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Review

The physiology of blood platelets and changes of their biological activities in multiple sclerosis

Increasing evidence indicates that blood platelets contribute to diverse processes that extend beyond hemostasis. Many of the same mechanisms that play a role in hemostasis and thrombosis facilitate platelets the participation in other physiological and pathological processes, particularly in the inflammation, the immune response and central nervous system disorders. Platelets are involved in pathophysiology of central nervous system diseases, especially in the pathogenesis of multiple

Barbara Wachowicz, Agnieszka Morel, Elżbieta Miller, Joanna Saluk

Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis , ISSUE 4, 269–281

review-article

Sonographic assessment of the anatomy and common pathologies of clinically important bursae

, predictable and defined spots. Adventitial bursae are formed later during life, at sites of chronic friction or pressure, and are not lined with any synovial layer. There are about 160 different constant bursae in the human body(2). Bursitis refers to the inflammation of a bursa, and it is characterized by synovial thickening, increased amount of fluid within the bursa, localized pain near the inflammation, and adjacent soft tissue swelling(3). Bursitis occurs in many pathological conditions. They include

Slavcho Ivanoski, Violeta Vasilevska Nikodinovska

Journal of Ultrasonography , ISSUE 78, 212–221

research-paper

Prenatal ethanol intoxication and maternal intubation stress alter cell survival and apoptosis in the postnatal development of rat hippocampus

related to cell survival, apoptosis and inflammation, which lack through investigation as related to prenatal ethanol exposure, over a protracted developmental period from birth to the adulthood, for the first time. Methods Subjects Adult (3-4 months old), naive, female (n=25) and male (n=15) Wistar rats, obtained from the Animal Breeding Facility of the Gülhane Military Medical Academy (Ankara), were initially used in the present study. The animals’ care conditions during breeding and rearing were

Birsen Elibol, Merve Beker, Cigdem Dilek Sahbaz, Ulkan Kilic, Ewa Jakubowska-Doğru

Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis , ISSUE 2, 133–147

Original Paper

Multifocal fatty liver disease, insulin resistance and carotid atherosclerosis: exploring the interrelated relationship

Amr Shaaban Hanafy, Sherief Abd-Elsalam, Ayman F. Ahmed, Mohammed M. Dawoud

Journal of Ultrasonography , ISSUE 75, 302–309

Review Article

The standards of an ultrasound examination of the prostate gland. Part 2

The paper discusses the rules of the proper performing of the ultrasound examination of the prostate gland. It has been divided into two parts: the general part and the detailed part. The first part presents the necessary requirements related to the ultrasound equipment needed for performing transabdominal and transrectal examinations of the prostate gland. The second part presents the application of the ultrasound examination in benign prostatic hyperplasia, in cases of prostate inflammation

Janusz F. Tyloch, Andrzej Paweł Wieczorek

Journal of Ultrasonography , ISSUE 68, 43–58

Research paper

Assessment of type 1 and type 3 deiodinase expression levels in depressive disorders

Elżbieta Gałecka, Anna Kumor-Kisielewska, Agata Orzechowska, Michael Maes, Paweł Górski, Janusz Szemraj

Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis , ISSUE 3, 225–235

Review

Cerebral hypoperfusion in autism spectrum disorder

; thalami; basal ganglia; cingulate cortex; caudate nucleus; the limbic system including the hippocampal area; putamen; substantia nigra; cerebellum; and associative cortices. Moreover, correlations between symptom scores and hypoperfusion in the brains of individuals diagnosed with an ASD were found indicating that the greater the autism symptom pathology, the more significant the cerebral hypoperfusion or vascular pathology in the brain. Evidence suggests that brain inflammation and vascular

Geir Bjørklund, Janet K. Kern, Mauricio A. Urbina, Khaled Saad, Amira A. El-Houfey, David A. Geier, Salvatore Chirumbolo, Mark R. Geier, Jyutika A. Mehta, Jan Aaseth

Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis , ISSUE 1, 21–29

Editorial

Rheumatoid arthritis: what do MRI and ultrasound show

limited specificity of findings. This paper summarizes the pathogenesis phenomena of rheumatoid arthritis and describes rheumatoid arthritis-related features of the disease within the synovium, subchondral bone marrow and articular fat tissue on MRI and ultrasound. Moreover, the paper aims to illustrate the significance of MRI and ultrasound findings in rheumatoid arthritis in the diagnosis of subclinical and early inflammation, and the importance of MRI and US in the follow-up and establishing

Iwona Sudoł-Szopińska, Lennart Jans, James Teh

Journal of Ultrasonography , ISSUE 68, 5–16

Research paper

Energy-dense diet triggers changes in gut microbiota, reorganization of gut-brain vagal communication and increases body fat accumulation

Obesity is associated with consumption of energy-dense diets and development of systemic inflammation. Gut microbiota play a role in energy harvest and inflammation and can influence the change from lean to obese phenotypes. The nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) is a brain target for gastrointestinal signals modulating satiety and alterations in gut-brain vagal pathway may promote overeating and obesity. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that high-fat diet-induced changes in gut microbiota

Alexandra C. Vaughn, Erin M. Cooper, Patricia M. DiLorenzo, Levi J. O’Loughlin, Michael E. Konkel, James H. Peters, Andras Hajnal, Tanusree Sen, Sun Hye Lee, Claire B. de La Serre, Krzysztof Czaja

Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis , ISSUE 1, 18–30

Review

Imaging of juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Part II: Ultrasonography and MRI

presence of synovitis, intraand extraarticular fat tissue to visualize signs of inflammation, hyaline cartilage, cartilaginous epiphysis and subchondral bone to detect cysts and erosions, and ligaments, tendons and their entheses for signs of enthesopathies and tendinopathies. Magnetic resonance imaging is indicated in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis for assessment of inflammation in peripheral joints, tendon sheaths and bursae, bone marrow involvement and identification of inflammatory

Iwona Sudoł-Szopińska, Elżbieta Grochowska, Piotr Gietka, Mateusz Płaza, Grzegorz Pracoń, Fadhil Saied, Marta Walentowska-Janowicz

Journal of Ultrasonography , ISSUE 66, 237–251

Review

Immune dysfunction and neuroinflammation in autism spectrum disorder

, monocytes, natural killer cells, and dendritic cells. Also, many individuals diagnosed with ASD have alterations in immunoglobulins and increased autoantibodies. Finally, a significant portion of individuals diagnosed with ASD have elevated peripheral cytokines and chemokines and associated neuroinflammation. In conclusion, immune dysregulation and inflammation are important components in the diagnosis and treatment of ASD.

Geir Bjørklund, Khaled Saad, Salvatore Chirumbolo, Janet K. Kern, David A. Geier, Mark R. Geier, Mauricio A. Urbina

Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis , ISSUE 4, 257–268

case-report

Juvenile spondyloarthritis and chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis overlap syndrome in a 16-year-old adolescent. A case report and literature review

visualized vessels On chest X-ray, the following abnormalities were found: pleuro-diaphragmatic adhesions in the left dome of the diaphragm, significant right thoracic scoliosis, irregular contours and subchondral sclerosis of the edge of the sternal end of the right clavicle (Fig. 3). On X-ray of sacroiliac joints bilateral grade 2 inflammation was found. Fig. 3. Areas of bone loss, irregular contours surrounded by a sclerotic margin in the lower central part of the sternal end of the right clavicle

Michał Znajdek, Agnieszka Gazda, Piotr Gietka, Marta Wysmołek, Iwona Sudoł-Szopińska

Journal of Ultrasonography , ISSUE 77, 152–157

Review

Imaging of juvenile spondyloarthritis. Part II: Ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging

spondyloarthropathies. This part discusses chang­es seen on ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging. In patients with juvenile spondyloarthropathies, these examinations are conducted to diagnose inflammatory le­sions in peripheral joints, tendon sheaths, tendons and bursae. Moreover, magnetic reso­nance also shows subchondral bone marrow edema, which is considered an early sign of inflammation. Ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging do not show specific lesions for any rheumatic disease

Iwona Sudoł-Szopińska, Michał Znajdek, Piotr Gietka, Violeta Vasilevska-Nikodinovska, Lukas Patrovic, Vladka Salapura

Journal of Ultrasonography , ISSUE 70, 176–181

Review

Standards for the assessment of salivary glands – an update

The paper is an update of 2011 Standards for Ultrasound Assessment of Salivary Glands, which were developed by the Polish Ultrasound Society. We have described current ultrasound technical requirements, assessment and measurement techniques as well as guidelines for ultrasound description. We have also discussed an ultrasound image of normal salivary glands as well as the most important pathologies, such as inflammation, sialosis, collagenosis, injuries and proliferative processes, with

Piotr Zajkowski, Aleksandra Ochal-Choińska

Journal of Ultrasonography , ISSUE 65, 175–190

Review

Imaging of juvenile spondyloarthritis. Part I: Classifications and radiographs

diagnose inflammatory lesions in peripheral joints, tendon sheaths, ten­dons and bursae. Moreover, magnetic resonance imaging also visualizes early inflamma­tory changes in the axial skeleton and subchondral bone marrow edema, which is consid­ered an early sign of inflammation.

Iwona Sudoł-Szopińska, Piotr Gietka, Michał Znajdek, Genowefa Matuszewska, Magdalena Bogucevska, Ljubinka Damjanovska-Krstikj, Slavcho Ivanoski

Journal of Ultrasonography , ISSUE 70, 167–175

Research Article

DANGER THEORY AND DAMAGE - ASSOCIATEDMOLECULAR PATTERN

factors. According to the danger theory, the immune system has the ability to verify “safe” and “dangerous” factors, thus explaining immune reactions caused by tissue damage, referred to as “sterile inflammation”, but also occurring during the infection. It is believed that the fundamental elements in danger theory are dangerous molecules i.e. – damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs), which are released from damaged or dead tissue and cells. They are

Agata Poniewierska-Baran, Beata Tokarz-Deptuła, Wiesław Deptuła

Postępy Mikrobiologii - Advancements of Microbiology , ISSUE 4, 328–337

Review

Classifications and imaging of juvenile spondyloarthritis

Juvenile spondyloarthritis may be present in at least 3 subtypes of juvenile idiopathic arthritis according to the classification of the International League of Associations for Rheumatology. By contrast with spondyloarthritis in adults, juvenile spondyloarthritis starts with inflammation of peripheral joints and entheses in the majority of children, whereas sacroiliitis and spondylitis may develop many years after the disease onset. Peripheral joint involvement makes it difficult to

Iwona Sudoł-Szopińska, Iris Eshed, Lennart Jans, Nele Herregods, James Teh, Jelena Vojinovic

Journal of Ultrasonography , ISSUE 74, 224–233

research-article

Hypothermia in the course of acute traumatic spinal cord injury

Jozef Kafka, Nadezda Lukacova, Igor Sulla, Marcela Maloveska, Zuzana Vikartovska, Dasa Cizkova

Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis , ISSUE 2, 172–178

Review Article

Diabetic foot syndrome: Charcot arthropathy or osteomyelitis? Part I: Clinical picture and radiography

osteopenia, lytic lesions, cortical destruction, periosteal reactions as well as, in the chronic phase, osteosclerosis and sequestra. Neurogenic arthropathy, however, presents an image resembling rapidly progressing osteoarthritis combined with aseptic necrosis or inflammation. The image includes: bone destruction with subluxations and dislocations as well as pathological fractures that lead to the presence of bone debris, osteopenia and, in the later phase, osteosclerosis, joint space narrowing

Aleksandra Konarzewska, Anna Korzon-Burakowska, Ludomira Rzepecka-Wejs, Iwona Sudoł-Szopińska, Edyta Szurowska, Michał Studniarek

Journal of Ultrasonography , ISSUE 72, 42–49

original-paper

Dependence of Colonization of the Large Intestine by Candida on the Treatment of Crohn’s Disease

Introduction Crohn’s disease (CD) together with ulcerative colitis belongs to the group of disorders known as inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). The etiology of Crohn’s disease still remains not fully explained, although the changes in the composition and distribution of intestinal microbiome seem to play a crucial role in the development and persistence of inflammation in the gastrointestinal tract (Kostic et al. 2014; Scarpellini et al. 2015). It is still under debate if the changes in the

KINGA KOWALSKA-DUPLAGA, AGNIESZKA KRAWCZYK, AGNIESZKA SROKA-OLEKSIAK, DOMINIKA SALAMON, ANDRZEJ WĘDRYCHOWICZ, KRZYSZTOF FYDEREK, TOMASZ GOSIEWSKI

Polish Journal of Microbiology , ISSUE 1, 121–126

Article

GUT MICROBIOTA IN CHRONIC KIDNEY DISEASE

of vitamin D, but also persistent inflammation. Its source is, among others, impaired integrity of the intestinal barrier, which occurs in uraemia [48]. In this situation, the pro-inflammatory molecules and bacterial toxins leak from the gastrointestinal tract into the bloodstream of the host. What is most often listed in this case is bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS), integral components of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria and cyanobacteria, which play a key role in bacteria life

Magdalena Nalewajska, Jarosław Przybyciński, Małgorzata Marchelek-Myśliwiec, Violetta Dziedziejko, Kazimierz Ciechanowski

Postępy Mikrobiologii - Advancements of Microbiology , ISSUE 3, 237–245

Article

BIOSYNTHESIS AND THE POSSIBILITY OF USING ECTOINE AND HYDROXYECTOINE IN HEALTH CARE

turned out that the influence of ectoine and hydroxyectoine on macromolecules and cells in some aspects is mutually antagonistic [86]. 3. The use of ectoine The properties of ectoine cause this amino acid to be multifunctional and have a wide spectrum of applications in many industries, mainly in medicine, pharmacy, cosmetology or biotechnology. The industrial use of ectoine is based primarily on the possibility of protecting the skin and relieving inflammation (Table I), stabilizing enzymes

Weronika Goraj, Zofia Stępniewska, Anna Szafranek-Nakonieczna

Postępy Mikrobiologii - Advancements of Microbiology , ISSUE 3, 339–349

research-article

Ultrasonography of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque in the carotid arteries: B-mode imaging

procedures and sonothrombolysis or ultrasound-accelerated thrombolysis enhanced with contrast agents). Vulnerable plaque as a diagnostic target In patients at risk of cerebral ischemia, a site that is both crucial for the build-up of pathologic changes and convenient for clinical assessment is the carotid artery, a vessel representative for the evaluation of atherosclerosis progression. The detection of features indicating active inflammation within atherosclerotic plaque, based on neovascularization

Andrzej Fedak, Katarzyna Ciuk, Andrzej Urbanik

Journal of Ultrasonography , ISSUE 81, e135–e145

Review Article

Chest wall – underappreciated structure in sonography. Part II: Non-cancerous lesions

) and inflammatory lesions of various etiology and location. US may be used as the diagnostic modality of choice in conditions following thoracoscopy or thoracotomy. It may also visualize the fairly common sternal wound infection, including bone inflammation. Slipping rib syndrome, relatively little known among clinicians, has also been discussed in the study. A whole gamut of benign lesions of thoracic soft tissues, such as enlarged lymph nodes, torn muscles, hematomas, abscesses, fissures, scars

Andrzej Smereczyński, Katarzyna Kołaczyk, Elżbieta Bernatowicz

Journal of Ultrasonography , ISSUE 71, 275–280

Mini Review

The Role of Staphylococcus aureus in Secondary Infections in Patients with Atopic Dermatitis (AD)

barrier contributing to a chronic inflammation of the atopic skin lesions. The S. aureus species also releases proinflam­matory proteins, including enzymes that cause tissue damage. When initiating treatment it is particularly important to properly assess that the onset of the secondary bacterial infection is caused by S. aureus and thus justifying the inclusion of antibiotic therapy. Depending on the severity and extent of the staphylococcal infection, topical antibiotics are used, usually

Aneta Buda, Jacek Międzobrodzki

Polish Journal of Microbiology , ISSUE 3, 253–259

Research Article

THE ROLE OF STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS IN THE CLINICAL DIAGNOSIS OF DIABETIC PATIENTS

diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2). However, the colonization by S. aureus is a probable risk factor for infection. Among S. aureus virulence factors, superantigens (SAgs) are essential for pathogenicity. The long-term effect of the superantigen toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 (TSST-1) might be glucose intolerance. This toxin also induces systemic inflammation as a result of the increased exotoxin concentration in blood, and, therefore, may be the causative factor of diabetes. Chronic exposure to

Renata Barbara Klekotka, Elżbieta Mizgała-Izworska, Witold Drzastwa2, Bogdan Mazur

Postępy Mikrobiologii - Advancements of Microbiology , ISSUE 2, 166–178

Review

Diagnostic imaging of psoriatic arthritis. Part II: magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasonography

current opinions on the diagnostics of some selective, and distinctive features of psoriatic arthritis concerning magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound and present some hypotheses on psoriatic arthritis etiopathogenesis, which have been studied with the use of magnetic resonance imaging. The following elements of the psoriatic arthritis are discussed: enthesitis, extracapsular inflammation, dactylitis, distal interphalangeal joint and nail disease, and the ability of magnetic resonance imaging to

Iwona Sudoł-Szopińska, Grzegorz Pracoń

Journal of Ultrasonography , ISSUE 65, 163–174

research-article

Crocin acts as a neuroprotective mediator against methylphenidate-induced neurobehavioral and neurochemical sequelae: Possible role of the CREB-BDNF signaling pathway

; Andreazza et al., 2007). MPH and other neuro-stimulant compounds can cause inflammation, oxidative stress, and mitochondrial dysfunction in brain cells; however the putative mechanism underlying these effects remains unknown (Martins et al., 2006). Interestingly, MPH-induced neurotoxicity seems to be more apparent in certain brain areas, particularly the hippocampus (including CA1, CA2, CA3, and DG subregions) and the amygdala (Morton and Stockton, 2000; Motaghinejad et al., 2017a). In recent years

Andia Ebrahimzadeh, Sara Yousefi Moghadam, Hanieh Rahimi, Majid Motaghinejad, Manijeh Motevalian, Sepideh Safari, Mobina Abbasi Mesrabadi

Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis , ISSUE 4, 352–366

original-paper

In Vitro and In Vivo Activity of Zabofloxacin and Other Fluoroquinolones Against MRSA Isolates from A University Hospital in Egypt

infiltration, necrosis with accumulation of necro-inflammatory exudate within the lumen of bronchioles (Fig. 3). The lungs of ZAB-treated mice group revealed very mild congestion and inflammation with scarce inflammatory cells in the interstitial spaces. The mice group treated with MOX and LEV displayed moderate interstitial inflammation, moderate congestion and oedema (Fig. 3). Figure 4 demonstrates a patent alveolus dissected from ZAB-treated mice group, showing clear alveolar spaces and normal vessels

NELLY M. MOHAMED, AZZA S. ZAKARIA, EVA A. EDWARD, AMANY ABDEL-BARY

Polish Journal of Microbiology , ISSUE 1, 59–69

Review

The standards of an ultrasound examination of the prostate gland. Part 1

description of the presented procedures. The second part of the paper presents the application of the ultrasound examination in benign prostatic hyperplasia, in cases of inflammation and in prostate cancer.

Janusz F. Tyloch, Andrzej Paweł Wieczorek

Journal of Ultrasonography , ISSUE 67, 378–390

Original Paper

Sonographic assessment of the prevalence and evolution of fluid collections as a complication of kidney transplantation

be compared with the laboratory signs of inflammation and biochemical analysis of the contents of fluid collections.

Maryla Kuczyńska, Ewa Piasek, Łukasz Światłowski, Ewa Kuklik, Jan Sobstyl, Anna Drelich-Zbroja, Tomasz Słomka, Krzysztof Pyra, Olga Furmaga, Małgorzata Szczerbo-Trojanowska

Journal of Ultrasonography , ISSUE 73, 126–132

Review

Developmental neurotoxicants and the vulnerable male brain: a systematic review of suspected neurotoxicants that disproportionally affect males

include: (1) greater glutathione availability in females; (2) greater sulfate-based detoxification capacity in females; (3) potentiating effects of co-exposure to neurotoxicants and testosterone; (4) greater neuroinflammatory response in males; (5) reduced vulnerability to oxidative stress in females; and (6) neuroprotective effects of female hormones (estrogen and progesterone), especially in the reduction of inflammation and oxidative stress.

Janet K. Kern, David A. Geier, Kristin G. Homme, Paul G. King, Geir Bjørklund, Salvatore Chirumbolo, Mark R. Geier

Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis , ISSUE 4, 269–296

Review

Imaging of juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Part I: Clinical classifications and radiographs

radiographs in two planes. Radiographic changes in juvenile idiopathic arthritis are detected in later stages of the disease. Bone structures are assessed in the first place. Radiographs can also indirectly indicate the presence of soft tissue inflammation (i.e. in joint cavities, sheaths and bursae) based on swelling and increased density of the soft tissue as well as dislocation of fat folds. Signs of articular cartilage defects are also seen in radiographs indirectly – based on joint space width

Iwona Sudoł-Szopińska, Genowefa Matuszewska, Piotr Gietka, Mateusz Płaza, Marta Walentowska-Janowicz

Journal of Ultrasonography , ISSUE 66, 225–236

Review

Intra-abdominal fat. Part II: Non-cancerous lesions of the adipose tissue localized beyond organs

their reaction to compression with an ultrasound transducer and behavior during deep inspiration. Moreover, each lesion must be obligatorily assessed in terms of blood flow. Doppler evaluation enables the differentiation between primary and secondary inflammation of intra-abdominal fat. The paper also draws attention to a frequent indirect sign of a pathological process, i.e. thickening and hyperechogenicity of fat, which sometimes indicates an ongoing pathology at a deeper site. This structure may

Andrzej Smereczyński, Katarzyna Kołaczyk, Elżbieta Bernatowicz

Journal of Ultrasonography , ISSUE 64, 32–43

Abstract Supplements

Special Abstract Supplement, Adelaide Sleep Retreat, 6th Annual Meeting, 2015

.   Objectives: .examine various characteristics of diagnosed and undiagnosed obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) and to identify factors that may contribute to high prevalence of under-diagnosis. Methods: The Men Androgen Inflammation Lifestyle Environment and Stress (MAILES) study is a longitudinal, biomedical cohort study of randomly selected Australian men. Questionnaires and clinic assessments collected information on demographics, OSA symptoms, comorbidities and mastery. Sleep studies were

Emily Duncanson, Binh Truong, Justyna Pollok, Scott Coussens, Charlotte Gupta, Zachariah Reuben Cross, Emily Watson, Yaroslava King, Bradley Smith, David Stevens

Eat, Sleep, Work , ISSUE 1, 91–102

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