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and nutrients, and also supporting leaves and other organs, and (3) the shoot, which produces leaves, flowers and fruit and enables effective nutrition of plants through photosynthesis and is also responsible for the reproduction process [48, 63]. Plants are colonised by an extremely high number of (micro)organisms, which can reach cell density much greater than the number of cells in the plant itself. In addition, the number of the genes of the microorganisms inhabiting the rhizosphere

Małgorzata Woźniak, Anna Gałązka

Postępy Mikrobiologii - Advancements of Microbiology , ISSUE 1, 59–69


Bacterial Diversity in Soybean Rhizosphere Soil at Seedling and Mature Stages

Rhizosphere microbes are important components of soil ecosystems. These organisms are closely related to soil fertility and are essential indicators for evaluating soil health. Soil microbial community and diversity can reflect changes in the soil environmental quality and reveal differences in microbial ecological functions, which are critical for maintaining soil quality and ecosystem stability (Gertini 2005). Rhizosphere microorganisms can absorb the hydrogen released by nitrogen-fixing


Polish Journal of Microbiology , ISSUE 2, 281–284

Mini Review

Biochar-Rhizosphere Interactions – a Review

, mainly bio, physical and chemical properties of soil. Its physical and chemical properties have an influence on bacteria, fungi and invertebrates, both in field and laboratory conditions. Such effects on rhizosphere organisms are positive or negative depending on biochar raw material origin, charring conditions, frequency of applications, applications method and doses, but long term effects are generally positive and are associated mainly with increased soil biota activity. However, a risk assessment

Sławomir Głuszek, Lidia Sas-Paszt, Beata Sumorok, Ryszard Kozera

Polish Journal of Microbiology , ISSUE 2, 151–161

Original Paper

Isolation and Characteristics of Biotechnologically Important Antagonistic Thermophilic Bacteria from Rhizosphere of Haloxylon salicornicum

Rhizobacteria are an active part of microbial population in the rhizosphere of plants. In this study, twenty rhizobacteria were isolated from the rhizosphere of a perennial grass, Haloxylon salicornicum, found in Cholistan desert, an arid landmass near Bahawalpur Pakistan, in one set of experimental conditions. Colony characteristics, biochemical and molecular analyses of these isolates were performed. All isolates were bacilli, gram positive with off-white colonies and exhibited typical

Muhammad Aslam, Faiz-Ul-Hassan Nasim, Rana Ruhi, Hassan Murad, Samina Ejaz, Muhammad Shafiq Choudhary, Ghulam Mustafa, Muhammad Ashraf, Jameel Rehman

Polish Journal of Microbiology , ISSUE 1, 49–58

Original Paper

Characterization of Bacteria Isolation of Bacteria from Pinyon Rhizosphere, Producing Biosurfactants from Agro-Industrial Waste

Two hundred and fifty bacterial strains were isolated from pinyon rhizosphere and screened for biosurfactants production. Among them, six bacterial strains were selected for their potential to produce biosurfactants using two low cost wastes, crude glycerol and lactoserum, as raw material. Both wastes were useful for producing biosurfactants because of their high content in fat and carbohydrates. The six strains were identified by 16S rDNA with an identity percentage higher than 95%, three

Arnoldo Wong-Villarreal, Lizbeth Reyes-López, Hipólito Corzo González, Cristina Blanco González, Gustavo Yáñez-Ocampo

Polish Journal of Microbiology , ISSUE 2, 183–189

Original Paper

Functional and Transcriptomic Characterization of a Dye-decolorizing Fungus from Taxus Rhizosphere

Abstract We isolated three laccase-producing fungus strains from Taxus rhizosphere. Myrotheium verrucaria strain DJTU-sh7 had the highest laccase activity of 216.2 U/ml, which was increased to above 300 U/ml after optimization. DJTU-sh7 had the best decolorizing effect for three classes of reactive dyes. The DJTU-sh7-containing fungal consortium displayed the robust decolorizing ability. Both color removal efficiency and chemical oxygen demand were increased in the consortium mediated


Polish Journal of Microbiology , ISSUE 4, 417–430


Morphological and Molecular Identification of Longidorus euonymus and Helicotylenchus multicinctus from the Rhizosphere of Grapevine and Banana in Greece

Plant-parasitic nematodes such as Longidorus euonymus and Helicotylenchus multicintctus are species widely distributed in central Europe as well as in Mediterranean area. In Greece, both species have been previously reported but no morphometrics or molecular data were available for these species. Nematode surveys in the rhizosphere of grapevines in Athens carried out in 2016 and 2017, yielded a Longidorus species identified as Longidorus euonymus. Similarly, a population of Helicotylenchus


Journal of Nematology , ISSUE 3, 233–235


Description of Hirschmanniella dicksoni n. sp. (Nematoda: Pratylenchidae) from rhizosphere soil of limpograss from Florida, USA

The University of Florida Nematode Assay Laboratory (NAL) received a rhizosphere soil sample for a routine diagnosis purpose from Beef Farm Prairie, Osceola County in Florida. The sample was taken from a site dedicated to limpograss (Hemarthria altissima). Limpograss is a warm-season perennial grass used by Florida beef cattle producers because of its high digestibility, adaptation to seasonally flooded soils, cool-season growth, and tolerance of light frost (Newman, 2014). This grass is well

Alemayehu W. Habteweld, Faruk Akyazi, Soumi Joseph, William T. Crow, Eyualem Abebe, Tesfamariam Mekete

Journal of Nematology , 1–15

Research Article

Xiphinema japonicum n. sp. (Nematoda: Longidorinae) from the Rhizosphere of Japanese Podocarpus macrophyllus (Thunb.), a Cryptic Species Related to Xiphinema bakeri Williams, 1961

Xiphinema japonicum n. sp., isolated in Ningbo, China, from the rhizosphere of Podocarpus macrophyllus (Thunb.) imported from Japan is described. The new species belongs to Xiphinema non-americanum group 7 and is characterized by medium body length (3.0–3.7 mm), total stylet length 190–201 μm, vulva located anteriorly (V = 30.5%–35.3%), two equally developed female genital branches without uterine differentiation (no Z or pseudo-Z organ and/or spines in the uteri), short tail, convex-conoid


Journal of Nematology , ISSUE 4, 404–417


First report of Meloidogyne enterolobii infecting Japanese blue berry tree (Elaeocarpus decipiens) in Florida, USA

) were collected directly from the rhizosphere of E. decipiens. These samples were designated with the internal FDACS-DPI sample identifier N19-1242. Galls were observed on secondary and tertiary roots (Fig. 1). Females were found inside of the galls, and egg masses were outside. Fig. 1 Roots of Elaeocarpus decipiens F.B.Forbes & Hemsl. showing galls induced by Meloidogyne enterolobii (Yang and Eisenback, 1983). Nematode species were identified using molecular and isozyme analyses, body length

M. R. Moore, J. A. Brito, S. Qiu, C. G. Roberts, L. A. Combee

Journal of Nematology , 1–3


Updated description of Paratylenchus lepidus Raski 1975 and P. minor Sharma, Sharma and Khan, 1986 by integrating molecular and ultra-structural observations

population of Paratylenchus species were detected in a soil sample of Elaeocarpus sp. and Chinese red pine (Pinus tabuliformis Carr). The preliminary studies revealed the status of these species as P. lepidus Raski, 1975a, 1975b and P. minor (Sharma et al., 1986). P. lepidus was originally described from Srilanka and has been reported from China (Chen et al., 2007) whereas P. minor was described from India in the rhizosphere of peach plants and has not been reported thereafter. As these species were

Munawar Maria, Wentao Miao, Weimin Ye, Jingwu Zheng

journal of nematology , 1–13


First report of root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne species) infecting Chinese Elm (Ulmus parvifolia) in Florida, USA

. parvifolia. To determine whether U. parvifolia is indeed a host of Meloidogyne species including M. enterolobii, rather than weeds growing together in the pots with these elms, additional soil and root samples (n = 3) were collected directly from the rhizosphere of U. parvifolia. These samples were designated with internal FDACS-DPI sample identifiers N20-110, N20-113 (both from U. parvifolia cv. Allee), and N20-115 (from U. parvifolia cv. Drake). Round galls, resembling those commonly induced by M

M. R. Moore, J. A. Brito, S. Qiu, C. G. Roberts, L. A. Combee

Journal of Nematology , 1–4


First report of Hemicriconemoides litchi associated with Piper sarmentosum and revision of the genus Hemicriconemoides in Vietnam

Hemicriconemoides in Vietnam is also provided. Material and methods Nematodes were extracted from the rhizosphere samples of P. sarmentosum in Vinh Phuc province, Vietnam, using the modified Baermann tray method (Whitehead and Hemming, 1965). For morphological characterization, permanent slides were made (Nguyen et al., 2017). Photographs and measurements were obtained using a Carl Zeiss Axio Lab. A1 light microscope was used equipped with a digital camera. The 5′-end region of 28S rDNA was amplified using

Thi Duyen Nguyen, Huu Tien Nguyen, Thi Mai Linh Le, Quang Phap Trinh

Journal of Nematology , 1–6


Isolated Phosphate-Solubilizing Soil Bacteria Promotes In vitro Growth of Solanum tuberosum L.

): –99.805278, Latitude (dec): 19.161389. Five quadrants of 10 m × 10 m were distributed and located in the study area. In each quadrant, five samples of rhizosphere soil were collected at 10 cm depth. Around 100 g of soil were placed in sterile Petri dishes, stored at 4°C for further microbiological analysis. The viable count of heterotrophic bacteria in the soil samples. Total heterotrophic soil bacteria population density was measured performing viable total count; results were reported as colony-forming


Polish Journal of Microbiology , ISSUE 3, 357–365


First Report of the Peach Root-Knot Nematode, Meloidogyne floridensis Infecting Almond on Root-Knot Nematode Resistant ‘Hansen 536’ and ‘Bright's Hybrid 5’ Rootstocks in California, USA

infects peach in nurseries and orchards, and was also identified on other economically important crops and on weeds. The nematode is able to parasitize Prunus rootstocks ‘Nemaguard’, ‘Flordaguard’, ‘Guardian’, ‘Okinawa’, and ‘Nemared’, all resistant to M. incognita, M. javanica, and M. arenaria. (Sherman and Lyrene, 1983; Smith et al., 2015). In April-August 2018, samples of galled roots with rhizosphere soil were collected from almond orchards in Atwater, Merced County and Bakersfield, Kern County

Andreas Westphal, Zin T. Z. Maung, David A. Doll, Mohammad A. Yaghmour, John J. Chitambar, Sergei A. Subbotin

Journal of Nematology , 1–3


The morphological characteristics and phylogenetic analysis of Pratylenchus vulnus Taiwan strawberry isolate

Yu-po Lin, Wan-chun Lee, Pei-che Chung, Jiue-in Yang

Journal of Nematology , 1–5


First report of Meloidogyne hapla on kiwifruit in South Africa

Ebrahim Shokoohi, Phatu W. Mashela

Journal of Nematology , 1–5

Research Article

Description and Distribution of Three Criconematid Nematodes from Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province, China

Populations of Criconemoides parvus, Discocriconemella hengsungica, and Discocriconemella limitanea, isolated in Hangzhou, China from the rhizosphere soil of woody perennials were characterized morphologically and molecularly. The morphometric data of the Chinese populations were compared with populations from other regions of the world. DNA barcoding with the mitochondrial COI gene confirmed conspecificity of Chinese and Costa Rican populations of D. limitanea. Phylogenetic assessment using a

Maria Munawar, Thomas O. Powers, Zhongling Tian, Timothy Harris, Rebecca Higgins, Jingwu Zheng

Journal of Nematology , ISSUE 2, 183–206

Research Article

Description of Gracilacus paralatescens n. sp. (Nematoda:Paratylenchinae) found from the rhizosphere of Bamboo in Zhejiang, China

Munawar Maria, Ruihang Cai, Weimin Ye, Thomas O. Powers, Jingwu Zheng

Journal of Nematology , ISSUE 4, 611–622


First report of Mesocriconema xenoplax (Nematoda: Criconematidae) from turfgrass in Portugal and in Europe

M. L. Inácio, L. C. Rusinque, M. J. Camacho, F. Nóbrega

Journal of Nematology , 1–6


Oostenbrinkia pedrami n. sp. (Dorylaimida: Aulolaimoididae) from Iran, with molecular phylogenetic relationships to some other Dorylaimida Pearse, 1942

long, pars distalis vaginae about 5 µm long, pars refringens vaginae apparently present, as sclerotized pieces about 3 µm long and pars proximalis vaginae small (Figs. 1C, 2I), and vulva a transverse slit, post equatorial. Prerectum length was 2.6 to 6.0 times the anal body diameter, rectum length was about equal to anal body diameter. The tail was short and rounded. Male Not found. Type host and locality Rhizosphere soil of Fagus orientalis, was collected in the forests of Shahsavar

Farahnaz Jahanshahi Afshar

Journal of Nematology , 1–7


Description of Heterodera microulae sp. n. (Nematoda: Heteroderinae) from China – a new cyst nematode in the Goettingiana group

morphomolecular characterizations, Handoo and Subbotin (2018) divided Heterodera into nine distinct groups such as Afenestrata, Avenae, Bifenestra, Cardiolata, Cyperi, Goettingiana, Humuli, Sacchari, and Schachtii group. Sequence analysis of these groups is significant to study the phylogenetic relationship and identifying the Heterodera species. During 2018 and 2019, a population of cyst nematode was collected from the rhizosphere of Microula sikkimensis in Tianzhu county of Gansu Province, China

Wenhao Li, Huixia Li, Chunhui Ni, Deliang Peng, Yonggang Liu, Ning Luo, Xuefen Xu

Journal of Nematology , 1–16

Research Article

Description of Xiphinema parachambersi sp. n. (Nematoda: Longidoridae) from Imported Ornamental Plants in Japan with a Key to Xiphinema Species in Group 1

Xiphinema parachambersi n. sp. recovered in Ningbo, China, from the rhizosphere of ornamental plants (Gardenia jasminoides and Euonymus hamiltonianus) imported from Japan is described. The new species is characterized by a long female body 1,830 to 2,109 μm long, odontostyle 105 to 116 μm long, reproductive system mono-opisthodelphic, vulva located anteriorly at 25.2 to 27.7% of total body, long ovary 119 to 292 μm with simple uterus and Z-organ absent, female tail elongated conoid with a

Munawar Maria, Weimin Ye, Qing Yu, Jianfeng Gu

Journal of Nematology , ISSUE 3, 369–386

Mini Review

Microbial Products and Biofertilizers in Improving Growth and Productivity of Apple – a Review

but mediate the process of producing crops and foods naturally. This method avoids the use of synthetic chemical fertilizers and genetically modified organisms to influence the growth of crops. In addition to their role in enhancing the growth of the plants, biofertilizers can act as biocontrol agents in the rhizosphere at the same time. Biofertilizers are very safe for human, animal and environment. The use of Azotobacter, Azospirillum, Pseudomonas, Acetobacter, Burkholderia, Bacillus

Walid Fediala Abd El-Gleel Mosa, Lidia Sas-Paszt, Mateusz Frąc, Paweł Trzciński

Polish Journal of Microbiology , ISSUE 3, 243–251


Paurodontella parapitica n. sp. (Nematoda: Hexatylina, Sphaerularioidea) from Kermanshah Province, Western Iran

Paurodontella parapitica n. sp., collected from the rhizosphere of an apple tree in Kermanshah province, western Iran, is described. The new species is characterized by a body length of 505 to 723 mm (females) and 480 to 600 mm (males), lip region continuous by depression; 7 to 8 mm broad, 3 to 4 mm high, stylet length 7 to 9 mm or 1 to 1.3 times the lip region diameter, short postuterine sac of 4 to 6 mm long, lateral fields with five to six incisures; outer incisures crenated and


Journal of Nematology , ISSUE 2, 109–115

Original Paper

Isolation and Characterization of Phosphate-Solubilizing Bacteria from Mushroom Residues and their Effect on Tomato Plant Growth Promotion

Phosphorus is a major essential macronutrient for plant growth, and most of the phosphorus in soil remains in insoluble form. Highly efficient phosphate-solubilizing bacteria can be used to increase phosphorus in the plant rhizosphere. In this study, 13 isolates were obtained from waste mushroom residues, which were composed of cotton seed hulls, corn cob, biogas residues, and wood flour. NBRIP solid medium was used for isolation according to the dissolved phosphorus halo. Eight isolates

Jian Zhang, Pengcheng Wang, Ling Fang, Qi-An Zhang, Congsheng Yan, Jingyi Chen

Polish Journal of Microbiology , ISSUE 1, 57–65

Original Paper

Comparison of Microbial Communities Associated with Halophyte (Salsola stocksii) and Non-Halophyte (Triticum aestivum) Using Culture-Independent Approache

, root and shoot samples was isolated with the help of FastDNA spin kit. Through PCR, the 16S rRNA gene from four different Salsola plants and wheat plants was amplified and cloned in InsTAclone PCR cloning kit. Metagenomic analyses from rhizosphere, endosphere and phyllosphere of Salsola showed that approximately 29% bacteria were uncultured and unclassified. Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria were the most abundant phyla in Salsola and wheat. How­ever, Firmicutes, Acidobacteria, Bacteriodetes

Salma Mukhtar, Ayesha Ishaq, Sara Hassan, Samina Mehnaz, Muhammad S. Mirza, Kauser A. Malik

Polish Journal of Microbiology , ISSUE 3, 353–364


Aphelenchus yinyuensis n. sp. (Tylenchina: Aphelenchoididae) found in Terminalia sp. in China

proximal region of the spicules to the tail tip and supported by four pairs of bursal papillae (ribs), one pair preanal, and the other three near the tail end. Tail is short, conoid, tapering to a pointed terminus. Type habitat and locality: This population was found in the rhizosphere of Terminalia sp. from Yinyu Islet, Yongle Islands, Sansha City, Hainan Province, China (GPS: The geographical position of the sampling site is: 16°35′03″N, 111°42′39″E. Date: September 23, 2019. Collectors: Bo Cai

Gu Jianfeng, Munawar Maria, Yiwu Fang, Liu Lele, Xianfeng Chen, Bo Cai

Journal of Nematology , 1–12


Description of Geocenamus vietnamensis sp. n. (Nematoda: Merliniidae) from Vietnam

). Therefore, Sturhan (2012) agreed with Brzeski (1991) in synonymizing Scutylenchus with the “senior” genus Geocenamus, but he considered Merlinius as a valid genus. Following the classification of Sturhan (2012), this study provides morphological and molecular characterizations of a new species of the genus Geocenamus in Vietnam. Materials and methods Nematode population sampling Soil and root samples were collected from the rhizosphere of Casuarina equisetifolia (Casuarinaceae) in Quang Nam province

Huu Tien Nguyen, Thi Mai Linh Le, Thi Duyen Nguyen, Gracia Liebanas, Thi Anh Duong Nguyen, Quang Phap Trinh

Journal of Nematology , 1–12


A new stunt nematode, Geocenamus chengi n. sp. (Nematoda: Merliniinae) in the rhizosphere of tea (Camellia sinensis) from Zhejiang Province, China

(Geraert, 2011). Currently, the genus Geocenamus contains over 70 species distributed across different climatic zones and environments (Geraert, 2011; Nguyen et al., 2019). G. brevicaudatus (Peng and Hunt, 1995; Brzeski, 1998) is a Chinese native species, and was reported almost two decades ago from Hebei province. Other than that, G. myunsugae (Choi and Geraert, 1993) and G. tenudens (Thorne and Malek, 1968) were also reported in the rhizosphere of cultivated plants from Shandong and Liaoning

Munawar Maria, Wentao Miao, Pablo Castillo, Jingwu Zheng

Journal of Nematology , 1–13


Description of a new dagger nematode, Xiphinema barooghii n. sp. (Nematoda: Longidoridae) and additional data on the three known species of the genus from northwest of Iran

recent nematological survey on longidorids in Roodghat area, Sufiyan, East-Azarbaijan province in northwest of Iran, three known and one new species of the genus Xiphinema were found in several agroecosystems. The new species belonging to morphospecies group 6 of the genus was recovered from soil samples collected from the rhizosphere of common wheat and is described herein as X. barooghii n. sp. This is the fifth species belonging to morphospecies group 6 originally described from Iran, the other

Nasir Vazifeh, Gholamreza Niknam, Habibeh Jabbari, Arezoo Naghavi

Journal of Nematology , 1–17


Luffa cylindrica Immobilized with Aspergillus terreus QMS-1: an Efficient and Cost-Effective Strategy for the Removal of Congo Red using Stirred Tank Reactor


Polish Journal of Microbiology , ISSUE 2, 193–203


A new rare nematode Nothocriconemoides hangzhouensis n. sp. (Nematoda: Criconematidae) from Hangzhou, China

the rhizosphere of elm tree. As Nothocriconemoides was never reported from China, the present work was undertaken to identify the species status. The morpho-molecular characterization and SEM data of this population were compared with the existing species of the genus. Careful examination revealed that the species under investigation presents unique characteristics and is a new member of the genus Nothocriconemoides. Therefore, the paper describes a new Nothocriconemoides species with the

Munawar Maria, Wentao Miao, Ruihang Cai, Pablo Castillo, Jingwu Zheng

Journal of Nematology , 1–14


First Report of the Spiral Nematode Rotylenchus incultus (Nematoda: Hoplolaimidae) from Cultivated Olive in Tunisia, with Additional Molecular Data on Rotylenchus eximius

Spiral nematode species of the genus Rotylenchus have been reported on olive (Olea europaea L.) in several Mediterranean countries (Castillo et al., 2010; Ali et al., 2014). Nematological surveys for plant-parasitic nematodes on olive trees were carried out in Tunisia between 2013 and 2014, and two nematode species of Rotylenchus were collected from the rhizosphere of olive cv. Chemlali in several localities of Tunisia (Tables 1,2). Twenty-two soil samples of 3 to 4 kg were collected with a


Journal of Nematology , ISSUE 3, 136–138


First Report of Longidorus kuiperi and Rotylenchus eximius from Coastal Sand Dunes in Crete, Greece

Plant-parasitic nematode species have been reported on several occasions from coastal sand dunes, including Longidorus and Rotylenchus species (Vovlas et al., 2008; De Luca et al., 2009; Mateille et al., 2014). In April 2016, 10 soil samples of 3 to 4 kg from the rhizosphere of Tamarix smyrnensis with different vegetation around (viz. Elymus farctus, Lycium schweinfurthii, Crithmum maritimum, and Arthrocnemum sp.) were collected for diagnosis of plant-parasitic nematodes. The area of sampling


Journal of Nematology , ISSUE 3, 135–135


First Report of the Fig Cyst Nematode, Heterodera fici Kirjanova, on Fig Tree, Ficus carica, in Ontario, Canada

Although fig trees are a popular ornamental fruit tree in subtropical regions, some hardy species, such as Ficus carica, have been grown in the west coast of British Columbia and southern Ontario in Canada. The fig cyst nematode, Heterodera fici Kirjanova, is a pest on fig plants, and the heavy infestation can cause retarded growth and yellowing of leaves (Maqbool et al., 1987). In the spring of 2016, a sample of rhizosphere from a potted fig (F. carica) seedling was submitted to the


Journal of Nematology , ISSUE 2, 131–132

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