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  • Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis


Review | 31-July-2017

The physiology of blood platelets and changes of their biological activities in multiple sclerosis

Increasing evidence indicates that blood platelets contribute to diverse processes that extend beyond hemostasis. Many of the same mechanisms that play a role in hemostasis and thrombosis facilitate platelets the participation in other physiological and pathological processes, particularly in the inflammation, the immune response and central nervous system disorders. Platelets are involved in pathophysiology of central nervous system diseases, especially in the pathogenesis of multiple

Barbara Wachowicz, Agnieszka Morel, Elżbieta Miller, Joanna Saluk

Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis, Volume 76 , ISSUE 4, 269–281

Report | 16-March-2020

D+ platelet transfusions in D– patients: cause for concern?

Patients whose RBCs are D– may produce anti-D if they are exposed to D on donor RBCs. Except in emergency situations, patients whose RBCs lack D are transfused with only D– RBCs. Platelets carry no Rh antigens, but platelet units may be contaminated by RBCs that could carry D when these units are collected from D+ donors. The purpose of this study was to determine whether our policy of allowing D+ platelets to be transfused to patients whose RBCs type as D–, without the use of

Angela N. Bartley, John B. Carpenter, Mary P. Berg

Immunohematology, Volume 25 , ISSUE 1, 5–8

Article | 16-February-2021

Dilution is not the solution: acute hemolytic transfusion reaction after ABO-incompatible pooled platelet transfusion

Platelet units are obtained in two ways: as a product of whole blood donation or via apheresis. To make a transfusable dose of pooled platelets, between four and six ABO/D-identical whole blood-derived platelet concentrates are combined; each whole blood-derived platelet unit is suspended in approximately 40–70 mL donor plasma.1 Apheresis platelets are suspended in 200–400 mL plasma from one donor.2 Contained within the plasma, and thus passively transfused with a platelet unit, are the

J. Guarente, M. Harach, J. Gould, J.K. Karp, A.R. Peedin

Immunohematology, Volume 35 , ISSUE 3, 91–94

Review | 15-May-2020

Review: immune thrombocytopenic purpura: an update for immunohematologists

Immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) is an acquired disease in which autoantibodies to platelets cause their sequestration and destruction by mononuclear macrophages, principally in the spleen. If increased production of platelets by megakaryocytes does not compensate for platelet destruction, the number of circulating platelets decreases (thrombocytopenia), resulting in a characteristic bleeding tendency (purpura). While most children with the disease experience a relatively short and benign

S. Gerald Sandler

Immunohematology, Volume 20 , ISSUE 2, 112–117

Article | 26-October-2020

Provision of HPA-1a (PlA1)-negative platelets for neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia: screening, testing, and transfusion protocol

Mary Munizza, Sandra Nance, Maryann Keashen-Schnell, William Sherwood, Scott Murphy

Immunohematology, Volume 15 , ISSUE 2, 71–74

Article | 14-October-2020

Significance of platelet-reactive antibody screening for patients facing frequent platelet transfusions

those without such a history. Accordingly, during the period, patients with a history of transfusions received fewer units of platelets and had fewer donor exposures than did patients without such a history. On the other hand, most patients who had been screened in advance for those antibodies received appropriate platelet components without delay, whereas an average of 10 days was needed before those who had not been screened received compatible platelets. The patients who had not been screened

Tetsunori Tasaki, Kieko Fujii, Kenji Gotoh, Shyukuko Satoh, Jyunko Takadate, Sakiko Sasaki, Mihoko Tachibana, Kimiko Yamamoto

Immunohematology, Volume 18 , ISSUE 4, 104–108

Article | 16-February-2021

Quality improvement with platelet additive solution for safer out-of-group platelet transfusions

American laboratories, 529 (16.8%) did not have such a policy in 2007,9 and the clinical relevance of ABO plasma incompatibility caused by platelet transfusions may sometimes be missed. Providing ABO-compatible platelets to all recipients will avoid minor ABO mismatches, but this step may be impractical, however, as the supply of group AB, A, and B platelet components is limited. A hospital with a policy to transfuse ABO-compatible apheresis platelet components may, once the platelet inventory is

M. Tynuv, W.A. Flegel

Immunohematology, Volume 35 , ISSUE 3, 108–115

Article | 20-December-2020

A simple method for inhibiting ABO antibodies in sera used for platelet crossmatching

Sometimes it is necessary to crossmatch and transfuse ABO-incompatible platelets. As IgG anti-A and anti-B sometimes react with platelets from group A or B donors, these reactions can confuse the interpretation of crossmatching, which is designed to detect HLA or platelet-specific antibodies. Methods previously described to overcome this problem have been complex. Neutr-ABR, which contains A and B blood group substances from porcine and equine sources, can be used to neutralize anti-A and/or

Nina Postoway, George Garratty

Immunohematology, Volume 6 , ISSUE 3, 68–70

Article | 03-November-2020

Immunoprophylaxis using intravenous Rh immune globulin should be standard practice when selected D-negative patients are transfused with D-positive random donor platelets

two pregnancies more than 40 years ago, prior to the availability of immunoprophylaxis by Rh immune globulin (RhIG). Although studies have shown that as many as 19 percent of D– people may develop anti-D following transfusion of platelets from D+ donors, there is no specific standard requiring immunoprophylaxis with RhIG to prevent Rh alloimmunization after transfusion of random donor platelet concentrates from D+ donors. In contrast, vigorous efforts are routine for preventing Rh

Clinton A. Ewing, Dawn H. Rumsey, Albert F. Langeberg, S. Gerald Sandler

Immunohematology, Volume 14 , ISSUE 4, 133–137

Article | 17-November-2020

Flow cytometric phenotyping of platelet HPA-1a antigen: donor screening for a case of neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia due to anti-HPA-1a antibodies

Neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia can effectively be treated by transfusing compatible platelets to the affected newborn, but typed, compatible platelets are not generally available. For a case of probable neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia due to anti-HPA-1a, part of the donor population of the regional blood bank was phenotyped to find HPA-1a-negative platelets. A flow cytometric technique was used, which is reliable, rapid, and relatively simple and therefore well suited for large-scale

Johannes J.M.L. Hoffmann, Willy C.M. Janssen, Harry Y. von Hegedus

Immunohematology, Volume 11 , ISSUE 4, 125–128

Report | 14-October-2020

Development of anti-Bw6 reactivity in patients receiving r-GCSF: a preliminary report

anomalous reactions in solid phase red cell adherence (SPRCA) assays. SPRCA tests were positive only when platelets were adhered to the polystyrene plates in the presence of glucose; when other simple sugars were used, the patients’ sera failed to react. HLA Bw6-positive platelets were more likely than HLA Bw6-negative platelets to be reactive (þ < .001). The transfusion of HLA Bw6-positive platelets to patients displaying this in vitro reactivity (positive patients) resulted in a 50

Miriam Fogg Leach, James P. AuBuchon

Immunohematology, Volume 17 , ISSUE 3, 63–69

Case report | 17-November-2020

Case report: solid-phase platelet crossmatching to support the alloimmunized patient

Platelet crossmatching by a solid-phase red cell adherence assay was used to provide compatible platelets for two alloimmunized patients with leukemia. In this study, a successful platelet transfusion was defined as giving a corrected count increment (CCI) of >7,500 in a posttransfusion sample. For patient A, a total of 205 random platelet concentrates (PCs) were crossmatched. Eleven were considered compatible. These 11 PCs were transfused during five transfusion episodes. Four of the five

Bernadette A. O’Connell

Immunohematology, Volume 11 , ISSUE 4, 150–152

Article | 17-February-2021

Elimination of HLA antibodies by platelet adsorption

blood cell (RBC) antibodies and make finding serologically compatible blood more difficult. Confirming the presence of HLA antibodies is complicated because HLA typing of reagent RBCs is often not reliable, HLA expression on RBCs is variable, and HLA antigens are not stable during storage.2 Having a method to rid a patient’s serum of these antibodies is beneficial for resolving suspected HLA antibody reactivity. Using platelets for the adsorption of HLA antibodies allows for the detection of

J. Jung, C. Barron

Immunohematology, Volume 36 , ISSUE 1, 1–3

Review | 03-November-2020

Selecting platelets for transfusion of the alloimmunized patient: a review

Scott Murphy, Marla Varma

Immunohematology, Volume 14 , ISSUE 3, 117–123

Article | 14-October-2020

Serologic aspects of treating immune thrombocytopenic purpura using intravenous Rh immune globulin

In patients with immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP), IgG autoantibody-coated platelets are phagocytized by mononuclear macrophages, primarily in the spleen. Intravenous Rh immune globulin (IV RhIG) has been used since 1983 to treat D+, nonsplenectomized patients with ITP. The beneficial therapeutic effect of IV RhIG is attributed to competitive inhibition of phagocytosis of IgG-coated platelets by IgG anti-D-coated D+ red blood cells (reticuloendothelial or Fc receptor blockade). Following

Can M. Savasman, S. Gerald Sandler

Immunohematology, Volume 17 , ISSUE 4, 106–110

Book Review | 14-October-2020

BOOK REVIEW: Platelets in Thrombotic and Non-thrombotic Disorders: Pathophysiology, Pharmacology, and Therapeutics

Henry M. Rinder

Immunohematology, Volume 19 , ISSUE 2, 60–61

Article | 03-November-2020

Rapid screening of platelet donors for PlA1 (HPA-1a) alloantigen using a solid-phase microplate immunoassay

effectiveness of a solid-phase microplate immunoassay for this purpose. Platelet-rich donor plasmas were tested using the Capture-P® kit (Immucor, Norcross, GA). Platelet monolayers in microtiter wells were incubated with anti-PlA1, washed, and exposed to red blood cells (RBCs) precoated with anti-human IgG. Adherence of RBCs in a diffuse pattern across the well surface indicated the attachment of anti-PlA1 to PlA1-positive platelets whereas sedimentation of unattached RBCs into a central pellet

Jo L. Procter, Faye E. Vique, Ed Alegre, Junichi Honda, Kazuhiko Matsuo, Diane Reid

Immunohematology, Volume 14 , ISSUE 4, 141–145

Article | 17-November-2020

Application of the proteolytic enzyme papain in routine platelet serology

, -5a, -5b, and -Naka were examined. HLA antibodies were also included. All sera were tested by a solid-phase red cell adherence technique in parallel with untreated platelets (UP) and platelets treated with papain (PP) for 15 minutes at 37°C. The reactivity of anti-HPA-2b was eliminated and that of anti-HPA-3a was either eliminated or almost eliminated with PP. Antisera specific for the other alloantigens tested reacted similarly or more strongly with PP compared with UP. These findings were

John A.G. Lown, Brian J. Dale

Immunohematology, Volume 11 , ISSUE 4, 140–142

Article | 26-October-2020

Frequency of thrombocytopenia associated with gentamicin therapy

Miriam Fogg Leach, James P. AuBuchon

Immunohematology, Volume 15 , ISSUE 4, 167–170

Article | 27-April-2020

Is there a relationship between anti-HPA-1a concentration and severity of neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia?

Hagop Bessos, Marc L. Turner, Stanislaw J. Urbaniak

Immunohematology, Volume 21 , ISSUE 3, 102–108

Article | 17-November-2020

Trimeresurus venom inhibition of anti-HPA-1a and anti-HPA-1b antibody binding to human platelets

Steve J. Wlodar, Darryl L. Stone, Lyle T. Sinor

Immunohematology, Volume 11 , ISSUE 4, 129–132

Article | 14-October-2020

Neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia due to anti-HPA-2b (anti-Koa)

; 109/L, and Hb was 116 g/L. Eleven mL of matched platelets compatible by monoclonal antibody immobilization of platelet antigens (MAIPA) assay were transfused in utero, raising the platelet count to 62 × 109/L. Repeat transfusions were done later that week and 1 week later, with pretransfusion counts of 19 × 109/L and 16 × 109/L, respectively. Delivery by C section was done at 35.5 weeks, after the third platelet transfusion. Platelet count at birth was 77 × 109/L. Drainage

Mindy Goldman, Élise Trudel, Samir Khalife, Gwendoline M. Spurll

Immunohematology, Volume 19 , ISSUE 2, 43–46

Report | 01-December-2019

Detection and identification of plateletassociated alloantibodies by a solidphase modified antigen capture enzymelinked immunosorbent assay method and its correlation to platelet refractoriness in multiplatelet concentrate–transfused patients

Platelets express a variety of polymorphic glycoproteins (GPs), such as GPIIb/IIIa, GPIb/IX, GPIa/IIa, GPIV, and class I human leukocyte antigen. In the platelet transfusion setting, alloimmunization involves the production of antibodies against these glycoproteins. Patients transfused with multiple units of platelet concentrates for longer periods are the main individuals with platelet alloimmunization. This study was performed to detect the development of platelet antibodies in patients who

Neelesh Jain, Ravi Shankar Sarkar, Joseph Philip

Immunohematology, Volume 30 , ISSUE 3, 123–125

Article | 16-November-2020

Platelet transfusion: a review of key concepts

often encountered are the effectiveness, efficiency, and appropriateness of the products being given. This review covers the clinical consequences of thrombocytopenia, the relationship between platelet count and hemorrhage, the impact of platelet transfusion on hemostasis, the “optimal” dosage of platelets, and the importance of individualizing dosage in various common clinical scenarios.

Alan J. Sheinbaum, Jay H. Herman

Immunohematology, Volume 12 , ISSUE 3, 123–126

Review | 20-March-2020

Detection and identification of platelet antibodies and antigens in the clinical laboratory

As a result of the unique functional properties of platelets, morerobust methods were required for detection of antibodies raised against them. Immunofluorescence detection by flow cytometry, solid-phase red cell adherence, and antigen capture ELISAs are some of the current tests that have been developed to meet the challenges of platelet antibody detection and identification and antigen phenotyping. Recently developed protein liquid bead arrays are becoming the next-generation platelet

Brian R. Curtis, Janice G. McFarland

Immunohematology, Volume 25 , ISSUE 3, 125–135

Review | 20-March-2020

Recognition and management of antibodies to human platelet antigens in platelet transfusion–refractory patients

formation, antibodies to human platelet antigens (HPAs), an even less common immune factor, may rise proportionately. Carefully matched apheresis platelets can substantially improve platelet count increments in the setting of HLA and HPA alloantibody-mediated transfusion refractoriness. An evidence-based HPA testing strategy is described along with the incidence and specificity of HPA antibodies in platelet transfusion refractoriness. Optimal strategies to manage patients with HPA or combined HPA and

Ralph R. Vassallo

Immunohematology, Volume 25 , ISSUE 3, 119–124

Article | 21-April-2020

Novel molecular basis of an Inab phenotype  

The Cromer blood group system consists of ten high-prevalence and three low-prevalence antigens carried on decay-accelerating factor (DAF). DAF is found in the cell membranes of RBCs, granulocytes,platelets,and lymphocytes and is widely represented in other body tissues. Sequence analyses of DNA were performed on a blood sample from a 91-year-old Japanese woman whose serum contained an alloantibody to a high-prevalence antigen in the Cromer blood group system (anti-IFC). A blood sample from her

Kim Hue-Roye, Vivien E. Powell, Gita Patel, Debra Lane, Mariska Maguire, Amy Chung, Marion E. Reid

Immunohematology, Volume 21 , ISSUE 2, 53–55

Article | 09-November-2020

Semiautomation of platelet HPA-1a phenotyping by SPRCA and ELISA

An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and solid phase red cell adherence assay (SPRCA) were assessed for platelet HPA-1a typing in U well microplates. Both methods were partially automated by the use of the Tecan RSP 8051ID robotic sampler and the SLT 400 ATC plate reader with Soft2000 software. Pretreatment of the adherent platelets with chloroquine diphosphate or citric acid enabled anti-HPA-1a, even when contaminated with HLA class 1 antibodies, to be used for typing. Of 675 antenatal

Lionel A. Mohabir, Lynne Porter

Immunohematology, Volume 13 , ISSUE 2, 44–48

Report | 09-October-2019

Human platelet antigen allelic diversity in Peninsular Malaysia

Human platelet antigens (HPAs) are polymorphic and immunogenic glycoproteins encoded by biallelic genes on human chromosome 17 (HPA-1 to -4 and HPA-6 to -11), chromosome 5 (HPA-5), and chromosome 6 (HPA-15) and expressed on the surface of platelets. In the present study, we typed seven HPA loci (HPA-1 to -6 and HPA-15) by polymerase chain reaction using sequence-specific primer and sequence-based typing in 166 blood samples representing three Orang Asli groups (Semang, Senoi, and Proto-Malays

Wan Ubaidillah Wan Syafawati, Zulkafli Zefarina, Zafarina Zafarina, Mohd Nazri Hassan, Mohd Nor Norazmi, Sundararajulu Panneerchelvam, Geoffrey Keith Chambers, Hisham Atan Edinur

Immunohematology, Volume 32 , ISSUE 4, 143–160

Article | 09-November-2020

A clinically significant anti-HLA-A2 detectable by extended incubation cytotoxicity and flow cytometric techniques but not by a standard NIH lymphocytotoxicity test

A previously transfused female patient, known to have a platelet defect, was transfused with platelets prior to surgery. After the 18th unit she felt unwell, developed fever, rigor, became nauseous, and vomited. Her blood pressure decreased from 140/90 to 80/50mm Hg. Passive transfer of donor granulocytes or red cell antibodies were excluded as a cause. Therefore, a serum sample from the patient was investigated for the presence of antibodies to human leukocyte antigens (HLA) using a standard

Stephen F. Garner, John Petrochilos, Colin J. Brown, Suzette Cavanna, I. Chanarin, Cristina Navarrete

Immunohematology, Volume 13 , ISSUE 2, 49–53

Article | 30-November-2020

Successful transfusion in the presence of anti-K4 (anti-Kpb)

A 71-year-old group A, D+ female, with anti-K4(-Kpb), -E, and -S was admitted for her second coronary artery surgery. Four units of autologous red blood cells (RBCs) were transfused perioperatively, and four units of homologous K:-4, E-, S- RBCs were transfused over the next 24 hours. Ten units of fresh frozen plasma and 28 units of platelets were also transfused. Continued bleeding necessitated calling donors from other states in Australia and from the International Panel of Donors of Rare

Julie M Watt, Peter N. Moffatt, Suzanne Y. Chatfield, Wendy A. Grimm, Jennifer A. Bryant

Immunohematology, Volume 10 , ISSUE 3, 87–89

Article | 16-February-2021

A case of platelet transfusion refractoriness due to anti-CD36 with a successful treatment outcome

, given over this 14-day period, ranged from 0 to 0.82 (Fig. 1). All CCIs reported in Table 1 were calculated from PLT counts within 1 hour after the PLT transfusion. Fig. 1 Types of platelets (PLTs), corrected count increment (CCI), HLA and CD36 antibody levels, and medications for immune suppression over the course. HLA class I panel reactive antibody (PRA), anti-CD36 titer decrease, and CCI increase after the third intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) infusion are shown. Table 1. CCI achieved with

S.S. Khatri, B.R Curtis, C. Yamada

Immunohematology, Volume 35 , ISSUE 4, 139–144

Article | 18-October-2020

Comparison of human platelet antigen (HPA)-1a typing by solid phase red cell adherence to HPA-1 allotypes determined by allelespecific restriction enzyme analysis

. SPRCA test results of ≤ 2+ are considered equivocal and the HPA-1 allotype is determined by ASRA. HPA-1a-negative donors by SPRCA must be confirmed as HPA-1b/b by ASRA prior to issue for a patient that requires HPA-1anegative platelets.

Michael J. McGann, Jo L. Procter, Junichi Honda, Kazuhiko Matsuo, David F. Stroncek

Immunohematology, Volume 16 , ISSUE 2, 68–73

Report | 06-November-2019

Drug-induced immune thrombocytopenia: incidence, clinical features, laboratory testing, and pathogenic mechanisms

implicated. Patients with DIIT typically present with petechiae, bruising, and epistaxis caused by an acute, severe drop in platelet count (often to <20,000 platelets/µL). Diagnosis of DIIT is complicated by its similarity to other non–drug-induced immune thrombocytopenias, including autoimmune thrombocytopenia, posttransfusion purpura, and platelet transfusion refractoriness, and must be differentiated by temporal association of exposure to a candidate drug with an acute, severe drop in

Brian R. Curtis

Immunohematology, Volume 30 , ISSUE 2, 55–65

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