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  • Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis

 

Research paper

Rat white matter injury model induced by endothelin-1 injection: technical modification and pathological evaluation

White matter injury is an important cause of functional disability of the brain. We comprehensively analyzed a modified endothelin-1 (ET-1) injection-induced white matter injury model in the rat which is very valuable for investigating the underlying mechanisms of subcortical ischemic stroke. ET-1 was stereotactically injected into the internal capsule of the rat. To avoid complications with leakage of ET-1 into the lateral ventricle, the safest trajectory angle to the target was established

Hideaki Ono, Hideaki Imai, Satoru Miyawaki, Hirofumi Nakatomi, Nobuhito Saito

Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis , ISSUE 3, 212–224

research-paper

Protective effects of M8-B, a TRPM8 antagonist, on febrile- and pentylenetetrazol-induced seizures

channel in epileptogenesis has not yet been evaluated. Considering the physiological and pharmacological features of the TRPM8 channel, we aimed to evaluate the effect of a selective TRPM8 antagonist in different experimental models of seizure. METHODS Eight-day-old male Wistar rat pups (13–15 g) were used for induction of febrile seizures. Male albino mice (25–30 g) were used for PTZ- and electroshock-induced convulsions. The animals were housed under standard conditions (22–25°C and 12 h light

Nazanin Zandi, Nosaibeh Riahi Zaniani, Ali Moghimi, Ali Roohbakhsh

Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis , ISSUE 1, 86–91

Research paper

Inhibition of neuronal and inducible nitric oxide synthase does not affect the analgesic effects of NMDA antagonists in visceral inflammatory pain

Previously we described the antinociceptive effect of magnesium sulfate and dizocilpine (MK-801) in the visceral and somatic rat models of pain. In the somatic model of pain, we established the influence of selective inhibitors of neuronal and inducible nitric oxide synthase on the antihyperalgesic effects of magnesium sulfate and dizocilpine. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to determine in the rat model of visceral pain whether same mechanisms are involved in the

Dragana Srebro, Sonja Vučković, Milica Prostran

Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis , ISSUE 2, 110–116

research-article

Diverse changes in myelin protein expression in rat brain after perinatal methadone exposure

). Rat model data remains inconclusive regarding methadone effects on myelination. Rat pups with antenatal exposure to methadone via an osmotic minipump implanted in the pregnant dam demonstrated an up-regulation of myelin production and altered structure (Vestal-Laborde et al., 2014). Alternatively, rat pups with antenatal exposure to methadone via drinking water demonstrated decreased expression of myelin-specific proteins (Gourevitch et al., 2016). Detoxification during pregnancy has been

Rahul Oberoi, Tianci Chu, Nicholas Mellen, Rekha Jagadapillai, Hezhong Ouyang, Lori A. Devlin, Jun Cai

Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis , ISSUE 4, 367–373

Research paper

Fos immunoreactivity in the intermediolateral nucleus induced by tendon vibration of the m. triceps surae in rats pretreated with a nitric oxide blocker or precursor

We investigated neuronal activation of the rat intermediolateral (IML) nucleus of the thoracolumbar spinal cord, initiated by Achilles tendon vibration, after intramuscular (m. triceps surae) administration of 7-nitroindazole (7-NI) or L-arginine (LA). The spindle afferent response to vibratory stimuli induced a distinct bilateral increase in the activation of c-Fos immunoreactivity in the spinal neurons in three groups of rats (tendon-vibrated, tendon-vibrated + 7-NI and tendon-vibrated + LA

Inna V. Vereshchaka, Andriy V. Maznychenko, Olena P. Mankivska, Volodymyr O. Maisky, Oleh V. Vlasenko, Olexandr V. Dovgan, Olga L. Ocheretna, Tomasz Tomiak, Alexander I. Kostyukov

Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis , ISSUE 2, 82–91

Research paper

Aberrant changes of somatostatin and neuropeptide Y in brain of a genetic rat model for epilepsy: tremor rat

Excessive excitation or loss of inhibitory neurotransmission has been closely related to epileptic activity. Somatostatin (SST) and Neuropeptide Y (NPY) are members of endogenous neuropeptides which are recognized as important modulator of classical neurotransmitter, distributed abundantly in mammalian central nervous system. Abnormal expression of these two neuropeptides evidenced in some epileptic models highlights the relevance of SST or NPY in the pathogenesis of epilepsy. The tremor rat

Xiaoxue Xu, Feng Guo, Xinze Cai, Jun Yang, Jiuhan Zhao, Dongyu Min, Qianhui Wang, Liying Hao, Jiqun Cai

Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis , ISSUE 3, 165–175

Short Communication

Effect of ethanol on the visual-evoked potential in rat: dynamics of ON and OFF responses

Redas Dulinskas, Rokas Buisas, Valentina Vengeliene, Osvaldas Ruksenas

Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis , ISSUE 2, 190–197

Short Communication

Prolonged activity evokes potentiation and the “sag” phenomenon in slow motor units of rat soleus

Hanna Drzymała-Celichowska, Rositsa Raikova, Piotr Krutki

Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis , ISSUE 2, 152–157

research-article

Differential expression of the c-fos protein and synaptophysin in zebrin II positive and zebrin II negative cerebellar cortical areas in 4-aminopyridine seizures

GLU release in the rat striatum, as demonstrated in our previous research (Kovács et al., 2003). Here, we predict that a similar increase occurred in the cerebellar cortex. In particular, during generalised seizures, the repetitive stimulation of the CFs by 4-AP likely led to a spillover of GLU in the CF-PC synapses. The diffusion of GLU in the molecular layer, in turn, excited the inhibitory interneurons, thus decreasing the possibility of PC activation (Szapiro and Barbour, 2007). Our results

Beáta Krisztin-Péva, András Mihály, Zoltán Tóth

Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis , ISSUE 3, 239–251

research-article

Lovastatin alters neurotrophin expression in rat hippocampus-derived neural stem cells in vitro

values less than 0.05 were considered significant. RESULTS Neural stem cells culture The results of the primary culture of NSCs are presented in Fig. 1A-C. The initial culture of NSCs isolated from the neonatal rat hippocampus appeared single and round with clear boundaries in the first 24 h (Fig. 1A). After 3 days, self-renewing neuron-like cells with multipolar processes and growth cone-like features were identified (Fig. 1B). After 3 passages (Fig. 1C) the cells were placed into uncoated 6

Farzaneh Fakheri, Alireza Abdanipour, Kazem Parivar, Iraj Jafari Anarkooli, Hossein Rastegar

Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis , ISSUE 4, 413–420

Research paper

Long-term behavioral, histological, biochemical and hematological evaluations of amyloid beta-induced Alzheimer’s disease in rat

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a mental impairment and neural degeneration which causes progressive loss of memory and cognitive functions. This age-dependent illness is associated with extracellular amyloid plaques accumulation and twisted neurofibrillary tangles. Amyloid plaques are experimentally generated in animal models in order to investigate the disease process. In this study, we followed a rat model of AD for over a year. Wistar rats were divided randomly into two groups as control group

Raheleh Kheirbakhsh, Mahnaz Haddadi, Ahad Muhammadnejad, Alireza Abdollahi, Farshad Shahi, Behzad Amanpour-Gharaei, Azadeh Abrahim-Habibi, Tahereh Barati, Saeid Amanpour

Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis , ISSUE 1, 51–59

Research paper

Axonal outgrowth stimulation after alginate/mesenchymal stem cell therapy in injured rat spinal cord

which could form a supportive environment and scaffold to bridge the lesion area represents another attractive strategy. In the present study, through a combination of these two approaches we applied both alginate hydrogel biomaterial alone or allogenic transplants of MSCs isolated from bone marrow seeded in alginate biomaterial into injured rat spinal cord at three weeks after spinal cord compression performed at Th8-9 level. Following three-week survival, using immunohistochemistry we studied

Juraj Blaško, Eva Szekiova, Lucia Slovinska, Jozef Kafka, Dasa Cizkova

Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis , ISSUE 4, 337–350

Research paper

Effects of epidural compression on stellate neurons and thalamocortical afferent fibers in the rat primary somatosensory cortex

A number of neurological disorders such as epidural hematoma can cause compression of cerebral cortex. We here tested the hypothesis that sustained compression of primary somatosensory cortex may affect stellate neurons and thalamocortical afferent (TCA) fibers. A rat model with barrel cortex subjected to bead epidural compression was used. Golgi-Cox staining analyses showed the shrinkage of dendritic arbors and the stripping of dendritic spines of stellate neurons for at least 3 months post

Tzu-Yin Yeh, Guo-Fang Tseng, Chi-Yu Tseng, Yung-Hsin Huang, Pei-Hsin Liu

Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis , ISSUE 1, 1–17

research-paper

Prenatal ethanol intoxication and maternal intubation stress alter cell survival and apoptosis in the postnatal development of rat hippocampus

rather than a permanent damage. Therefore, the results directed us toward the investigation of the regenerative capacity of young brain, specifically regarding protein changes related to cell survival and apoptosis. In addition, we intended to look deeper into the potential molecular correlates of developmental deficits and/or delays and potential compensatory processes after fetal ethanol exposure. To do so in the rat model, we examined hippocampal expression and activation of selected proteins

Birsen Elibol, Merve Beker, Cigdem Dilek Sahbaz, Ulkan Kilic, Ewa Jakubowska-Doğru

Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis , ISSUE 2, 133–147

Research paper

Testosterone enhancement during pregnancy influences social coping and gene expression of oxytocin and vasopressin in the brain of adult rats

Steroid hormones are important mediators of prenatal maternal effects and play an important role in fetal programming. The aim of our study was to investigate how testosterone enhancement during pregnancy influences neurobehavioral aspects of social coping of rat offspring in adulthood. Pregnant rat dams were exposed to depot form of testosterone during the last third of pregnancy (i.e., beginning on the 14th day of pregnancy). Their adult offspring were later tested in a social interaction

Zuzana Dzirbíková, Alžbeta Talarovičová, Peter Štefánik, Lucia Olexová, Lucia Kršková

Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis , ISSUE 3, 264–270

Research paper

Upregulation of CCL3/MIP‑1alpha regulated by MAPKs and NF‑kappaB mediates microglial inflammatory response in LPS‑induced brain injury

Xiaobo Zhu, Dee Wei, Ou Chen, Zhaohua Zhang, Jiang Xue, Shanying Huang, Weiwei Zhu, Yibiao Wang

Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis , ISSUE 4, 304–317

original-paper

Thermopile power measurement for heat balance calorimetry

Very high resolution power sensors are required for measuring the rate of heat production (~10 µW) of small samples of heart muscle (rat cardiac trabeculae, ~2 mm long and ~200 µm diameter). In this paper, we examine the design criteria for thermopiles to maximize their signal-to-noise ratio for heat balance calorimetry. We found that those thermopiles with a high thermoelectric figure-of-merit (ZT) are the best for power measurements. An initial prototype with a resolution of 53 nW

Callum M. Johnston, Bryan P. Ruddy, Poul M. F. Nielsen, Andrew J. Taberner

International Journal on Smart Sensing and Intelligent Systems , ISSUE 5, 1–6

research-article

Effects of maternal thyroid hormone deficiency on differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells in CSF-exposed neonatal Wistar rats

shown that maternal thyroid hormone deficiency leads to decreased proliferation and impaired neurogenesis in the developing neo-cortex of the fetus (Mohan et al., 2012). Our results indicate that hypothyroidism suppresses neural differentiation in Wistar rat BM-MSCs. Shafiee and colleagues (2016) have demonstrated that hypothyroidism during the fetal and early postnatal periods is associated with an impairment in spatial learning and memory, and a reduction in hippocampal BDNF levels in both male

Vida Mafikandi, Nasim Hayati Roodbari, Mohammad Nabiuni, Parichehreh Yaghmaei

Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis , ISSUE 3, 271–276

Research paper

Interaction between urethane and cannabinoid CB1 receptor agonist and antagonist in penicillin-induced epileptiform activity

Gokhan Arslan, Sabiha Kubra Alici, Mustafa Ayyildiz, Erdal Agar

Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis , ISSUE 2, 128–136

Research paper

Additive and antagonistic antinociceptive interactions between magnesium sulfate and ketamine in the rat formalin test

Katarina Savić Vujović, Sonja Vučković, Dolika Vasović, Branislava Medić, Nick Knežević, Milica Prostran

Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis , ISSUE 2, 137–146

Research paper

Afferent projections of the subthalamic nucleus in the rat: emphasis on bilateral and interhemispheric connections

Safiye Çavdar, Merve Özgür, Yusuf Özgür Çakmak, Yasemin Kuvvet, Sıla Kezban Kunt, Gökay Sağlam

Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis , ISSUE 3, 251–263

Original Paper

Physiological Effects of Whey- and Milk-Based Probiotic Yogurt in Rats

Judit Szabó-Fodor, András Bónai, Brigitta Bóta, Linda Szommerné Egyed, Ferenc Lakatos, Gréta Pápai, Attila Zsolnai, Róbert Glávits, Katalin Horvatovich, Melinda Kovács

Polish Journal of Microbiology , ISSUE 4, 483–490

Research paper

Hindlimb suspension-induced cell apoptosis in the posterior parietal cortex and lateral geniculate nucleus: corresponding changes in c-Fos protein and the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway

Recent physiological studies indicate that weightlessness reliably alters ocular structure and function, as well as the ability to process visual-spatial information. The posterior parietal cortex (PPC) and lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) are two key brain areas implicated in the processing of visual-spatial information. Here, we used the modified tail-suspension rat model to simulate the physiological effects of microgravity. Rats were divided into four groups, which exposed to the simulated

Wei Huang, Chen Chen, Xufeng Liu

Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis , ISSUE 3, 220–230

Research paper

The effects of edaravone in ketamine-induced model of mania in rats

order to evaluate oxidative damage in the rat hippocampus and prefrontal cortex. Increased locomotor activity (hyperlocomotion) was observed at the open-field test with ketamine treatment (25 mg/kg, i.p., 8 days). Edaravone (18 mg/kg) treatment did not prevent hyperlocomotion in the mania model induced with ketamine in rats, but lithium chloride (47.5 mg/kg, i.p., positive control) did prevent hyperlocomotion. Edaravone and lithium chloride treatments were found to reduce the increase in SOD and CAT

Filiz Civil Arslan, Ahmet Tiryaki, Mehmet Yıldırım, Evrim Özkorumak, Ahmet Alver, İlkay Keleş Altun, İmran İnce, Öznur Gedikli

Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis , ISSUE 3, 192–198

Research paper

Calcium release from intracellular stores is involved in mitochondria depolarization after lowering extracellular pH in rat brain synaptosomes

Tatsiana G. Dubouskaya, Sviatlana V. Hrynevich, Tatsiana V. Waseem, Sergei V. Fedorovich

Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis , ISSUE 4, 343–351

Research paper

Effectors of large-conductance calcium-activated potassium channel modulate glutamate excitotoxicity
in organotypic hippocampal slice cultures

IbTx-sensitive increase in state 2 respiration of isolated brain mitochondria. In addition,electrophysiological patch-clamp studies confirmed the presence of BKCa channels in mitoplasts isolated from embryonic hippocampal cells. Taken together, our results confirm presence of BKCa channel in rat hippocampal neurons mitochondria and suggest putative role for mitoBKCa in neuroprotection.

Marta Piwońska, Adam Szewczyk, Ulrich H. Schröder, Klaus G. Reymann, Piotr Bednarczyk

Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis , ISSUE 1, 20–31

research-paper

Neuroprotective effects of lipopolysaccharide and naltrexone co-preconditioning in the photothrombotic model of unilateral selective hippocampal ischemia in rat

protective effect of LPS and NTX preconditioning against an ischemic attack we established co-preconditioning of these two agents in the photothrombotic model of unilateral selective hippocampal ischemia in rat. METHODS Animals Male albino Wistar strain rats (250±25 g mean body weight; 10 weeks of age) were purchased from the Faculty of Pharmacy, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Science, Tehran, Iran. All animal groups were housed in Plexiglas cages until surgery, were given ad libitum access to

Sayed Masoud Hosseini, Alireza Golaghaei, Ehsan Nassireslami, Nima Naderi, Hamid Gholami Pourbadie, Milad Rahimzadegan, Saeid Mohammadi

Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis , ISSUE 1, 73–85

Review

Experimental cerebral hemispherectomy in rodent models. A systematic review of current literature

Cerebral hemispherectomy is a neurosurgical procedure that involves surgically removing one hemisphere of the brain, used as a therapeutic option in severe cases of intractable epilepsy. Several animal models have contributed to our understanding of the underlying neuromechanisms. The review was based on a PubMed search using the terms “hemispherectomy” and “mouse” or “rat” or “rodent”, with no limitation of year of study or language. We identified a series of elements that were collected and

Cezar Octavian Morosanu, Razvan Lucian Jurca, Larisa Simonca, Roxana Flavia Ilies, Remus Moldovan, Ioan Stefan Florian, Gabriela Adriana Filip

Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis , ISSUE 1, 14–20

Research paper

Anti-inflammatory compound curcumin and mesenchymal stem cells in the treatment of spinal cord injury in rats

Spinal cord injury leads to a robust inflammatory response that is an unfavorable environment for stem cell implantation. In this study, we evaluated the effect of combined therapy of curcumin and mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) on behavioral recovery and tissue sparing, glial scar formation, axonal sprouting and inflammatory responses in a rat experimental model of spinal cord injury (SCI). Balloon-induced compression lesion was performed at thoracic (Th8-9) spinal level. Out of the four groups

Jiri Ruzicka, Lucia Machova Urdzikova, Anna Kloudova, Anubhav G. Amin, Jana Vallova, Sarka Kubinova, Meic H. Schmidt, Meena Jhanwar-Uniyal, Pavla Jendelova

Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis , ISSUE 4, 358–374

research-article

C60 fullerenes increase the intensity of rotational movements in non-anesthetized hemiparkinsonic rats

neurons were induced in rats by intracerebrally injecting the selective neurotoxin 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA, 8 μg, Sigma, USA) into the left medial forebrain bundle, and these lesions resulted in hemiparkinsonism (Maisky et al., 2002). The coordinates for the 6-OHDA injections were determined according to stereotaxic coordinates of the rat brain (Paxinos and Watson, 1997). The following coordinates were used: anteroposterior from bregma (AP)=-2.2 mm, mediolateral from the midline (ML)=+1.5 mm and

Andriy V. Maznychenko, Olena P. Mankivska, Inna V. Sokolowska (Vereshchaka), Bohdan S. Kopyak, Tomasz Tomiak, Nataliya V. Bulgakova, Olga O. Gonchar, Yuriy I. Prylutskyy, Uwe Ritter, Iryna V. Mishchenko, Alexander I. Kostyukov

Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis , ISSUE 1, 32–37

research-paper

Antidepressant and anxiolytic efficacy of single, chronic and concomitant use of vortioxetine, dapoxetine and fluoxetine in prenatally stressed rats

(216 Wistar rats) were housed in similar conditions. The dams had free access to rat chow (Labofeed B) and water. For behavioral tests, adult male rats born to dams exposed to prenatal stress and male rats born to non-stressed dams (control group) were used. The pregnant females were stressed outside of the experimental box. The total number of study animals was 292 (76 females, 216 males). The male rats were the offspring of either 38 prenatally stressed females (that delivered 108 prenatally

Piotr Ratajczak, Krzysztof Kus, Tomasz Zaprutko, Mikołaj Szczepański, Sandra Rusowicz, Elżbieta Nowakowska

Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis , ISSUE 1, 13–24

Research paper

Surgical injury-induced early neocortical microvascular changes and characteristics of the cells populating the peri-lesion zone

complex 3-dimensional network of basal lamina processes, called fractones. It apparently plays a major role in communication between the various niche-populating cell types as well as in niche activity and output. We hypothesized that similar niches may form ad hoc after a mechanical brain trauma, and tested this possibility in a rat model of surgical brain injury. Four days after removing a small fragment of sensorimotor cortex, the peri-wound region showed numerous symptoms of active repair and

Dorota Sulejczak, Stanisław J. Chrapusta, Wojciech Kozłowski, Małgorzata Frontczak-Baniewicz

Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis , ISSUE 2, 125–141

research-paper

miRNA-223-3p and let-7b-3p as potential blood biomarkers associated with the ischemic penumbra in rats

. Tissue samples from the brain ischemic penumbra were harvested as previously reported (Ashwal et al., 1998) (Fig. 1A) and stored at -80°C. Blood samples were drawn from the left or right jugular vein of each rat and collected in tubes containing ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA). Fig. 1. H&E staining showing the neuropathological changes in the ischemic penumbra after pMCAO. (A) A schematic representation of brain tissue from the ischemic penumbra. (B) H&E staining in the ischemic penumbra area

Shenghua Li, Lan Chen, Xia Zhou, Jinpin Li, Jingli Liu

Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis , ISSUE 2, 205–216

research-article

The inhibitory effects of bile acids on catalytic and non-catalytic functions of acetylcholinesterase as a therapeutic target in Alzheimer’s disease

) and conform to the European Communities Council Directive of 24 November 1986 (86/609/EEC). AChE activity assessment in hippocampal primary culture homogenate Primary neuronal cultures of rat hippocampus were prepared according to a previous study with some modifications (Seibenhener and Wooten, 2012). Dissected hippocampus (isolated from neonatal rat) was triturated by trypsin and mechanical disruption. The cells were differentiated in neurobasal medium supplemented with B27 and FGF2 for 7 days

Leila Sadeghi, Reza Yekta, Gholamreza Dehghan

Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis , ISSUE 2, 108–116

research-article

Crocin acts as a neuroprotective mediator against methylphenidate-induced neurobehavioral and neurochemical sequelae: Possible role of the CREB-BDNF signaling pathway

). Drug Crocin and MPH were obtained from Sigma-Aldrich (USA) and dissolved freshly in normal saline before administration. Experimental design Animals Group 1 (i.e., the control group) was administered 0.7 ml/rat, I.P., normal saline for 21 days. Group 2 (i.e., MPH) was given MPH (10 mg/kg, I.P.) for 21 days. Groups 3, 4, 5 and 6 concurrently received MPH (10 mg/kg, I.P.) and crocin (with doses of 10, 20, 40, or 80 mg/kg, I.P.) for 21 days. Rats in Group 7 received crocin (80 mg/kg, I.P

Andia Ebrahimzadeh, Sara Yousefi Moghadam, Hanieh Rahimi, Majid Motaghinejad, Manijeh Motevalian, Sepideh Safari, Mobina Abbasi Mesrabadi

Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis , ISSUE 4, 352–366

research-article

Intracerebroventricular streptozotocin induces behavioral impairments and increases short-term C3 gene expression in the hippocampus of Wistar rats

comprehension of the disease progression. Differences in gene expression associated with behavioral aspects in icv-STZ rat model can lead to new perspectives regarding prevention and treatment of sporadic AD, the most prevalent type observed in the population. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate a possible relationship between neurobehavioral impairments and gene expression of Mapt, Apoe, C3 and Ps-1 in the hippocampus of icv-STZ rat model in two phases; early (1 month after icv-STZ) and

Gabrielle Pfutzenreuter, Kenny Nieradka, Márcia Regina Pincerati, Ilton Santos da Silva

Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis , ISSUE 2, 160–169

research-article

Investigating the synergic effects of valproic acid and crocin on BDNF and GDNF expression in epidermal neural crest stem cells

BDNF mRNA expression level. However, only a slight increase has been observed in the mRNA expression level of GDNF after crocin treatment compared with that of the control group, which was not statistically significant. A previous study reported that crocin increased CREB, BDNF, and VGF protein expression in the rat hippocampus (Razavi et al., 2017). The most interesting finding was that the co-treatment of VPA and crocin significantly increased both BDNF and GDNF mRNA expression levels compared

Zahra Baharvand, Mohammad Nabiuni, Mohammad Tahmaseb, Elaheh Amini, Sareh Pandamooz

Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis , ISSUE 1, 38–46

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