wastewater management .
The aim of the study was to analyse investment expenditures on environment protection and water management, taking into account tangible effects created in 2003–2017. The considered time period has been selected to evaluate the impact of Poland’s access to European Union on environment protection development.
Information about Polish voivodeships were collected from the Local Data Bank within Statistics Poland . In the paper voivodeships’ expenditures
Architecture, Civil Engineering, Environment , ISSUE 3, 137–144
The social investment model in the author’s terminology is the public investment process concerning public space and public facilities, in which current and future users are involved in the decision-making process at all its stages. An optimal model would be engaging urban residents to participate in each of implementation stages for which the investments are carried out with public funds. The model was constructed in opposition to the traditional public investment model. [cf
Architecture, Civil Engineering, Environment , ISSUE 3, 41–51
The article proposes methodological principles for substantiating the specialization of main railway lines based on the primary types of passenger or freight traffic in order to improve the level of transport services, economic efficiency, and reliability of the transportation process. The search for a solution to the problem provides a rational distribution of transport flows and investment measures, with the subsequent finding of a compromised operation for a set of effective alternatives.
Transport Problems , ISSUE SE, 35–44
This paper presents discussion of the problem of rural sanitation economic sustainability, affecting the overall investment agreement with the principles of sustainable development. In our opinion, economic aspects of sustainability, understood as affordability and profitability of the investment are crucial because they affect the social acceptance and willingness to pay by the members of rural communities. Additionally, it was proposed to use the well-known decision-making indicators of cost
Marcin K. WIDOMSKI,
Architecture, Civil Engineering, Environment , ISSUE 3, 153–162
Investing in the economic world, characterized by a high level of uncertainty and volatility, entails a higher level of risk related to investment. One of the most commonly used risk measure is Value-at-Risk. However, despite the ease of calculation and interpretation, this measure suffers from a significant drawback – it is not subadditive. This property is the key issue in terms of portfolio diversification. Another risk measure, which meets this assumption, has been proposed – Conditional
Statistics in Transition New Series , ISSUE 2, 305–316
In order to improve the quality of passenger service at an airport terminal it is necessary to continuously monitor the level of the services rendered. Devising a strategy for the process of modernization or extension of an airport, with a view to maintaining or elevating the standards offered, requires a skilled determination of the investment commencement time. The rationale behind such investments is a deliberate prognosis of changes in the numbers of passengers visiting the airport in order
Architecture, Civil Engineering, Environment , ISSUE 1, 41–50
Transport Problems , ISSUE 2, 17–26
investment plans, the potential changes on the railway transport market and the quality of transport service provided in these countries
Transport Problems , ISSUE 4, 107–119
This article assesses the quality of 15 primary studies that examined the effectiveness of youth foyer or foyer-like programs on the lives of young homeless people. The youth foyer model provides an integrated approach to tackling youth homelessness, connecting affordable accommodation to training and employment. In Australia, there is growing support from government for the development and funding of foyer programs. However to date, there has been very limited development and investment in the
Evidence Base , ISSUE 4, 1–16
Traditionally, models developed by Treynor and Mazuy (T-M) and also by Henriksson-Merton (H-M), which are called market-timing models, are applied to assess effectiveness of investment funds. The objective of the presented study is an application of the T-M and H-M models and their T-M-FF and H-M-FF modifications with additional Fama-French factors to assess effectiveness and risk of equity insurance connected with unit-linked insurance. Estimation and verification of the models for the subject
Statistics in Transition New Series , ISSUE 2, 279–292
necessary elements, as well as to separate the impacts of other factors. Problems with the collection of data for analysis are often emphasized, and this process is often time-consuming and costly. It is rarely specified how the effects and costs are to be monitored even before the start of the project.
The problem of the scale of the analysis is also signalled – traditionally, the analysis of cost-effectiveness was used to assess individual investment projects, and sometimes to assess local activities
Architecture, Civil Engineering, Environment , ISSUE 2, 119–130
At large international airports, aircraft can be refuelled either by fuel trucks or using dedicated underground pipeline systems. The latter, hydrant refuelling, is considered to be an optimal fuelling method as it increases safety, shortens the aircraft turnaround time and cuts the overall costs. However, at smaller airports, implementation of this system can lead to high investment costs. Thus, the paper discusses the airport size from which this system may be efficient to implement. Various
Transport Problems , ISSUE 3, 61–71
energy use. Therefore, a balance must be found between increases in investment cost and recurring annual savings .
Each combination of design variables leads to a certain annual energy demand, under standard building use conditions. It therefore is of interest to characterize the full spectrum of possible combinations of variables, in order to identify those that have expected lower initial costs and those that have lower lifecycle costs, but also how distant from “the best” some other solution
Architecture, Civil Engineering, Environment , ISSUE 2, 81–90
Transportation systems in USA are an integral part of the current infrastructure systems and involves a huge investment as part of the government and taxpayers. Therefore, transportation systems have economic, social and vital importance for the U.S. Security and safety of transportation systems and infrastructures in case of any possible future disasters and hazards are crucial for state transportation agencies. The objective of this paper is to develop and implement a comprehensive emergency
Kasim A. KORKMAZ
Transport Problems , ISSUE 4, 153–162
task, the great infrastructural investment as DTŚ appears not only as opportunity for solving – at least in part – local problems with air purity. It also creates a real thread due to additional air contamination steaming from the vast construction works right in a center of the city.
The reducti of environmental nuisance after the start of DTŚ exploitation is carried out by increasing the flow of traffic enabling to maintain the vehicles speed at the optimum level and directing
Architecture, Civil Engineering, Environment , ISSUE 1, 145–153
evaluations have been conducted, they are mostly process- rather than outcomes-based. There is a need for guidance for post-disaster recovery programs to support evaluation practice to determine the effectiveness, efficiency and appropriateness of post-disaster recovery interventions. There is significant investment in post-disaster recovery programs, with little known of their effectiveness. This review identifies useful case studies and methods to evaluate post-disaster recovery efforts, and informs the
Éidín Ní Shé
Evidence Base , ISSUE 4, 1–33
past decades just about every large city in the US has experienced a significant increase in the average share of home value attributed to the market value of residential land. They estimated that residential land value represented from 33 percent until 81 percent share of average single-family home’s value in large US cities.
An investment in real estate is generally considered as type of investment with the best financial returns in long term. Investing in it, individual buyers or real estate (RE
Architecture, Civil Engineering, Environment , ISSUE 4, 87–95
, including incentivising, peer mentoring, verbal counselling, development of personalised health profiles, and offer of healthier on-site food choices – some of which also resulted in sizeable return on investment over the long term.
Evidence Base , ISSUE 2, 1–20
The aim of the article is to work out a synthetic measure for estimating country’s innovation potential (CIP) of EU economies. For the purpose of the research, data from the European Statistical Office (Eurostat) are used and several indicators are organized by four different areas of analysis, i.e. investment expenditure, education, labour market and effects. Applying multi-dimensional statistics allows us to reduce the primary set of diagnostics variables and, simultaneously, identify
Statistics in Transition New Series , ISSUE 1, 167–180
the optimization task are consumption-investment proportion and division of household investments between household members.
Statistics in Transition New Series , ISSUE 1, 111–136
domestic wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and full pressure sewerage network. In all variants, the container wastewater treatment plant of daily capacity 450 m3 day-1 was applied. Estimations of investment and exploitation costs for 30 years period operation were performed. Economic multivariate analysis was based on: Payback Period, Dynamic Generation Cost (DGC), Net Present Value (NPV) and Benefit-Cost Ratio (BCR). The obtained indicators were the input data for the weighted sum model allowing to
Marcin K. WIDOMSKI,
Architecture, Civil Engineering, Environment , ISSUE 2, 145–152
Structural and nonstructural components incorporate simultaneously and correspondingly in modern probabilistic performance evaluation to make decision making parameters which is usually economic loss in a predefined level of probability. However, far greater investment, relatively limited seismically design information and dependence of nonstructural components’ normative quantities to some architectural, economic and social features contribute to exceeded loss amounts and uncertainties under
Leila HAJ NAJAFI,
Architecture, Civil Engineering, Environment , ISSUE 2, 77–98
of every larger investment. The software can help to assess increased traffic in solved area and thus help authorities to make a right decision during approving of the investment plan. This article is focused on comparison of two software – Aimsun and OmniTrans, and calculations according to Webster and technical regulations for assessing junction capacity in the Slovak Republic. The packages outputs are also compared to the measured data at the assessed junction in this article. The analysis
Transport Problems , ISSUE 1, 121–130
Garden city is an idea regarded as one of the reasons for the spontaneous sprawl of buildings around the city. The paper compares the assumptions described in the book “Garden Cities of Tomorrow” with the way of the investment implementation on the outskirts of Łódź, in the buffer zone of the Łagiewnicki Forest. The analysis of the spatial structure of the newly urbanized open areas, made on the basis of aerial photography and introduction of geodesic division shows that the emerging housing
Architecture, Civil Engineering, Environment , ISSUE 2, 13–19
The phenomenon of the present postal services is the fact that, customers expect the lowest price while maintaining the availability, security and on time delivery of mail items. We can find that, the costs associated with transport of the postal substrate is one of the most important factors affecting the total cost of the postal services. These transport costs depend on various factors such as the investment in vehicles purchase, operational costs of the postal vehicles (costs of maintenance
Transport Problems , ISSUE 3, 43–50
of provinces: economically developed provinces, and economically backward provinces; and (4) time also has considerable effects. Based on these findings, the government should further strengthen its investment in rural areas and economically backward provinces as a cost-effective intervention, and should educate the population on the harmful effects of smoking and drinking alcohol on health.
Statistics in Transition New Series , ISSUE 4, 645–670
applied, like in situ analysis in Sheffield: scientific walk, photo-documentation, interviews with experts, and research of professional material from the City Council (2014, 2016–2017). In Katowice: the field work, professional architectural supervision of the investment process, as well as the cooperation with architects and city planners (also by the Master Plan 2010) had been carried out during eight years (2006–2014). The results show various approaches to public open space planning in post
Anna Marta WŁODARCZYK,
Architecture, Civil Engineering, Environment , ISSUE 4, 53–69
Currently, obesity is a leading threat to optimal health and wellbeing in Australia. Offsetting risks of acute and chronic disease and disability, a balanced diet offers a sound investment against premature morbidity and mortality commonly associated with obesity. Demonstrated empirically to lead to weight gain, consumption of snack foods lacking in nutritional value (“indulgences”) threatens a healthy lifestyle and is as prevalent as 90% in some populations. Thus, ﬁnding strategies
Eat, Sleep, Work , ISSUE 1, 65–71
contract length that is appropriate for the complexity of the NRM practice. These characteristics can be used to guide policy makers in their natural resource management investment decisions. There is a clear need for greatly increased monitoring and evaluation of existing programs, both during the program and after its conclusion, in order to more fully understand its long-term impacts and ultimate effectiveness. Finally, landholders undertaking a practice change generally benefit from ongoing support
Evidence Base , ISSUE 2, 1–32
support and the size of investment. The accident rate of urban rail transportation is estimated. Comparative criteria of tram and underground lines are selected. The effectiveness of both rail means of transport in Vilnius city are compared according to three multi-criteria evaluation methods: the sum of ratings, simple additive weighting and geometrical means. The final conclusions and recommendations are provided.АннотацияВ статье анализируются актуальные проблемы общественного транспорта города
Transport Problems , ISSUE 1, 49–60