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  • Journal Of Ultrasonography

 

Review

Transesophageal echocardiography

Introduction Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) became a popular method when a miniature echocardiographic probe could be mounted on the tip of a gastroscope. In the early 80s of the last century, uniplanar transducers, which allowed for cardiac examination in the transverse plane, were used. Two-planar probes introduced in the decade that followed made it possible to perform heart imaging in transverse and longitudinal planes. In the second half of the 90s, multiplanar transducers with a

Andrzej Szyszka, Edyta Płońska-Gościniak

Journal of Ultrasonography , ISSUE 76, 62–65

Review

The value of exercise echocardiography in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction

diastolic dysfunction (abnormal E/e’ ratio (averaged ≥13) and abnormal e’<9 cm/s). Few papers have proposed exercise echocardiography as a relevant diagnostic tool in HFpEF. Importantly, Erdei et al. published an important paper highlighting the fact that diastolic exercise stress test should be performed with the aim of estimating filling pressure and systolic-diastolic reserve when exercising(2): Complete echocardiography at rest Complete echocardiography at 100–120 beats/min (submaximal exercise

Erwan Donal

Journal of Ultrasonography , ISSUE 76, 43–44

Review

Stress echocardiography. Part II: Stress echocardiography in conditions other than coronary heart disease

Introduction Stress echocardiography (stress echo, SE), with use of both old and new ultrasonographic cardiac function imaging techniques, has nowadays become a widely available, safe and inexpensive diagnostic method. Cardiac stress, such as exercise or an inotropic agent, allows for dynamic assessment of a wide array of ventricles, heart valves and pulmonary circulation functional parameters. The registration of dynamic cardiac response provides completely new insight important from both

Edyta Płońska-Gościniak, Tomasz Kukulski, Jarosław D. Kasprzak, Zbigniew Gąsior, Andrzej Szyszka, Andrzej Gackowski, Wojciech Braksator, Piotr Gościniak, Piotr Pysz, Szymon Olędzki, Wojciech Kosmala

Journal of Ultrasonography , ISSUE 76, 49–53

Review

Stress echocardiography. Part I: Stress echocardiography in coronary heart disease

Introduction Stress echocardiography (stress echo, SE) is a method in which various stimuli are used to elicit myocardial contractility or provoke cardiac ischemia with simultaneous echocardiographic recording of left ventricular function and valvular flow, if needed(1–7). SE is used for the diagnosis of coronary heart disease and valvular heart defects. The stressors used include physical exercise, pharmacological agents (dobutamine, vasodilators) and pacing stress, most often with the use of

Edyta Płońska-Gościniak, Andrzej Gackowski, Tomasz Kukulski, Jarosław D. Kasprzak, Andrzej Szyszka, Wojciech Braksator, Zbigniew Gąsior, Barbara Lichodziejewska, Piotr Pysz

Journal of Ultrasonography , ISSUE 76, 45–48

Review

Echocardiography in adults

Introduction Transthoracic echocardiography is the primary noninvasive modality for anatomical and functional cardiac assessment(1–9). Owing to its dynamic development, echocardiography boasts spatial resolution similar to that of magnetic resonance imaging, and, at the same time, it is superior over other imaging techniques in terms of three-dimensional imaging and functional assessment based on acoustic marker tracking. Echocardiography uses the piezoelectric properties of crystals, whose

Edyta Płońska-Gościniak, Barbara Lichodziejewska, Andrzej Szyszka, Tomasz Kukulski, Jarosław D. Kasprzak, Olga Dzikowska-Diduch, Andrzej Gackowski, Piotr Gościniak, Piotr Pysz, Zbigniew Gąsior

Journal of Ultrasonography , ISSUE 76, 54–61

Review

Physiological basis in the assessment of myocardial mechanics using speckle-tracking echocardiography 2D. Part I

, enabling deeper insight into the mechanical and hemodynamic aspects of cardiac function in health and disease. The use of information obtained based on speckle tracking echocardiography allows to understand previously unclear mechanisms of physiological and pathophysiological processes. The first part of the study discusses the formation of a two-dimensional ultrasound image and the speckles, as well as the technical aspects of tracking their movement. The second part presents in more detail the

Wojciech Mądry, Maciej Aleksander Karolczak

Journal of Ultrasonography , ISSUE 65, 135–144

Review

Physiological basis in the assessment of myocardial mechanics using speckle-tracking echocardiography 2D. Part II

, enabling deeper insight into the mechanical and hemodynamic aspects of cardiac function in health and disease. The use of information obtained based on speckle tracking echocardiography allows to understand previously unclear mechanisms of physiological and pathophysiological processes. The first part of the study discusses the formation of a two-dimensional ultrasound image and the speckles, as well as the technical aspects of tracking their movement. The second part presents in more detail the

Wojciech Mądry, Maciej Aleksander Karolczak

Journal of Ultrasonography , ISSUE 66, 304–316

research-article

The use of a probe stabilizer to reduce musculoskeletal overload of ultrasound operators in routine diagnostic echocardiographic imaging

Introduction Echocardiography is the cornerstone of diagnostic imaging in cardiac patients due to its ease of use, cost-effectiveness, and safety. However, the disadvantage of this technique is the musculoskeletal overload of the cardiac sonographer, which results in a high incidence of work-related injuries of up to 90%(1). Work-related injuries can affect the ability of sonographers to perform required occupational activities, possibly jeopardizing the quality of patient care and productivity

Sjoerd Bouwmeester, Marloes de Kleijn, Jan van Wijngaarden, Patrick Houthuizen

Journal of Ultrasonography , ISSUE 78, 193–197

Case report

Double-chambered right ventricle in a 16-year-old patient with Williams syndrome

We present a case of double-chambered right ventricle diagnosed during preparation for colonoscopy due to gastrointestinal bleeding in a 16-year-old, mentally disabled boy with Williams syndrome. The patient was previously diagnosed with ventricular septal defect and mild pulmonary stenosis. Echocardiography performed under general anesthesia revealed hypertrophied muscular bundles in the right ventricle with the maximum gradient of 100 mmHg, causing severe outflow obstruction. This type of

Wojciech Mądry, Maciej A. Karolczak, Ewa Zacharska-Kokot

Journal of Ultrasonography , ISSUE 71, 289–293

Review

Methodology of echocardiographic analysis of morphological variations of the aortic arch and its branches in children – own experience

acoustic shadowing due to its location between the transducer and the aorta. In its further downward course, the aorta runs behind the wall of the left atrium and posteriorly crosses the left pulmonary veins. Echocardiography is a two-dimensional imaging by its nature, which is the reason of the first difficulty in aortic arch imaging: the arch and its branches along with other mediastinal vessels are three-dimensional structures that are not arranged in one plain in the chest; therefore, it is not

Wojciech Mądry, Ewa Zacharska-Kokot, Maciej A. Karolczak

Journal of Ultrasonography , ISSUE 76, 24–42

research-article

Gradual diagnosis and clinical importance of prenatally detected persistent left superior vena cava with absent right superior vena cava – a case report and literature review

– main pulmonary artery, AO – aorta, DA – ductus arteriosus, RPVs – right pulmonary veins, LPVs – left pulmonary veins, FO – foramen ovale, IVC – inferior vena cava, LPSVC – left persistent vena cava) Since in most cases PLSVC drains into the right atrium via the coronary sinus (CS), even in 93%(7), dilation of CS is usually the first sign detected during fetal echocardiography, but it can also indicate anomalous pulmonary venous drainage(3,8). In the case of agenesis of the right SVC, CS may be

Oskar Sylwestrzak, Maria Respondek-Liberska

Journal of Ultrasonography , ISSUE 81, e146–e150

research-article

Association of spectral Doppler cardiac activity in the lower limb veins and echocardiographic findings in patients with tricuspid regurgitation

limbs, pleural or cardiac effusion, shortness of breath, and cold skin. These symptoms are most commonly associated with severe heart disease(3). The diagnosis of tricuspid valve disease can be facilitated by using electrocardiogram (ECG), Doppler echocardiography, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), radionuclide scan, chest X-ray, transesophageal echocardiography, and cardiac catheterization(4). Tricuspid regurgitation is divided into 3 types which are as follows: primary, secondary, and isolated

Iqra Manzoor, Syed Amir Gilani, Raham Bacha, Mehreen Fatima

Journal of Ultrasonography , ISSUE 81, e111–e115

original-paper

Non-invasive diagnosis of aortic arch anomalies in children – 15 years of own experience

cardiac departments, which also feature echo laboratories, represent a large proportion of pediatric patients with vascular malformations. The diagnostic process includes cases of patients with previously diagnosed vascular ring, who are referred for surgical treatment, as well as those diagnosed during a thorough qualification for surgery due to other congenital heart defects. Materials and methods Echocardiography is of key importance for the diagnosis of anatomical abnormalities of the main

Wojciech Mądry, Maciej Aleksander Karolczak, Marcin Myszkowski, Ewa Zacharska-Kokot

Journal of Ultrasonography , ISSUE 76, 5–8

Case report

Abnormal portal vein waveform as an indicator of constrictive pericarditis – a case report

We report a case of a 17-year-old patient referred to our outpatient Doppler Department due to clinical suspicion of liver cirrhosis. The patient presented with non-specifi c symptoms,such as malaise, pain in the right subcostal region, peripheral oedema. Until then,diagnostic imaging, including echocardiography was inconclusive. We performed the Doppler sonography of the portal system, which revealed normal diameter of the portal vein with abnormal, phasic and markedly pulsatile waveform

Joanna Ścieszka, Józefa Dąbek, Paweł Cieślik

Journal of Ultrasonography , ISSUE 61, 227–230

case-report

Late diagnosis of total anomalous pulmonary venous drainage in a 5.5-month-old infant

-millimeter-wide vertical vein with significantly dilated brachiocephalic vein and even more enlarged superior vena cava was diagnosed based on echocardiography (Fig. 1, Fig. 2, Fig. 3, Fig. 4, Fig. 5), and confirmed using CT angiography (Fig. 6, Fig. 7, Fig. 8). A 10 mm secundum atrial septal defect permitted a relatively unrestricted right-to-left atrial flow, and thus the survival of the patient. The right atrium and right ventricle were also enlarged. Echocardiographic signs of pulmonary hypertension

Wojciech Mądry, Maciej A. Karolczak, Weronika Rygier, Radosław Kunikowski, Michał Buczyński, Danuta Roik

Journal of Ultrasonography , ISSUE 76, 75–79

case-report

Anomalous retroaortic paravertebral course of the left innominate vein in a child with atrial septal defect

Case report A boy with Down syndrome, aged 2.5 years, was referred to the Department for corrective cardiac surgery of a large ostium secundum atrial septal defect (ASD II) (Qp: Qs = 2.8 : 1). The general condition of the child was good, with no signs of overt heart failure. Echocardiography Preoperative echocardiographic evaluation (Fig. 1, Fig. 2, Fig. 3, Fig. 4, Fig. 5, Fig. 6) additionally revealed the presence of a wide vein with an atypical course in the posterior mediastinum. The

Wojciech Mądry, Maciej A. Karolczak, Krzysztof Grabowski

Journal of Ultrasonography , ISSUE 76, 71–74

case-report

Multimodality imaging in a diagnostic and therapeutic process of a patient with infective endocarditis

elevated and there were peripheral infarction foci, transthoracic echocardiography was ordered. This examination turned out to be crucial for establishing a diagnosis and directed further therapeutic steps. Echocardiography revealed normal size and geometry of the cardiac cavities, and ejection fraction was estimated at 70%. Of observed abnormalities, attention was drawn to a mobile, 23-millimeter structure linked with aortic valve cusps (right and non-coronary), indicative of bacterial vegetation (Fig

Maria Binkiewicz-Orluk, Marcin Konopka, Katarzyna Sierakowska-Sitkiewicz, Wojciech Król, Leszek Królicki, Marek Kuch, Wojciech Braksator

Journal of Ultrasonography , ISSUE 80, 61–66

Case report

Supravalvar mitral ring with a parachute mitral valve and subcoarctation of the aorta in a child with hemodynamically significant VSD. A study of the morphology, echocardiographic diagnostics and surgical therapy

complex (syndrome). Diagnosing an additional, hemodynamically significant anatomic defect during echocardiography was possible thanks to the detection of marked mobility limitation of the ring-adjacent part of the mitral valve mural leaflet as well as of an atypical image of turbulence occurring during the inflow from the left atrium to the left ventricle. The early diagnosis made it possible to perform complete correction of this complex congenital defect within a single operation.

Wojciech Mądry, Maciej A. Karolczak, Krzysztof Grabowski

Journal of Ultrasonography , ISSUE 70, 206–211

case-report

Prenatal diagnosis of congenitally corrected transposition of the great arteries

great arteries diagnosed in utero, focusing on the clues necessary to make the prenatal diagnosis during fetal cardiac ultrasound/echocardiography. Case report A 21-year-old secundigravida at 37 weeks of gestation was referred to a fetal cardiologist due to suspected transposition of the great arteries. She was a healthy pregnant woman, and there was no familial history of a congenital heart disease, infectious diseases or consumption of any drugs. Fetal echocardiography showed atrioventricular

Nathalie Jeanne Bravo-Valenzuela, Alberto Borges Peixoto, Edward Araujo Júnior

Journal of Ultrasonography , ISSUE 79, 314–317

Case report

Anomalous origin of the right coronary artery from the main pulmonary artery treated surgically in a 6-week-old infant. A case report and review of the literature

BackgroundIn the present paper, the authors describe a case of a rare congenital defect – anomalous origin of the right coronary artery from the main pulmonary artery diagnosed in a 5-week-old infant who was deemed eligible for surgical treatment based solely on echocardiography. Such anatomical abnormalities of the coronary arteries are subtle and thus extremely difficult to visualize, especially in patients in whom permanent extensive damage of the cardiac muscle has not yet occurred. For

Krzysztof Grabowski, Maciej Aleksander Karolczak, Ewa Zacharska-Kokot, Wojciech Mądry, Jacek Pająk

Journal of Ultrasonography , ISSUE 72, 71–76

review-article

Fetal cardiac function by three-dimensional ultrasound using 4D-STIC and VOCAL – an update

Introduction Congenital heart disease (CHD) occurs in one to two newborns per 100 live births and is an important cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality(1–4). Prenatal screening and diagnosis of anatomical and functional heart malformations are possible by ultrasonography and fetal echocardiography, allowing for planning of delivery and, in some cases, prenatal therapy, favoring the postnatal prognosis of CHD(5–7). Cardiac function is routinely evaluated in fetuses with anatomical

Nathalie Jeanne Bravo-Valenzuela, Alberto Borges Peixoto, Milene Carvalho Carrilho, Ana Letícia Siqueira Pontes, Caroline Cevante Chagas, Christiane Simioni, Edward Araujo Júnior

Journal of Ultrasonography , ISSUE 79, 287–294

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