’s immune system, allowing for a longer survival

Amina Mqadmi, Steven Abramowitz, Xiaoying Zheng, Karina Yazdanbakhsh

Immunohematology, Volume 22 , ISSUE 1, 11–14

Article | 26-October-2019

Mass-scale donor red cell genotyping using real-time array technology

blood donors to find rare phenotypes and rare combinations of antigens. When performed on donors who are predicted to donate again after testing, integrating the genotype information with existing donor data and demographics provides the blood center with real-time information to identify the common clinically relevant blood group antigens demanded by hospital transfusion services. This review outlines a red cell genotype methodology using TaqMan chemistry and existing algorithms and data handling

Gregory A. Denomme, Michael J. Schanen

Immunohematology, Volume 31 , ISSUE 2, 69–74

Article | 18-October-2020

Human anti-Dia monoclonal antibodies for mass screening

The use of monoclonal antibodies (mabs) to blood group antigens is constantly increasing for routine typing. Two heterohybridoma cell lines, HMR15 and HMR22, were established by Epstein-Barr virus transformation of peripheral blood lymphocytes from a blood donor with anti-Dia. HMR15 mab directly agglutinated Di(a+) red cells, and HMR22 mab agglutinated Di(a+) red cells exclusively by the indirect antiglobulin test. Reactivities of both HMR15 and HMR22 mabs were specific for Dia and had good

Toru Miyazaki, Shinichiro Sato, Toshiaki Kato, Hisami Ikeda

Immunohematology, Volume 16 , ISSUE 2, 78–81

Case report | 01-December-2019

Red blood cell phenotype matching for various ethnic groups

profiles, for the Rh, Kidd, Duffy, and MNS systems. A significant donor-recipient phenotype mismatch ratio exists with certain blood group antigens such that, with current routine ABO and D matching practices, recipients of certain ethnic groups are predisposed to alloimmunization.

Karafa S.W. Badjie, Craig D. Tauscher, Camille M. van Buskirk, Clare Wong, Sarah M. Jenkins, Carin Y. Smith, James R. Stubbs

Immunohematology, Volume 27 , ISSUE 1, 12–19

Report | 16-March-2020

The polymorphism nt 76 in exon 2 of SC is more frequent in Whites than in Blacks

The Scianna blood group system comprises seven antigens encoded by alternative forms of SC. The SC gene also has two polymorphisms in the leader sequence, at nucleotides 54 (C/T, silent) and 76 (C/T, 26His/Tyr) in exon 2, which are not involved in expression of blood group antigens. The nucleotide change at position 76 has an NlaIII restriction enzyme site; thus, DNA samples from 100 Caucasians and 100 African Americans were analyzed for the SC nucleotide 76 change. DNA from Caucasian and

Akiko Fuchisawa, Christine Lomas-Francis, Kim Hue-Roye, Marion E. Reid

Immunohematology, Volume 25 , ISSUE 1, 18–19

Article | 06-December-2020

Red cell antigen stability in K3EDTA

Commercial blood grouping reagents are not approved for testing EDTA anticoagulated blood specimens that are more than 48 hours old. Many studies on the stability of blood group antigens in other anticoagulants have been reported, but none are available for EDTA. This study was undertaken to assess whether current commercially available blood grouping reagents give acceptable reactions with red cell antigens when the cells are stored for extended periods in EDTA. We defined acceptable reaction

Connie M. Westhoff, Belva D. Sipherd, Larry D. Toalson

Immunohematology, Volume 9 , ISSUE 4, 109–111

original-report | 30-September-2021

Genotyping for Dombrock blood group alleles in Northern Pakistani blood donors

, hemolytic transfusion reactions, and hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn.4 Commercially available RBC antibody identification panels are generally typed for ABO, Rh, Kell, Kidd, MNS, Duffy, Lewis, and Lutheran blood group antigens.5 Serologic reagents for extended blood typing are costly, available in limited quantities, and nonexistent for some blood group systems like Dombrock.5,6 Genotyping can be done to predict rare antigens or antigens that cannot be serologically tested, to resolve blood

S.A. Jadoon, N. Salamat, S.A. Khan, M.S. Yazdani, N. Khatak, M.A. Naeem

Immunohematology, Volume 37 , ISSUE 3, 113–117

Article | 20-April-2020

Rh antigens and phenotype frequencies of the Ibibio, Efik, and Ibo ethnic nationalities in Calabar, Nigeria

This report forms part of the study on the Rh phenotypes within the various ethnic nationalities in the south-south region of Nigeria. The aim is to demonstrate the Rh polymorphisms among the people of African descent. The frequencies of Rh blood group antigens and phenotypes of the Ibibio, Efik, and Ibo ethnic nationalities in Calabar municipality, Nigeria, were determined using standard serologic techniques. Of the 720 Calabar individuals tested, the frequencies of the Rh antigens within the

Z. Awortu Jeremiah, Chris Odumody

Immunohematology, Volume 21 , ISSUE 1, 21–24

Case report | 09-October-2019

A LU:-16 individual with antibodies

Antibodies against Lutheran blood group antigens have been observed during first-time pregnancy. Samples from a woman of African descent were tested in our immunohematology laboratory on several occasions since 2001. Her samples were phenotyped as Lu(a+b−), and anti-Lub was suspected but not identified. She was asked to make autologous donations in preparation for her delivery, which she did. In 2010, two antibodies were identified: anti-Lea and -Lub. Six years later, a third

Carole Éthier, Cynthia Parent, Anne-Sophie Lemay, Nadia Baillargeon, Geneviève Laflamme, Josée Lavoie, Josée Perreault, Maryse St-Louis

Immunohematology, Volume 33 , ISSUE 3, 110–113

Article | 03-November-2020

Use of the MAIEA assay to demonstrate that Fy3 is on the same glycoprotein as Fy6, Fya, and Fyb

same membrane protein as Fy6. The well-established location and relationship of Duffy blood group antigens Fya, Fyb, and Fy6 were again confirmed by the MAIEA assay, and those facts were used to standardize a variation of the assay to establish the relationship between Fy3 and Fy6 using red cells with various Fy phenotypes. The MAIEA assay generated high absorbance values when Fy6 and Fya (or Fyb) antigens were evaluated. Similarly, high absorbance values were seen when Fy3 and Fy6 antigens were

Jaw-Lin Tzeng, Roger Dodd, Delores Mallory

Immunohematology, Volume 14 , ISSUE 3, 113–116

Report | 25-March-2020

The potential of blood group genotyping for transfusion medicine practice

assays are reproducible and highly correlated with the RBC phenotype.  The recent availability of automated, highthroughput, DNA-array platforms now moves testing from the reference laboratory setting into hospital and donor testing centers.  This approach has the potential to revolutionize the process of locating antigen-negative donor units by testing for all clinically significant blood group antigens in a single assay.  When partnered with the same extended typing of the patient

Connie M. Westhoff

Immunohematology, Volume 24 , ISSUE 4, 190–195

Article | 18-October-2020

Fyx is associated with two missense point mutations in its gene and can be detected by PCR–SSP

The Duffy blood group antigens are encoded by the Duffy gene with its three major alleles: Fy*A (Fya+), Fy*B (Fyb+), and a nonexpressed Fy*Fy (Fya–b–), which is most commonly found among black people. Additionally, a fourth allele, Fyx, is found among white people and defined as weak Fyb not detectable by all anti-Fyb. Three polymerase chain reactions (PCRs) using sequence-specific priming (SSP) for detection of the major FY alleles were developed. Eighteen Fy(a–b&ndash

Christoph Gassner, Richard L. Kraus, Tadeja Dovc, Susanne Kilga-Nogler, Irene Utz, Thomas Mueller, Friedrich Schunter, Diether Schoenitzer

Immunohematology, Volume 16 , ISSUE 2, 61–67

Article | 17-February-2021

Identification of rare blood types in southern Brazil: impact on transfusion support

C.D.S.R. de Araújo, B.A. Machado, C.D. Reche, L. Maroni, L.C. Garlet, M.M.P. dos Santos, M. Beber, A. Pasqualotti, L. Castilho

Immunohematology, Volume 36 , ISSUE 4, 152–156

Article | 26-October-2019

Blood group genotyping: the power and limitations of the Hemo ID Panel and MassARRAY platform

Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization, time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), is a sensitive analytical method capable of resolving DNA fragments varying in mass by a single nucleotide. MALDI-TOF MS is applicable to blood group genotyping, as the majority of blood group antigens are encoded by single nucleotide polymorphisms. Blood group genotyping by MALDI-TOF MS can be performed using a panel (Hemo ID Blood Group Genotyping Panel, Agena Bioscience Inc., San Diego, CA) that is

Rhiannon S. McBean, Catherine A. Hyland, Robert L. Flower

Immunohematology, Volume 31 , ISSUE 2, 75–80

Report | 01-December-2019

The production, serologic evaluation, and epitope mapping of ten murine monoclonal Dombrock antibodies

The Dombrock (Do) glycoprotein is a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-linked membrane protein carrying Dombrock blood group antigens. There are no standardized typing reagents for Doa or Dob. We have developed ten different monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs) that are specific for Dombrock. The objectives of this study were to characterize these MoAbs serologically and determine the epitopes they recognize. MoAbs were generated by standard fusion methods. Mice were immunized with transfected human

Magdalena Grodecka, Kazimiera Wasniowska, Gregory Halverson, Karina Yazdanbakhsh, Marion E. Reid, Elwira Lisowska

Immunohematology, Volume 28 , ISSUE 4, 124–129

Report | 14-March-2020

Absence of hemolytic disease of fetus and newborn despite maternal high-titer IgG anti-Ku

elution of RBC antibodies, and antigen typing. A gravida 3, para 3 (G3P3) woman was first evaluated in 2006 and was found to have an IgG RBC antibody that reacted against all panel RBCs in the anti-human globulin phase. A panel of RBCs treated with DTT did not react with the antibody.  The antibody failed to react with one example of K0 RBCs. The patient’s RBCs typed negative for the following Kell blood group antigens: KEL1, KEL2, KEL3, KEL4, KEL6, KEL7, KEL11, KEL13, and KEL18. These

Ram M. Kakaiya, Angelica Whaley, Christine Howard-Menk, Jigna Rami, Mona Papari, Sally Campbell-Lee, Zbigniew Malecki

Immunohematology, Volume 26 , ISSUE 3, 119–122

Report | 12-March-2020

Application of real-time PCR and melting curve analysis in rapid Diego blood group genotyping

The paucity of appropriate reagents for serologic typing of the Diego blood group antigens has prompted the development of a real-time PCR and melting curve analysis for Diego blood group genotyping. In this study, we phenotyped 4326 donor blood samples for Dia using semiautomated equipment. All 157 Di(a+) samples were then genotyped by PCR using sequence-specific primers (PCR-SSP) for DI*02 because of anti-Dib scarcity. Of the 4326 samples, we simultaneously tested 160 samples for Dia and Dib

Marcia C. Zago Novaretti, Azulamara da Silva Ruiz, Pedro Enrique Dorlhiac-Llacer, Dalton Alencar Fisher Chamone

Immunohematology, Volume 26 , ISSUE 2, 66–70

Article | 17-February-2021

A prospective, observational study for optimization of antibody screening in pretransfusion compatibility testing

globulin. Blood transfusion was the second most common sensitizing event among female patients, but it was the most common sensitizing event in male patients (Table 3). The second most common alloantibody found was anti-E (21 of 127, 16.5%). After the Rh system, Kell was the second most common blood group system in which alloantibodies were detected (11 of 127, 8.7%). In patients who possessed more than one alloantibody, antibodies against the Rh blood group antigens were common to all. In patients

P. Pandey, D. Setya, R. Srivastava, M.K. Singh

Immunohematology, Volume 36 , ISSUE 1, 19–28

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