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Review Paper

Current knowledge about epilepsy and associated psychosocial conditions

Introduction. Social knowledge about epilepsy has significant influence on shaping attitudes towards people with this disorder. Aim. The aim of the article was to find out an answer to the following question: How does the level of knowledge and perceiving people with epilepsy differ across societies of different countries? Material and methods. We evaluated 30 publications published between 2000 and 2013 on measuring the knowledge about epilepsy and psycho-social functioning of people with

Dorota Talarska, Joanna Stanisławska, Magdalena Strugała, Patrycja Talarska

Journal of Epileptology , ISSUE 1, 25–36


Cannabinoids in the treatment of epilepsy – an updated review

INTRODUCTION Epilepsy is one of the most common disorders of the nervous system. It is a health problem as well as a social and economic one. Epilepsy affects over 65 million people worldwide (CDC, 2012). Patients who suffer from seizures in spite of the administration of two subsequent, appropriately-selected antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) that are well applied and tolerated, are diagnosed with refractory epilepsy (Kwan et al., 2010). It is estimated that 30% of people with epilepsy continue to

Marcin Kopka

Journal of Epileptology , 35–42


Pharmacological and non-pharmacological approaches to life threatening conditions in epilepsy

BACKGROUND Mortality in the cohort of epileptic patients is considerably higher than in the general population. It is estimated to be 1.6–11.4 times higher than in healthy people and the ratio for epileptic children may be between 5.3 and up to 9.0 times higher (Lathoo, Sander, 2005). The bigger risk of death in epileptic patients is attributed to a variety of factors, which may be classified into several types. Among the most frequently listed factors there is the course of the epilepsy

Barbara Błaszczyk, Aleksandra Walczak, Natalia Ścirka, Agnieszka Konarzewska, Barbara Miziak, Stanisław J. Czuczwar

Journal of Epileptology , 15–26

Congress Report

20th Annual Meeting of the German-Austrian-swiss epilepsy Working Group

The stated purpose of the meeting was to summarize „current, new and proven approaches in diagnostics and epilepsy therapy”, to define optimal clinical practice and scientific research areas, highlight advances in clinical and basic science and to identify future approaches or directions in epilepsy treatment.

Hermann Stefan

Journal of Epileptology , ISSUE 2, 123–125


Coumarins as potential supportive medication for the treatment of epilepsy

effect of coumarins on the central nervous system (CNS). Therefore, numerous experimental studies focus on disorders such as epilepsy, schizophrenia, depressive and anxiety disorders or Alzheimer’s disease (Skalicka-Woźniak et al., 2016). Possible anticonvulsant properties of natural coumarins Epileptic seizures are the result of excessive abnormal neuronal activity in the brain. The primary treatment for epilepsy is the administration of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). These drugs reduce the frequency

Jarosław Bryda, Mirosław Zagaja, Aleksandra Szewczyk, Marta Andres-Mach

Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis , ISSUE 2, 126–132

Review Paper

Natural course of treated epilepsy and medico-social outcomes. Turku studies. Part II

Introduction. Population-based data on the prognosis of childhood-onset epilepsy were almost nonexistent in the 1960s. This prompted me to start an epidemiological prospective study on children with epilepsy. Aim. To study the medical and social outcome of children with epilepsy. Methods. The most important personal data on the natural course and outcome were reviewed and compared with the relevant data of other investigators. Results and discussion. The natural course of treated epilepsy is

Matti Sillanpää

Journal of Epileptology , ISSUE 1, 25–39

Practice Report

Cognitive impairment predicts social disability in persons with epilepsy

Introduction. Cognitive dysfunction is one of the main comorbidities of epilepsy which co-exists with seizures and contributes to the adverse impact of the disease on employment, education and interpersonal relationships. A fundamental question regarding cognitive dysfunction in epilepsy goes as follows: in comparison to seizures, what role does cognitive dysfunction play in causing social disability? The purpose of this review was to evaluate our understanding of the role cognitive impairment

Krzysztof A. Bujarski, Gabriella Wozniak, Erik J. Kobylarz

Journal of Epileptology , ISSUE 2, 89–97

Original Paper

The ILAE definition of drug resistant epilepsy and its clinical applicability compared with “older” established definitions

Background. Early identification of potential epilepsy surgery candidates is essential to the treatment process. Aim. To evaluate the clinical applicability of the ILAE definition of drug resistant epilepsy and its potential in identifying surgical candidates earlier compared to three established “older” definitions of drug resistant epilepsy. Material and methods. Retrospective analysis of 174 patients who underwent epilepsy surgery between 1998 and 2009. Clinical factors and

Alexandra Rohracher, Judith Dobesberger, Claudia A. Granbichler, Julia Höfler, Giorgi Kuchukhidze, Martin Ortler, Iris Unterberger, Gerald Walser, Aljoscha Thomschewski, Eugen Trinka

Journal of Epileptology , ISSUE 1, 39–44


Ketogenic diet in epilepsy: an updated review

INTRODUCTION Epilepsy is one of the most common disorders of the nervous system. It is a health problem as well as a social and economic one. Approximately 50 million people around the world suffer from epilepsy, with around 3.4 million of them in Europe. Every year 2 million new cases are diagnosed. The incidence in children is roughly of 5–7 per 100 000 per year, whereas the prevalence is of 20–60 per 100 000 (Rezaei et al., 2017; Kinderen et al., 2011). In spite of significant progress in

Magdalena Dudzińska

Journal of Epileptology , ISSUE 1-2, 27–47

Review Paper

The medial temporal lobe epilepsy is a bilateral disease – novel aspects

Introduction. Medial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) is the most frequent form of epilepsy in adulthood. It is classified as local/regional epilepsy. However, there is increasing evidence of the involvement of both temporal lobes and this provides abundant arguments to question this view, and consider MTLE as one of the typical bilateral system epilepsies. Aim. To provide a contemporary review of medial temporal lobe epilepsy, discussing the bilateral aspects, with reference to epilepsy surgery

Péter Halász

Journal of Epileptology , ISSUE 2, 141–155

Original Paper

Handedness, cognitive processing and intelligence in patients with epilepsy

Introduction. The current knowledge of significance of some neurobiological and clinical variables for the development of cognitive deterioration in patients with epilepsy remains sparse and controversial. Aim. The current study has been carried out in order to elucidate the role of handedness in terms of influence on cognitive processing and intelligence in patients with epilepsy. Material and methods. One hundred and thirty two patients (62 males, 70 females, aged 27.8 ± 8.9 years

Vladimir V. Kalinin, Daniya M. Nazmetdinova, Alexander V. Basamygin

Journal of Epileptology , ISSUE 1, 5–10

Review Paper

Epidemiology and long-term Turku outcome of childhood-onset epilepsy and mortality. Personal experiences. Part I

Introduction. Epidemiological studies on epilepsy were long based, with few exceptions, on hospital and institution patients with a subsequent bias toward more difficult cases and the reported prevalence and incidence rates were often obviously too low. Few data are available on the temporal changes in the incidence of epilepsy. Aim. To study the prevalence and incidence in an unselected child population including all the children living either in the society or in the institution, temporal

Matti Sillanpää

Journal of Epileptology , ISSUE 2, 149–157

Review Paper

The role of cannabinoids and endocannabinoid system in the treatment of epilepsy

Introduction. The treatment of epilepsy is still a major challenge. Despite the introduction of many new antiepileptic drugs, approximately 30% of patients still remain drug resistant. In the absence of a satisfactory therapy outcome, which is sometimes associated with numerous side effects, there is a need for new and effective drugs with low toxicity. Cannabinoids have been shown in preliminary animal model studies and in studies of patients with epilepsy to have antiepileptic activity. Aim

Monika Pędracka, Jacek Gawłowicz

Journal of Epileptology , ISSUE 2, 131–138

Review Paper

Depression and anxiety in people with epilepsy: Why should we identify?

Introduction. People with epilepsy (PWE) have a higher risk of developing depression and anxiety than people without epilepsy. However, understanding and management of that issue remain under-recognized. Aim. To emphesize: a) the relationship between depression, anxiety, and epilepsy, and b) to suggest practical strategies for their identification by clinicians. Methods. The current literatures was reviewed investigating the impact of depression and anxiety in PWE and those examining the

Sung-Pa Park

Journal of Epileptology , ISSUE 1, 57–62

Original Paper

The interrelationship between clinical and immunity variables in epilepsy

Introduction. The role of cellular immunity in the pathogenesis of epilepsy, as an interaction between immunity and clinical and neurobiological variables is not properly understood. Aim. The aim of the current study was to investigate the possible relationship between epilepsy forms, gender, focus localization, lateralization, handedness and cellular immunity with seizures frequency, their severity and length of therapeutic remission in partial forms of epilepsy. Material and methods. Ninety

Vladimir V. Kalinin, Kirill Y. Subbotin, Natalia G. Yermakova

Journal of Epileptology , ISSUE 2, 95–104


Ictal asystole with reduced cardiac sympathetic function in new-onset symptomatic epilepsy

). Nevertheless, ictal bradycardias and asystoles are of relevance for the affected patients, since they usually go along with syncopes, often accompanied by falls and risk of injury. A higher risk of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) in these patients has been widely discussed but could not be proven yet. The pathophysiology underlying ictal bradyarrhythmias is not entirely clear, however, a key role is attributed to an imbalance in the autonomic nerve system (Sforza et al., 2014). In patients with

Julia Matzen, Friedhelm C. Schmitt, Michael C. Kreissl, Jürgen Voges, Hans-Jochen Heinze, Imke Galazky

Journal of Epileptology , 43–47

Original Paper

Detection of SCN1A mutations in patients with severe myoclonic epilepsy in infancy by custom resequence array

Introduction. Very few epilepsy phenotypes have been associated with causative genes; nevertheless, it is becoming possible, for some epilepsy phenotypes, to predict the most efficacious anti-epileptic drugs for patients based on their genetic makeup. The development of individualized medicine based on genetic information and the genetic diagnosis of epilepsy are expected to greatly improve the diagnosis and treatment of epilepsy. Here, we developed a DNA array (resequencing array) for the

Takayuki Sugawara, Shuichi Yoshida, Naoko Onodera, Kazumaru Wada, Shinichi Hirose, Sunao Kaneko

Journal of Epileptology , ISSUE 1, 5–13

Review Paper

Biofeedback as complementary treatment in patients with epilepsy – an underestimated therapeutic option? Review, results, discussion

Background. Biofeedback methods represent side effect free complementary options in the treatment of epilepsy. In this paper we review the current status of these methods in terms of clinical study results and their evaluation by systematic review papers. Possible mechanisms of action in biofeedback methods are discussed. Aim. To present the current status of biofeedback methods applied to patients with epilepsy. Material and Methods. With a literature search up to 10/2016 we screened

Carmen Uhlmann, Walter Fröscher

Journal of Epileptology , ISSUE 2, 173–180

Review Paper

Anticonvulsant therapy in brain-tumor related epilepsy

Background. The lifetime risk of patients with brain tumors to have focal epileptic seizures is 10–100%; the risk depends on different histology. Specific guidelines for drug treatment of brain tumor-related seizures have not yet been established. Aim. This review addresses the special aspects of antiepileptic drug (AED) therapy in brain tumor-related epilepsy. Methods. We analyzed the literature up to December 2015. Results. Based on current evidence the management of tumor-related

Walter Fröscher, Timo Kirschstein, Johannes Rösche

Journal of Epileptology , ISSUE 1, 41–56

Review Paper

Recent advances in pathophysiology studies and treatment of epilepsy in neurocutaneous disorders

Introduction. Epilepsy that is associated with neurocutaneous disorders seriously deteriorates quality of life and cognitive outcome of affected children. Recent advances in epilepsy pathophysiology raise hopes for better treatment results in this difficult group of patients. Aim. The aim of this review is to present recent treatment recommendations as well as current research progress in the most frequent neurocutaneous disorders. Material and methods. We analyzed PubMed database to select the

Krzysztof Sadowski, Sergiusz Jóźwiak

Journal of Epileptology , ISSUE 2, 99–108

Case report

Successful treatment with adjunctive lacosamide in a patient with long term “drug resistant” focal epilepsy

Introduction. A significant number of patients suffering from epilepsy prove to be resistant to antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). Recent studies, however, suggest that 10–20% of seemingly drug resistant patients may still become seizure-free under the influence of subsequent dosage modifications. Case report. We report on a young man with cryptogenic focal epilepsy. He had his first seizure at the age of fifteen. His seizure frequency was decreased during the following 11 years. However

Walter Fröscher, Alois Rauber

Journal of Epileptology , ISSUE 1, 51–55


Do minocycline and other suppressors of microglia reactivity have a future in prevention or treatment of epilepsy?

Introduction. An increasing body of evidence points to an important role of neuroinflammatory processes in the pathomechanism of epilepsy. This hypothesis is mainly supported by data showing an increase of pro-inflammatory cytokine levels and glia activation in animal models of epilepsy and in brain tissue of epileptic patients. On the other hand, less emphasis has been put on pharmacological verification of this hypothesis. Aim. The aim of this review is to summarize current knowledge on

Władysław Lasoń, Joanna Ślusarczyk, Magdalena Regulska, Monika Leśkiewicz, Agnieszka Basta-Kaim

Journal of Epileptology , ISSUE 1-2, 9–20


Validation of the Polish version of the Neurological Disorders Depression Inventory for Epilepsy (P-NDDI-E)

INTRODUCTION Patients with epilepsy (PWEs) have worse quality of life than individuals from the general population not only because of occurrence of epileptic seizures, but also due to comorbid psychiatric disorders, especially depression (Jacoby et al., 2009; Kanner et al., 2012a; Yue et al., 2011). These symptoms are severe and more frequent in population of patients with epilepsy than in the general population (Jalava and Sillanpää, 1996; Kwon and Park, 2014; Tellez-Zenteno et al., 2007

Bartłomiej Gmaj, Jerzy Majkowski, Jan Szczypiński, Joanna Jędrzejczak, Beata Majkowska-Zwolińska, Marcin Wojnar, Jacek Gawłowicz, Piotr Januszko, Sung Pa Park, Ewa Nagańska, Simon Ziemka, Dorota Wołyńczyk-Gmaj

Journal of Epileptology , ISSUE 1-2, 59–64


Long-term offspring epilepsy outcomes following planned assisted homebirth versus hospital birth

morbidity. According to Bolten et al. (2016), spontaneous deliveries were more likely and medical interventions fewer in homebirths than in hospital births. The existing literature on the risks for mother and offspring of planned homebirth vs hospital birth is limited to perinatal events. AIM Our aim was to study the long-term outcomes of offspring after planned homebirth in a cohort of patients with childhood-onset epilepsy, with special reference to mortality, cognitive disability, and seizure

Matti Sillanpää, Maiju M. Saarinen, Päivi Polo-Kantola

Journal of Epileptology , ISSUE 1-2, 7–14



This paper aims to analyze the optimization of Epilepsy risk levels from EEG signals using Fuzzy based Elman-Chaotic Optimization. The EEG (Electroencephalogram) signals of twenty patients are collected from Sri Ramakrishna Hospitals at Coimbatore. The raw EEG signals are sampled and various parameters like energy, energy, variance, peaks, sharp and spike waves, duration, events and covariance. The fuzzy techniques are applied as a first level classifier to classify the risk levels of epilepsy

Dr.R HariKumar, T. Vijayakumar

International Journal on Smart Sensing and Intelligent Systems , ISSUE 4, 612–635


Determinants of medication withdrawal strategy in the epilepsy monitoring unit*

BACKGROUND Video-EEG monitoring is a vital diagnostic tool in epilepsy. It is the gold standard in distinguishing epilepsy from non-epileptic seizures and is also used in presurgical evaluation of drug-resistant epilepsy. Questions remain regarding the optimal management of patients during VEEG admission. Previous work on duration of monitoring found that 3–5 days is average (Nordli, 2006; Hupalo et al., 2016). In patients with frequent events the majority had a typical event within two days

Alendia Hartshorn, Yasser Shahrour, Angeline S. Andrew, Krzysztof Bujarski

Journal of Epileptology , ISSUE 1-2, 15–19

Review Paper

The relationship of medial temporal lobe epilepsy with the declarative memory system

Introduction. Medial temporal lobe of epilepsy (MTLE) is considered as local/regional epilepsy. However, as was discussed in Part I of this review (Halasz, 2016a) there is more evidence regarding the involvement of both temporal lobes so as to consider MTLE as one of the typical bilateral system epilepsies. Aim. To provide contemporary review of MTLE in relation to the declarative memory system and the newly recognized hippocampo-frontal memory consolidation during slow wave sleep. Methods. A

Péter Halász

Journal of Epileptology , ISSUE 2, 157–165

Case report

Ictal Forced Repetitive Swearing in Frontal Lobe Epilepsy: Case report and review of the literature

Introduction. Dominant presentation of ictal forced repetitive swearing has been rarely addressed and could be misdiagnosed. Case report. We report a 45-year-old man with a long history of right frontal lobe epilepsy (FLE) who developed forced repetitive swearing during hypermotor seizures. His seizures were refractory to different antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). Scalp video-EEG telemetry suggested a right frontal epileptic focus. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) suggested focal cortical dysplasia

Marjan Dolatshahi, Alexei Yankovsky

Journal of Epileptology , ISSUE 2, 113–119

Case report

Cognitive functions in myoclonic epilepsy with ragged red fibres – a case report

Introduction. Myoclonic epilepsy with ragged red fibers (MERRF) is a rare, progressive mitochondrial disease affecting multiple systems, including the central nervous system. Typical MERRF symptoms include: myoclonus, epileptic seizures, ataxia and cognitive decline. In mitochondrial diseases selective cognitive impairment or generalized decline, called mitochondrial dementia, is usually diagnosed. Description of case. We present the case of an 18-year-old patient with progressive neurological

Martyna Domańska, Emilia J. Sitek, Michał Schinwelski, Maria Mazurkiewicz-Bełdzińska, Agnieszka Matheisel, Jarosław Sławek

Journal of Epileptology , ISSUE 1, 69–74

Original Paper

The lateralizing and localizing value of peri-ictal cough in epileptic seizures

Introduction. Coughing may be observed as an epiphenomenon during or after epileptic seizures. Aim. In this paper we discuss the lateralization and localization value of cough as an epileptic peri/post ictal semiological phenomenon. Material and Methods. Seven patients presenting cough as a part of their symptomatology are presented. We will discuss cough in the context of these seven patients. Results. Six out of these seven patients were multidrug resistant temporal lobe epilepsy patients

Bektaş Korkmaz, Gülsün Erşen, Şakir Delil, Çiğdem Özkara, S. Naz Yeni

Journal of Epileptology , ISSUE 2, 71–77

Original Paper

The effect of seizures on functional status of people with spastic forms of cerebral palsy

Background. Cerebral palsy (CP) is the most common childhood motor impairment. Epilepsy affects approximately one third of patients with CP. It is characterized by earlier disclosure, it is more severe and shows greater resistance than that of the general epilepsy treatment, associated with necessity for polytherapy. Its presence can result in gradual loss of function, loss of posture in non-ambulant individuals with severe disabilities and cognitive impairment risk, behavioural disorders and

Agata Michalska, Janusz Wendorff

Journal of Epileptology , ISSUE 2, 91–102

Research paper

Aberrant changes of somatostatin and neuropeptide Y in brain of a genetic rat model for epilepsy: tremor rat

Excessive excitation or loss of inhibitory neurotransmission has been closely related to epileptic activity. Somatostatin (SST) and Neuropeptide Y (NPY) are members of endogenous neuropeptides which are recognized as important modulator of classical neurotransmitter, distributed abundantly in mammalian central nervous system. Abnormal expression of these two neuropeptides evidenced in some epileptic models highlights the relevance of SST or NPY in the pathogenesis of epilepsy. The tremor rat

Xiaoxue Xu, Feng Guo, Xinze Cai, Jun Yang, Jiuhan Zhao, Dongyu Min, Qianhui Wang, Liying Hao, Jiqun Cai

Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis , ISSUE 3, 165–175

Case report

Burns from foul play? No – previously unsuspected epilepsy

Introduction. Injuries such as burns may occur from unwitnessed and unsuspected new onset epilepsy with forensic implications. Case report. A young woman was found with >25% 2nd and 3rd degree body burns after an unwitnessed morning event in a shower. Discussion. The onset of tonic-clonic seizures and limb jerks in adolescence with a typical EEG recording of 3–4/second spike/polyspike-and-waves are diagnostic of Juvenile Myoclonic Epilepsy (JME). Worldwide there is a significant

Peter W. Kaplan

Journal of Epileptology , ISSUE 2, 105–107

Original Paper

Diagnosis of epilepsy – consequences for work and professional activities

Introduction. The correct diagnosis of epileptic seizures and non-epileptic attacks has a decisive influence on treatment, counseling and duration of possible work limitations. Diagnostic efforts should aim towards classifying the seizure as precisely as possible. For risk assessments, e.g. at the workplace, a close cooperation and networking of all professionals involved in the epilepsy treatment, care and consultation processes is required. Aim. To present guidelines for assessment of

Tobias Knieß, Hermann Stefan, Peter Brodisch

Journal of Epileptology , ISSUE 2, 103–112

Review Paper

The epileptic multifactorial patient’s burden. Review of the topic

Background. Approximately 26% of the burden of neurologic diseases is due to epilepsy. Its negative impact reflects mainly on people with epilepsy (PWE) themselves. Aims. To highlight the negative impacts of epilepsy on the lives of PEWs so as to identify a realistic approach to their individual needs. Methods. For recently published papers PubMed and MEDLINE databases were used. In addition relevant references mentioned in the searched articles were also considered. Review and discussion

José Pimentel

Journal of Epileptology , ISSUE 2, 167–172


Clinical characteristics of forced normalization and alternative psychosis with special consideration of the new anticonvulsants

BACKGROUND In 2007, we published a review “Alternative psychoses of epilepsy” in Epileptologia (Fröscher and Steinert, 2007). In May 2019, Professor Jerzy Majkowski in his capacity of Editor-in-Chief, proposed an update of this review and we agreed to do so in mid-2020. Professor Majkowski always had a special interest in psychiatric disturbances in epilepsy, and he himself published on the subject of forced normalization (FN; Majkowski, 2005). We are deeply moved that Professor Majkowski

Walter Fröscher, Volker Faust, Tilman Steinert

Journal of Epileptology , 7–13

Original Paper

Actions related to International Bureau for Epilepsy during my term as President 2013–2017

The International Bureau for Epilepsy (IBE) Executive Committee for the term 2013–2017 began in June 2013 during the 30th International Epilepsy Congress in Montreal. From the beginning, our primary goals were to fulfil the mission of our organisation and address problems such as awareness, education, and social issues, while promoting and protecting the human rights of persons with epilepsy (PWE) and improving trans-regional equity in access to health care services, improved prevention

Athanasios Covanis

Journal of Epileptology , ISSUE 1-2, 37–46

Original Paper

EEG characteristics of déjà vu phenomenon

Introduction. Déjà vu (DV, from French “already seen”) is an aberration of psychic activity associated with transitory erroneous perception of novel circumstances, objects, or people as already known. Aim. Investigation of clinical and diagnostic significance of derealization episodes in epilepsy. Materials and methods. The study involved 166 individuals (mean age 25.2 ± 9.2 yrs; 63.2% women). DV episodes were characterized and compared in groups of healthy

Alexander V. Chervyakov, Victor V. Gnezditskii, Pavel N. Vlasov, Galina V. Kalmykova

Journal of Epileptology , ISSUE 1, 27–35

Original Paper

Neurobiological and clinical predictors of remission and antiepileptic treatment efficacy in partial epilepsies

Introduction. The current knowledge of significance of some neurobiological and clinical variables in the prediction of remission length and seizures reduction in partial epilepsies remains sparse and even controversial. Aim. The current study has been carried out in order to evaluate the possible relationship between epilepsy forms, gender, focus lateralization and handedness with therapeutic remission and seizures reduction during antiepileptic treatment in persons with partial forms of

Vladimir V. Kalinin, Anna A. Zemlyanaya, Elena V. Zheleznova, Lyudmila V. Sokolova

Journal of Epileptology , ISSUE 1, 15–25

Original Paper

The quality of life of children with epilepsy in Poland – the opinion of children and their parents

Background. Every chronic illness, including epilepsy, has a negative effect on both the quality of life of the sufferer as well as on their relationship with their surroundings. Aims. To investigate the quality of life of children suffering from epilepsy and analyse how they assessed and scored their experiences compared to their parents. Materials and methods. The study included 209 children with epilepsy and their parents. The research tool was a questionnaire for gathering demographic and

Dorota Talarska, Michał Michalak, Patrycja Talarska

Journal of Epileptology , ISSUE 2, 105–113

Review Paper

Neurostimulation, neuromodulation, and the treatment of epilepsies

Introduction. Neurostimulation and neuromodulation are techniques that may be able to affect the course of epilepsy. In the last 20 years, since the approval of VNS, we have observed a surge of studies assessing the potential of other devices and techniques for the treatment of pharmacoresistant epilepsies including deep brain stimulation (DBS), responsive neurostimulation (RNS), trigeminal nerve stimulation (TNS), transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), and repetitive transcranial

Lauren B. Bolden, Sandipan Pati, Jerzy P. Szaflarski

Journal of Epileptology , ISSUE 1, 45–59

Original Paper

Diagnoses and referral pattern at a first seizure clinic in London

Background. Epilepsy is among the most frequent neurological conditions and it is estimated that approximately 8% of the population experience a seizure at some time in their lives. Aim. To examine the characteristics of patients referred to a First Seizure Clinic (FSC) at a University Hospital in South-West London. Methods. All subjects referred to the FSC at St George’s University Hospitals between January and December 2015 were included in this audit. Results. From a total of 257

Duncan Palka, Mahinda Yogarajah, Hannah R. Cock, Marco Mula

Journal of Epileptology , ISSUE 1-2, 31–36


The influence of clinical and immune variables on psychopathological syndromes in partial epilepsies in relation to handedness

BACKGROUND Epilepsy represents neurological disease with a broad palette of concomitant psychopathological disorders. These disorders cause additional issues in the life of patients with epilepsy and make worse their social and clinical prognosis. The range of psychopathological disorders spreads from affective disorders, including depression and anxiety, to severe psychosis and mental deterioration that demands the precise and rapid diagnostics and adequate treatment. At present several

Vladimir V. Kalinin, Elena V. Zheleznova, Kirill Y. Subbotin, Natalia G. Yermakova, Anna A. Zemlyanaya, Lyudmila V. Sokolova

Journal of Epileptology , 17–25

Review Paper

Jeavons syndrome – updated review

Introduction. Eyelid myoclonia and absences (ELMA) was first described by Jeavons in 1977 as a separate type of photosensitive epilepsy. Aim and method. The aim is to consider the updated electro-clinical pathophysiology and to discuss terminology, classification and differential diagnosis. The review includes our own research and relevant papers on the subject of Jeavons syndrome (JS). Review and differential diagnosis. Definition: Jeavons syndrome is a generalized idiopathic (genetic

Athanasios Covanis

Journal of Epileptology , ISSUE 2, 113–123

Original Paper

Russian experience of using perampanel in daily clinical practice. Preliminary report

Introduction. Perampanel (PER) (Fycompa) 5'-(2-cyanophenyl)-1'-phenyl-2,3'-bipyridinyl-6'(1'H)-on is the newest antiepileptic drug and is the first-in-class selective non-competitive antagonist of ionotropic AMPA glutamate receptors of the postsynaptic neuronal membrane. The aim was to summarize Russian experience in using PER in daily clinical practice, and for this purpose the results of its use as an add-on treatment for focal epilepsy were assessed retrospectively

Pavel Vlasov, Vladimir Karlov, Irina Zhidkova, Aleksandr Chervyakov, Oleg Belyaev, Iosif Volkov, Diana Dmitrenko, Antonina Karas, Tatiana Kazennykh, Olga Miguskina, Anna Moskvicheva, Elena Paramonova, Irina Ponomareva

Journal of Epileptology , ISSUE 1, 7–14

Case report

Concomitant treatment with imipenem causes a rapid and extensive decrease in the plasma concentrations of valproic acid

Background. Valproic acid (VPA) is a wide-spectrum antiepileptic drug used both in children and in adults. We describe a clinically important interaction between VPA and imipenem, a carbapenem antimicrobial. Case presentation. Our patient was a 19-year-old man with childhood onset of mental retardation and severe epilepsy. He was hospitalized due to pneumonia. His antiepileptic drugs, including VPA, were administered intravenously. Due to pneumonia, intravenously administered imipenem was

Tapani Keränen, Hanna Kuusisto

Journal of Epileptology , ISSUE 1, 63–66

Research paper

Interaction between urethane and cannabinoid CB1 receptor agonist and antagonist in penicillin-induced epileptiform activity

Previous experimental studies have shown that various anesthetics alter the effects of cannabinoid agonists and antagonists on the cardiac response to different stimuli. Since no data have shown an interaction between urethane and cannabinoid signaling in epilepsy, we examined the suitability of urethane with regard to testing the effects of a cannabinoid CB1 receptor agonist and an antagonist on penicillin-induced epileptiform activity in rats. Permanent screw electrodes for

Gokhan Arslan, Sabiha Kubra Alici, Mustafa Ayyildiz, Erdal Agar

Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis , ISSUE 2, 128–136


Rational polytherapy: Myth or reality?

BACKGROUND Until the seventies and eighties of the last century, the pharmacological treatment of epilepsy was based on polytherapy and commercially available medications generally combining a barbiturate, phenobarbital (PB), with phenytoin (PHT). Then, the strategy changed and the regimen of monotherapy was established for the treatment of epilepsy (Reynolds et al., 1976; Reynolds and Shorvon, 1981). During this period, whenever polytherapy was required, the rationale for choosing two

José Pimentel, José Manuel Lopes Lima

Journal of Epileptology , 27–34

Review Paper

Sudden Unexpected Death In Epilepsy (SUDEP) – an update

mechanisms and eventually to its prevention. SUDEP occurs as fatal coexistence of several predisposing risk factors. Diagnosis of SUDEP is underestimated and underused. In patient with high risk factors for SUDEP, in particular, with AED noncompliance, prognosis of epilepsy should be discussed with patient.

Jerzy Majkowski

Journal of Epileptology , ISSUE 1, 37–54


The potential mechanisms of effect of valproic acid on lipid profiles: an updated review

INTRODUCTION Valproic acid (2-propylpentanoic acid) is a branched-short-chain fatty acid derived from valeric acid which is extracted from Valeriana officinalis (Fan et al., 2016; Tomson et al., 2016). Valproic acid is commonly used for the treatment of epilepsy, psychiatric disorders such as bipolar disorder and anxiety and prophylaxis of a migraine (Ghodke-Puranik et al., 2013; Terbach and Williams, 2009; Tseng et al., 2017). Valproic acid is well absorbed and has a very high ability to bind

Santoso Jaeri, Wardah Rahmatul Islamiyah

Journal of Epileptology , ISSUE 1-2, 49–54

Review Paper

Failure of a first regimen of monotherapy to control the newly diagnosed epilepsies. What to do next?

Background. Monotherapy is the choice regimen to treat newly diagnosed epilepsies. However, if it fails, several strategies may be followed. Aim. To discuss the treatment options when an initial monotherapy regimen fails. Methods. We reviewed the relevant literature on the topic by using PubMed. Review and Discussion. Approximately 64% of people with epilepsy (PWE) de novo are free of seizures with the first appropriate antiepileptic drug (AED) in monotherapy. The type (first versus second

José Pimentel

Journal of Epileptology , ISSUE 2, 109–112

Original Paper

Variations in cognitive functioning in genetic generalized epilepsy: four case studies

Introduction. The traditional view of cognition in idiopathic or genetic generalized epilepsy (GGE) is that “one size fits all” i.e. only very mild generalized impairment might be detected, if any. This paper describes four case studies of cognitive functioning in GGE patients with photosensitivity and reflexive seizures. Aim. The aim was to discover whether each individual’s set of cognitive deficits varied in accordance with his/her other clinical phenomena such as

Evangelina E. Ballini, Edward Helmes, Bruce K. Schefft

Journal of Epileptology , ISSUE 1, 25–37


Glucose transporter type 1 deficiency syndrome (GLUT1-DS) – delayed diagnosis and treatment. A case report

includes 14 different types of GLUT transporters in humans. Several rare congenital disorders, due to mutations in various SLC2 genes have already been reported (Pearson et al., 2013). The SLC2A1 gene (MIM 138140) is the only one in which pathogenic variants are known to cause various glucose transporter type deficiency syndromes: GLUT1-DS type1 (MIM 606777), GLUT1-DS type 2 (MIM612126), GLUT1-DS with pseudo hyperkalemia and hemolysis (MIM 608885) and idiopathic generalized epilepsy-12 (MIM 614847

Piotr Bogucki, Ewa Nagańska, Marta Jurek, Dorota Hoffman-Zacharska, Anna Kutkowska-Kaźmierczak, Ewa Obersztyn, Urszula Fiszer

Journal of Epileptology , 49–54

Research paper

Effects of Cornus mas L. and Morus rubra L. extracts on penicillin-induced epileptiform activity: an electrophysiological and biochemical study#

Traditionally, Morus rubra L. (Moraceae) (red mulberry) and Cornus mas L. (Cornacea) (cornelian cherry) fruits are eaten fresh and are also used in marmalades, juices, jam, natural dyes in Turkey and are believed to have beneficial effects in case of multiple health issues such as antipyretic, diarrhea and intestinal parasites. However, the effects of M. rubra and C. mas on epilepsy has not been known. This study evaluates the effects of M. rubra and C. mas extracts on penicillin-induced

Filiz Tubaş, Sedat Per, Abdulkadir Taşdemir, Ayşe Kaçar Bayram, Mehmet Yıldırım, Aydın Uzun, Recep Saraymen, Hakan Gümüş, Ferhan Elmalı, Hüseyin Per

Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis , ISSUE 1, 45–56

Case report

Clinical report: a rare co-occurrence of tuberous sclerosis complex and Rett syndrome in a girl with mental retardation, epilepsy and autism

Introduction. There are some genetic disorders with combination of mental retardation, epilepsy and autism in which the abnormal mammalian Target of Rapamycin (m-TOR) signaling is implicated. The most important of them is tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC), but the disturbances of the m-TOR pathway can also be detected in Rett syndrome (RS), Fragile X syndrome and Down syndrome. We describe the rare case of co-occurrence of TSC and RS. Case study. The female child was born at term by normal

Elena Belousova, Vladimir Sukhorukov, Marina Dorofeeva, Lev Shagam, Dmitrii V. Vlodavetz

Journal of Epileptology , ISSUE 1-2, 47–51


Recommendations of the Polish Society of Epileptology for the treatment of epileptic seizure in adult patients in Poland: an update

… Constantly expand my medical knowledge and bring to the knowledge of the medical world all that I can invent and improve. (Excerpt of the oath of Polish medical schools’ graduates, derived from the Hippocrates, 5th century BC). INTRODUCTION In 2014, a group of Polish epilepsy experts published recommendations of the Polish Society of Epileptology (PSE) for antiepileptic drug (AED) treatment of epileptic seizures in adult patients (Jędrzejczak et al., 2014). The presented therapy outlines

Joanna Jędrzejczak, Beata Majkowska-Zwolińska, Danuta Ryglewicz, Ewa Nagańska, Maria Mazurkiewicz-Bełdzińska

Journal of Epileptology , 9–16

Review Paper

Selected classical and novel antiepileptic drugs – mechanisms of action, neuroprotection, and effectiveness in epileptic and non-epileptic conditions

Introduction. One of the most common neurological disorders is epilepsy, characterised by recurrent spontaneus seizures. Although not fully efficient in ca 30% of patients, pharmacologic treatment of epilepsy plays an important therapeutic approach not only against epilepsy. Aim. To provide data on the mechanism of action, activity and neuroprotective efficacy in experimental conditions, clinical efficacy against epilepsy and non-epileptic diseases of major, classical and newer antiepileptic

Magdalena Chrościńska-Krawczyk, Magdalena Wałek, Bożydar Tylus, Stanisław J. Czuczwar

Journal of Epileptology , ISSUE 1, 37–50

Review Paper

Encephalopathy with Electrical Status Epilepticus in Slow Wave Sleep – a review with an emphasis on regional (perisylvian) aspects

held as a common final pathway originating from different etiologies, including patients with early brain damage (probably involving thalamic structures), but also patients without structural pathology as in atypical evolution of idiopathic regional childhood hyperexcitability syndromes (with Rolandic epilepsy as a prototype). There are hints that genetic predisposition might be an important factor in the development of this process. The two large patient groups (lesional and non-lesional) show the

Peter Halász, Márta Hegyi, Zsuzsa Siegler, András Fogarasi

Journal of Epileptology , ISSUE 2, 71–87

Review Paper

Effect of plant polyphenols on seizures – animal studies

Introduction. Flavonoids are a large group of natural compounds that have been considered to be beneficial in ameliorating some age-dependent disorders. However, a potential use of these compounds in epilepsy treatment has not been systematically reviewed. Aim. This review describes the pharmacological activity of some polyphenols (flavonoids) in different animal models of seizures e.g. pentylenetetrazole-induced seizures, kainate-induced seizures and pentylenetetrazole kindling in rats. Method

Władysław Lasoń, Monika Leśkiewicz

Journal of Epileptology , ISSUE 2, 79–87

Review Paper

Genetic epilepsies. remarks on the proposed “organization of the Epilepsies”

Introduction. Genetic findings in several epilepsy syndromes provide insights into the pathophysiology of specific subtypes of epilepsy and into mechanisms of epileptogenesis, because the genes encoding ion channels, and proteins associated to the vesical synaptic cycle, or involved in energy metabolism, influence neuronal excitability. Aim. The following aspects of genetic epilepsies will be discussed: new proposed “organization of the epilepsies”, genetic and other etiologies

Heinz Gregor Wieser

Journal of Epileptology , ISSUE 1, 11–23

Review Paper

Presurgical diagnosis of epilepsies – concepts and diagnostic tools

Introduction. Numerous reviews of the currently established concepts, strategies and diagnostic tools used in epilepsy surgery have been published. The focus concept which was initially developed by Forster, Penfield and Jasper and popularised and enriched by Luders, is still fundamental for epilepsy surgery. Aim. To present different conceptual views of the focus concept and to discuss more recent network hypothesis, emphasizing so-called "critical modes of an epileptogenic circuit"

Heinz Gregor Wieser

Journal of Epileptology , ISSUE 2, 115–140

Review Paper

Corpus callosum and epilepsies

brain imaging methods. Agenesis or dysgenesis of corpus callosum (AgCC) might be considered an accidental finding. Epileptic seizures occur in up to 89% of patients with AgCC. The causal relationship correctly is questioned. However, additional causative malformations of midline and/or telencephalic structures can be demonstrated in most seizure patients. The interruption of bilateral spread of seizure activities acts as the concept for callosotomy as epilepsy surgery. Indications are drug-resistant

Gerhard Bauer, Elżbieta Płonka-Półtorak, Richard Bauer, Iris Unterberger, Giorgi Kuchukhidze

Journal of Epileptology , ISSUE 2, 89–104

Case report

Both Sides of the Counter

Colin Woodhouse

Australasian Journal of Neuroscience , ISSUE 1, 20–23


The effects of moderate running exercise and L-tyrosine on penicillin-induced epileptiform activity in rats

INTRODUCTION Experimental research using animal models plays an important role in the investigation of the pathogenesis of epilepsy, where epileptic seizures are stimulated in the models. One frequently used experimental epilepsy model is induced by penicillin (Erfanparast and Tamaddonfard 2015; Zhu et al., 2018; Tokiwa et al., 2018). Penicillin administration causes acute and focal epileptic activity similar to the epileptic activity associated with an imbalance between inhibitory and

Yildirim Kayacan, Emin Can Kisa, Babak Elmi Ghojebeigloo, Suleyman Emre Kocacan, Mustafa Ayyildiz, Erdal Agar

Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis , ISSUE 2, 148–154

Case report

Epileptic seizure propagation from the second somatic sensory area to the fronto-medial region, by insular redistribution. A case report and a connectome description

Introduction. The seizure propagation phenomenon by inducing remote symptoms brings several difficulties in finding the seizure onset and delineating the epileptic network which should be taken into consideration in epilepsy surgery. By demonstrating a difficult (MRI negative) epilepsy surgery case explored with invasive presurgical evaluation we highlight the importance to recognise the secondary sensory area and to explore the the parieto-opercular-insular-medial frontal network in certain

Attila Balogh, Péter Halász, Dániel Fabó, Lóránd Erőss

Journal of Epileptology , ISSUE 1, 61–67


Experimental cerebral hemispherectomy in rodent models. A systematic review of current literature

Cerebral hemispherectomy is a neurosurgical procedure that involves surgically removing one hemisphere of the brain, used as a therapeutic option in severe cases of intractable epilepsy. Several animal models have contributed to our understanding of the underlying neuromechanisms. The review was based on a PubMed search using the terms “hemispherectomy” and “mouse” or “rat” or “rodent”, with no limitation of year of study or language. We identified a series of elements that were collected and

Cezar Octavian Morosanu, Razvan Lucian Jurca, Larisa Simonca, Roxana Flavia Ilies, Remus Moldovan, Ioan Stefan Florian, Gabriela Adriana Filip

Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis , ISSUE 1, 14–20

Original Paper

Additive interactions between retigabine and oxcarbazepine in the chimney test and the model of generalized tonic-clonic seizures in mice

Introduction. Patients with pharmacoresistant epilepsy are usually treated with two or more antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). The search for therapeutically efficacious AED combinations is still a challenging issue for clinicians and epileptologists throughout the world. Aim. To determine the interaction profile for the combination of retigabine (RTG) and oxcarbazepine (OXC) in both, the model of tonic-clonic seizures, the maximal electroshock (MES)-induced seizure model and chimney test (motor

Mirosław Zagaja, Barbara Miziak, Katarzyna Załuska, Paweł Marzęda, Bartłomiej Drop, Karolina Załuska-Patel, Grażyna Ossowska, Stanisław J. Czuczwar, Jarogniew J. Łuszczki

Journal of Epileptology , ISSUE 2, 87–94

Research paper

Antimuscarinic-induced convulsions in fasted mice after food intake: no evidence of spontaneous seizures, behavioral changes or neuronal damage

deficits, and hippocampal neuronal damage after single brief seizures in animals and patients with epilepsy.

Nurhan Enginar, Asiye Nurten, Aslı Zengin Türkmen, Gül İpek Gündoğan, Zeynep Güneş Özünal

Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis , ISSUE 4, 373–381

Research Article

Injury Patterns among Individuals Diagnosed with Infantile Autism during Childhood: A Case-Control Study

injuries also seems to differ. Gender, intellectual level, and concurrent epilepsy were not predictive of injury risk.Our results lend support to the notion that injuries that require medical attention are not uncommon among an adult population of people diagnosed with IA during childhood, but they are less common than the rate found in a comparison group from the general population. It is proposed that a diagnosis of IA is related to the likelihood of institutional care, which may have a protective

Svend Erik Mouridsen, Bente Rich, Torben Isager

Scandinavian Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Psychology , ISSUE 2, 88–95


Protective effects of M8-B, a TRPM8 antagonist, on febrile- and pentylenetetrazol-induced seizures

INTRODUCTION Epilepsy is a chronic condition that has beset humans for centuries. Currently, it is estimated that 50 million people suffer from epilepsy and more than 40 types of epilepsy have been identified. This life-threatening disorder is associated with recurrent and unpredictable seizures with sensory, motor, and autonomic attacks, with or without disturbances of consciousness (Falco-Walter et al., 2018). Epileptic seizures are exhibited following synchronized electrical discharges in

Nazanin Zandi, Nosaibeh Riahi Zaniani, Ali Moghimi, Ali Roohbakhsh

Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis , ISSUE 1, 86–91

Review Paper

Antiepileptic drugs as a new therapeutic concept for the prevention of cognitive impairment and Alzheimer’s disease. Recent advances

authors describe A_-induced hyperexcitability of hippocampal nerve cells as the cause of cognitive deficits, the connection of such activity with an increased risk of seizures and epilepsy in patients with MCI/AD, and finally the efficacy of AEDs: valproic acid (VPA), phenytoin (PHT), topiramate (TPM), lamotrigine (LTG), ethosuximide (ESM) and levetiracetam (LEV) in the prevention of cognitive impairment in experimental models and patients with MCI/AD. Conclusions. The majority of the studied AEDs

Krzysztof Sendrowski, Wojciech Sobaniec

Journal of Epileptology , ISSUE 2, 139–147

Original Paper

The pathophysiology of Lennox-Gastaut syndrome – a review of clinico-electrophysiological studies

Introduction. Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (LGS) is a type of therapy-resistant epileptic syndrome. Since the establishment of our Epilepsy Center in 1975 we have performed many studies to assess the clinical symptoms, seizure manifestations, sleep and long-term follow-up of the clinical course and changes on electroencephalographs (EEGs) in patients with LGS. Aim. To review the updated pathophysiology of LGS based on our own clinico-electrophysiological data referring to recent advances in brain

Kazuichi Yagi

Journal of Epileptology , ISSUE 1, 7–23

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