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Review Paper | 04-December-2013

Effect of plant polyphenols on seizures – animal studies

Introduction. Flavonoids are a large group of natural compounds that have been considered to be beneficial in ameliorating some age-dependent disorders. However, a potential use of these compounds in epilepsy treatment has not been systematically reviewed. Aim. This review describes the pharmacological activity of some polyphenols (flavonoids) in different animal models of seizures e.g. pentylenetetrazole-induced seizures, kainate-induced seizures and pentylenetetrazole kindling in rats. Method

Władysław Lasoń, Monika Leśkiewicz

Journal of Epileptology, Volume 21 , ISSUE 2, 79–87

research-article | 15-October-2020

Diazepam and electrical stimulation of paleocerebellar cortex inhibits seizures in pentylenetetrazol-kindled rats

INTRODUCTION Epilepsy is a neurological disease characterized by the emergence of spontaneous recurrent seizures leading to long-term disability or death (Fisher et al., 2014). Traditional pharmacological treatment leads to complete control of seizures in approximately half of epilepsy patients and to a substantial reduction of manifestations in 20-30% of the patients (Fisher et al., 2014; Fisher and Velasco, 2014). The remaining population of patients with epilepsy are resistant to anti

Leonid S. Godlevsky, Oleksii O. Shandra, Mykhailo P. Pervak, Alexey A. Shandra

Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis, Volume 80 , ISSUE 3, 322–330

Original Paper | 31-March-2015

Variations in cognitive functioning in genetic generalized epilepsy: four case studies

Introduction. The traditional view of cognition in idiopathic or genetic generalized epilepsy (GGE) is that “one size fits all” i.e. only very mild generalized impairment might be detected, if any. This paper describes four case studies of cognitive functioning in GGE patients with photosensitivity and reflexive seizures. Aim. The aim was to discover whether each individual’s set of cognitive deficits varied in accordance with his/her other clinical phenomena such as

Evangelina E. Ballini, Edward Helmes, Bruce K. Schefft

Journal of Epileptology, Volume 23 , ISSUE 1, 25–37

research-paper | 14-June-2019

Protective effects of M8-B, a TRPM8 antagonist, on febrile- and pentylenetetrazol-induced seizures

INTRODUCTION Epilepsy is a chronic condition that has beset humans for centuries. Currently, it is estimated that 50 million people suffer from epilepsy and more than 40 types of epilepsy have been identified. This life-threatening disorder is associated with recurrent and unpredictable seizures with sensory, motor, and autonomic attacks, with or without disturbances of consciousness (Falco-Walter et al., 2018). Epileptic seizures are exhibited following synchronized electrical discharges in

Nazanin Zandi, Nosaibeh Riahi Zaniani, Ali Moghimi, Ali Roohbakhsh

Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis, Volume 79 , ISSUE 1, 86–91

Research paper | 04-May-2018

Antimuscarinic-induced convulsions in fasted mice after food intake: no evidence of spontaneous seizures, behavioral changes or neuronal damage

Prolonged or repeated seizures have been shown to cause spontaneous recurrent seizures, increased anxiety-related behavior, locomotor hyperactivity, impaired functions of learning and memory, and neuronal damage in the hippocampus and other brain regions in animals. Mice and rats treated with antimuscarinic drugs after fasting for two days or less develop convulsions after being allowed to eat ad libitum. To address whether such behavioral and neuroanatomic changes occur following these

Nurhan Enginar, Asiye Nurten, Aslı Zengin Türkmen, Gül İpek Gündoğan, Zeynep Güneş Özünal

Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis, Volume 77 , ISSUE 4, 373–381

Original Paper | 19-December-2013

The lateralizing and localizing value of peri-ictal cough in epileptic seizures

Introduction. Coughing may be observed as an epiphenomenon during or after epileptic seizures. Aim. In this paper we discuss the lateralization and localization value of cough as an epileptic peri/post ictal semiological phenomenon. Material and Methods. Seven patients presenting cough as a part of their symptomatology are presented. We will discuss cough in the context of these seven patients. Results. Six out of these seven patients were multidrug resistant temporal lobe epilepsy patients

Bektaş Korkmaz, Gülsün Erşen, Şakir Delil, Çiğdem Özkara, S. Naz Yeni

Journal of Epileptology, Volume 21 , ISSUE 2, 71–77

Review Paper | 30-September-2016

The epileptic multifactorial patient’s burden. Review of the topic

. Generalized tonic-clonic seizures and refractory epilepsy are the most important factors burdening PWE’s, resulting in increased injuries and mortality, including Sudden Unexpected Death in Epilepsy (SUDEP). The need of chronic intake of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) and of epilepsy surgery are also important with regards to potential for side effects, drug interactions, and different surgery risks. PWE harbour more medical and psychiatric comorbidities than the general population and results in a

José Pimentel

Journal of Epileptology, Volume 24 , ISSUE 2, 167–172

critical-appraisal | 31-March-2020

A brief update on psychogenic non-epileptic seizures: a challenge to overcome

PNES: A PUBLIC HEALTH ISSUE Psychogenic Non-Epileptic Seizures (PNES) are defined by their semiological resemblance to Epileptic Seizures (ES) but are not associated with specific epileptic discharges in an ictal EEG (Asadi-Pooya and Sperling, 2015). Most PNES are thought to be non-volitional responses to internal or external triggers perceived as threatening or challenging (Asadi-Pooya and Sperling, 2015; Brown and Reuber, 2016). The incidence of PNES has been found to be 1.4–4.9/100,000/year

Massimiliano Beghi, Cesare Maria Cornaggia, Ettore Beghi

Journal of Epileptology, Volume 28 , 67–72

Original Paper | 03-April-2013

Neurobiological and clinical predictors of remission and antiepileptic treatment efficacy in partial epilepsies

Introduction. The current knowledge of significance of some neurobiological and clinical variables in the prediction of remission length and seizures reduction in partial epilepsies remains sparse and even controversial. Aim. The current study has been carried out in order to evaluate the possible relationship between epilepsy forms, gender, focus lateralization and handedness with therapeutic remission and seizures reduction during antiepileptic treatment in persons with partial forms of

Vladimir V. Kalinin, Anna A. Zemlyanaya, Elena V. Zheleznova, Lyudmila V. Sokolova

Journal of Epileptology, Volume 21 , ISSUE 1, 15–25

research-article | 30-November-2018

Differential expression of the c-fos protein and synaptophysin in zebrin II positive and zebrin II negative cerebellar cortical areas in 4-aminopyridine seizures

some pathological conditions (Cerminara et al., 2015). Our previous experiments demonstrated the primary importance of the pontocerebellar MFs in overexcitation of the cerebellar cortex in epilepsy (Tóth et al., 2015). Subsequent experiments (Tóth et al., 2018) demonstrated that ionotropic glutamate receptors are involved in cerebellar convulsions that were precipitated by 4-aminopyridine (4-AP). In our studies, we use 4-AP to elicit generalised tonic–clonic seizures (GTCS). 4-AP works by blocking

Beáta Krisztin-Péva, András Mihály, Zoltán Tóth

Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis, Volume 79 , ISSUE 3, 239–251

Case report | 27-February-2015

Epileptic seizure propagation from the second somatic sensory area to the fronto-medial region, by insular redistribution. A case report and a connectome description

cases. A further conclusion is the consideration of the redistributory role of the insula as a special structure in the cerebral connectome, having a role in epileptic network organisation. Aims. To support the role of the insula in the organisation of an opercular – medial frontal epileptic network and to confirm Penfield’s the “second somatic sensory leg area” by way of a case report. We try to give an up to date exploration of our patient’s remote epileptic seizures

Attila Balogh, Péter Halász, Dániel Fabó, Lóránd Erőss

Journal of Epileptology, Volume 23 , ISSUE 1, 61–67

Research paper | 31-July-2017

Age‑dependent concomitant changes in synaptic function and GABAergic pathway in the APP/PS1 mouse model

Synaptic dysfunction is a well‑documented manifestation in animal models of Alzheimer’s disease pathology. In this context, numerous studies have documented reduction in the functionality of synapses in various models. In addition, recent research has shed more light on increased excitability and its link to seizures and seizure‑like activities in AD patients as well as in mouse models. These reports of hyperexcitability contradict the observed reduction in synaptic function and have been

Tutu Oyelami, An De Bondt, Ilse Van den Wyngaert, Kirsten Van Hoorde, Luc Hoskens, Hamdy Shaban, John A. Kemp, Wilhelmus H. Drinkenburg

Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis, Volume 76 , ISSUE 4, 282–293

Review Paper | 19-October-2015

Jeavons syndrome – updated review

) epilepsy syndrome (IGE) characterized by eyelid myoclonia, other seizures (absences, myoclonic and or generalized tonic-clonic) and EEG paroxysms induced by voluntary or on command eye closure, in the light and photosensitivity. Demographical data: The prevalence of JS has been reported to vary from 7.3% to 12.9% among idiopathic generalized epilepsies and 2.5% to 2.7% among all patients with epileptic disorders. Etiology: JS, as is the case for all idiopathic generalized epilepsies, is genetic and the

Athanasios Covanis

Journal of Epileptology, Volume 23 , ISSUE 2, 113–123

Original Paper | 22-December-2016

Additive interactions between retigabine and oxcarbazepine in the chimney test and the model of generalized tonic-clonic seizures in mice

Introduction. Patients with pharmacoresistant epilepsy are usually treated with two or more antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). The search for therapeutically efficacious AED combinations is still a challenging issue for clinicians and epileptologists throughout the world. Aim. To determine the interaction profile for the combination of retigabine (RTG) and oxcarbazepine (OXC) in both, the model of tonic-clonic seizures, the maximal electroshock (MES)-induced seizure model and chimney test (motor

Mirosław Zagaja, Barbara Miziak, Katarzyna Załuska, Paweł Marzęda, Bartłomiej Drop, Karolina Załuska-Patel, Grażyna Ossowska, Stanisław J. Czuczwar, Jarogniew J. Łuszczki

Journal of Epileptology, Volume 24 , ISSUE 2, 87–94

Original Paper | 15-January-2018

Adenosine receptor agonists differentially affect the anticonvulsant action of carbamazepine and valproate against maximal electroshock test-induced seizures in mice

Background. Adenosine is regarded as an endogenous anticonvulsant and its agonists have been proved to affect the anticonvulsant activity of a number of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) in animal models of seizures. Aim. To evaluate effects of adenosine agonists on carbamazepine (CBZ) and valproate (VPA) in mouse model of generalized tonic-clonic convulsions. Methods. The following adenosine receptor agonists were used: A 1 – cyclohexyladenosine, A2A – CGS 21 680, A3 – N6-benzyl

Mirosław Jasiński, Magdalena Chrościńska-Krawczyk, Stanisław J. Czuczwar

Journal of Epileptology, Volume 25 , ISSUE 1-2, 21–29

Case report | 14-November-2014

Ictal Forced Repetitive Swearing in Frontal Lobe Epilepsy: Case report and review of the literature

Introduction. Dominant presentation of ictal forced repetitive swearing has been rarely addressed and could be misdiagnosed. Case report. We report a 45-year-old man with a long history of right frontal lobe epilepsy (FLE) who developed forced repetitive swearing during hypermotor seizures. His seizures were refractory to different antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). Scalp video-EEG telemetry suggested a right frontal epileptic focus. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) suggested focal cortical dysplasia

Marjan Dolatshahi, Alexei Yankovsky

Journal of Epileptology, Volume 22 , ISSUE 2, 113–119

research-article | 30-November-2019

Epilepsy Surgery: A Paediatric Perspective

Introduction: Seizures are the most common neurological condition worldwide and the most common neurological emergency in children. While these medical emergencies are stressful, they are not all the same and can be divided into two categories based on chronicity (Stafstrom & Carmant, 2015; Chiou & Hsieh, 2008). A “seizure” is a transient, paroxysmal alteration of neurologic function which may be provoked by a non-epileptic or reversible insult such as trauma, hypoglycemia, or more commonly in

Lauren Bollard, Emily Moore, Rebecca Paff

Australasian Journal of Neuroscience, Volume 30 , ISSUE 2, 7–12

research-article | 24-June-2021

Selected flavonoids and their role in the treatment of epilepsy – a review of the latest reports from experimental studies

controlling seizures (Kwan et al., 2010). The mechanism of drug resistance is not fully known or fully explained. It is probably influenced by both genetic and environmental factors (Tang et al., 2017). For those suffering from drug-resistant epilepsy (DRE) numerous drug side effects, memory disorders, stigmatization become a social problem, and the lack of expected treatment effects contribute to the occurrence of depression in even half of the patients (Kozera-Kępniak et al., 2013). Sudden unexpected

Joanna Szala-Rycaj, Mirosław Zagaja, Aleksandra Szewczyk, Marta Andres-Mach

Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis, Volume 81 , ISSUE 2, 95–104

Review Paper | 06-April-2016

Anticonvulsant therapy in brain-tumor related epilepsy

Background. The lifetime risk of patients with brain tumors to have focal epileptic seizures is 10–100%; the risk depends on different histology. Specific guidelines for drug treatment of brain tumor-related seizures have not yet been established. Aim. This review addresses the special aspects of antiepileptic drug (AED) therapy in brain tumor-related epilepsy. Methods. We analyzed the literature up to December 2015. Results. Based on current evidence the management of tumor-related

Walter Fröscher, Timo Kirschstein, Johannes Rösche

Journal of Epileptology, Volume 24 , ISSUE 1, 41–56

review-article | 05-September-2019

Cannabinoids in the treatment of epilepsy – an updated review

INTRODUCTION Epilepsy is one of the most common disorders of the nervous system. It is a health problem as well as a social and economic one. Epilepsy affects over 65 million people worldwide (CDC, 2012). Patients who suffer from seizures in spite of the administration of two subsequent, appropriately-selected antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) that are well applied and tolerated, are diagnosed with refractory epilepsy (Kwan et al., 2010). It is estimated that 30% of people with epilepsy continue to

Marcin Kopka

Journal of Epileptology, Volume 27 , 35–42

Original Paper | 02-January-2015

The pathophysiology of Lennox-Gastaut syndrome – a review of clinico-electrophysiological studies

tonic seizures that persist and are the basis of LGS. In approximately 30% of cases, the basic symptoms of LGS remain 10 years or longer after long-term progression, while the rest lose their characteristics, although the condition is residual in 60% of cases and remission occurs in fewer than 10%. Among the characteristic seizures associated with LGS, atypical absence seizures occur in response to a diverse range of EEG features; wherein, while they are mostly short, they are accompanied by a state

Kazuichi Yagi

Journal of Epileptology, Volume 23 , ISSUE 1, 7–23

Original Paper | 24-June-2016

Russian experience of using perampanel in daily clinical practice. Preliminary report

frequency of all types was 127.3 } 82.3 per month; secondary generalized seizures – 6.7 } 1.9 per month. After PER was added, a significant decrease in seizure frequency was observed already during the first month, to 52.1 } 29.3 seizures per month (Sign test, p = 0.00001) for seizures of all types and to 3.7 } 1.7 (Sign test, p = 0.00001) for secondary generalized seizures. In an overwhelming majority of cases, duration of PER treatment was more than 6 months. In 58% of patients, seizure

Pavel Vlasov, Vladimir Karlov, Irina Zhidkova, Aleksandr Chervyakov, Oleg Belyaev, Iosif Volkov, Diana Dmitrenko, Antonina Karas, Tatiana Kazennykh, Olga Miguskina, Anna Moskvicheva, Elena Paramonova, Irina Ponomareva

Journal of Epileptology, Volume 24 , ISSUE 1, 7–14

Practice Report | 29-August-2014

Cognitive impairment predicts social disability in persons with epilepsy

Introduction. Cognitive dysfunction is one of the main comorbidities of epilepsy which co-exists with seizures and contributes to the adverse impact of the disease on employment, education and interpersonal relationships. A fundamental question regarding cognitive dysfunction in epilepsy goes as follows: in comparison to seizures, what role does cognitive dysfunction play in causing social disability? The purpose of this review was to evaluate our understanding of the role cognitive impairment

Krzysztof A. Bujarski, Gabriella Wozniak, Erik J. Kobylarz

Journal of Epileptology, Volume 22 , ISSUE 2, 89–97

research-article | 18-December-2018

Determinants of medication withdrawal strategy in the epilepsy monitoring unit*

BACKGROUND Video-EEG monitoring is a vital diagnostic tool in epilepsy. It is the gold standard in distinguishing epilepsy from non-epileptic seizures and is also used in presurgical evaluation of drug-resistant epilepsy. Questions remain regarding the optimal management of patients during VEEG admission. Previous work on duration of monitoring found that 3–5 days is average (Nordli, 2006; Hupalo et al., 2016). In patients with frequent events the majority had a typical event within two days

Alendia Hartshorn, Yasser Shahrour, Angeline S. Andrew, Krzysztof Bujarski

Journal of Epileptology, Volume 26 , ISSUE 1-2, 15–19

research-paper | 12-August-2019

Coumarins as potential supportive medication for the treatment of epilepsy

effect of coumarins on the central nervous system (CNS). Therefore, numerous experimental studies focus on disorders such as epilepsy, schizophrenia, depressive and anxiety disorders or Alzheimer’s disease (Skalicka-Woźniak et al., 2016). Possible anticonvulsant properties of natural coumarins Epileptic seizures are the result of excessive abnormal neuronal activity in the brain. The primary treatment for epilepsy is the administration of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). These drugs reduce the frequency

Jarosław Bryda, Mirosław Zagaja, Aleksandra Szewczyk, Marta Andres-Mach

Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis, Volume 79 , ISSUE 2, 126–132

case-report | 21-November-2019

Glucose transporter type 1 deficiency syndrome (GLUT1-DS) – delayed diagnosis and treatment. A case report

). Haplodeficiency of GLUT1 due to heterozygous pathogenic variants in the SLC2A1 gene, mainly of an autosomal dominant inheritance, leads to chronic hypoglycorrachia (decreased cerebrospinal fluid glucose concentration) and neurological dysfunction, which constitute the defining features of the GLUT1-DS (Pascual et al., 2007; De Vivo et al., 1991; Pascual et al., 2004). The GLUT1-DS usually presents as a classic form, with epileptic seizures (90%), but about 10% of patients are seizure-free. The phenotypic

Piotr Bogucki, Ewa Nagańska, Marta Jurek, Dorota Hoffman-Zacharska, Anna Kutkowska-Kaźmierczak, Ewa Obersztyn, Urszula Fiszer

Journal of Epileptology, Volume 27 , 49–54

research-article | 12-September-2019

The influence of clinical and immune variables on psychopathological syndromes in partial epilepsies in relation to handedness

possible mechanisms which could explain the appearance of concomitant psychopathology in epilepsy have been proposed. In this context some authors believe that temporal lobe epilepsy especially with left hemisphere focus and concomitant reduced function of frontal lobes (so-called hypofrontality) and focal seizures with impaired awareness (FSIA) belongs to the main risk factors of co-morbid psychopathological disorders and depression in particular (Mendez et al., 1986, 1994; Altshuler et al., 1990

Vladimir V. Kalinin, Elena V. Zheleznova, Kirill Y. Subbotin, Natalia G. Yermakova, Anna A. Zemlyanaya, Lyudmila V. Sokolova

Journal of Epileptology, Volume 27 , 17–25

Original Paper | 17-March-2016

Lateralized periodic discharges associated with status epilepticus in the first year after stroke

Hava Ozlem Dede, Nerses Bebek, Ozlem Gelisin, Murat Mert Atmaca, Nilufer Yesilot Barlas, Candan Gurses, Betul Baykan, Aysen Gokyigit

Journal of Epileptology, Volume 24 , ISSUE 1, 15–23

Original Paper | 02-June-2015

The effect of seizures on functional status of people with spastic forms of cerebral palsy

Agata Michalska, Janusz Wendorff

Journal of Epileptology, Volume 23 , ISSUE 2, 91–102

Case report | 05-December-2013

Burns from foul play? No – previously unsuspected epilepsy

Introduction. Injuries such as burns may occur from unwitnessed and unsuspected new onset epilepsy with forensic implications. Case report. A young woman was found with >25% 2nd and 3rd degree body burns after an unwitnessed morning event in a shower. Discussion. The onset of tonic-clonic seizures and limb jerks in adolescence with a typical EEG recording of 3–4/second spike/polyspike-and-waves are diagnostic of Juvenile Myoclonic Epilepsy (JME). Worldwide there is a significant

Peter W. Kaplan

Journal of Epileptology, Volume 21 , ISSUE 2, 105–107

Original Paper | 14-November-2017

Diagnoses and referral pattern at a first seizure clinic in London

referred mainly by A&E while GPs referred seizure mimics especially non-epileptic attack disorder (NEAD) and syncope. Patients with NEAD were significantly younger than those with seizures (29.4 years old vs 44.2; p < 0.001) and had a previous psychiatric history (72.7% vs 16.8%; p < 0.001). The proportion of seizure mimics was similar in the older sample group (> 65 years). Regarding acute symptomatic seizures, 33.3% were alcohol-related, 20.8% acute brain insults and 12.5% drug-related

Duncan Palka, Mahinda Yogarajah, Hannah R. Cock, Marco Mula

Journal of Epileptology, Volume 25 , ISSUE 1-2, 31–36

Original Paper | 22-December-2016

The interrelationship between clinical and immunity variables in epilepsy

Introduction. The role of cellular immunity in the pathogenesis of epilepsy, as an interaction between immunity and clinical and neurobiological variables is not properly understood. Aim. The aim of the current study was to investigate the possible relationship between epilepsy forms, gender, focus localization, lateralization, handedness and cellular immunity with seizures frequency, their severity and length of therapeutic remission in partial forms of epilepsy. Material and methods. Ninety

Vladimir V. Kalinin, Kirill Y. Subbotin, Natalia G. Yermakova

Journal of Epileptology, Volume 24 , ISSUE 2, 95–104

case-report | 25-November-2020

Pharmacoresistant epilepsy associated with mutations in the KCNB1 and RELN genes. A case report

(Kwan and Brodie, 2000). It is considered that via biochemical and biological sciences new AED can be developed and perhaps with different mechanisms of action compared to the AED currently on the market. Pharmacoresistant epilepsy is defined as an epilepsy that does not respond to at least two AED, used either in monotherapy or in combination therapy (bi- or polytherapy) and failed to control seizures for a sufficient period of time (Kwan et al., 2010). However, in 2011, the International League

Adamantios Katerelos, Nikolaos Zagkos, Dimitra Alexopoulou, Stella Mouskou, Anastasia Korona, Emmanouil Manolakos

Journal of Epileptology, Volume 28 , 73–77

Case Study | 27-June-2018


recovery of neurological functioning, complications such as seizures, risk of rebleeding, and de novo occurrence of other aneurysms are all significant concerns due to the risk of sudden incapacitation. This paper will examine the aeromedical factors particular to this case that influenced a favorable aeromedical decision-making outcome.

AM Gordon Cable

Journal of the Australasian Society of Aerospace Medicine, Volume 10 , 19–21

review-paper | 19-December-2020

mHealth tools in the management of epilepsy

INTRODUCTION Epilepsy is one of the most common disorders of the nervous system, conceptually defined in 2005 as a brain condition with a lifelong predisposition to epileptic seizures (Fisher et al., 2005). The revised functional definition means that epilepsy may also be considered present in individuals with other causes, which have a high probability of a persistently reduced seizure threshold and therefore of a high recurring risk, following an unprovoked seizure (Fisher et al., 2014). It

Natasza Blek, Piotr Zwoliński

Journal of Epileptology, Volume 28 , 59–65

research-article | 27-August-2018

Ketogenic diet in epilepsy: an updated review

pharmacotherapy, the percentage of non-responding patients has remained unchanged. The new generation AEDs, undoubtedly better tolerated and generally safer, have not, unfortunately, proved significantly more effective against epileptic seizures than the classical medicines (Hartman, Vining, 2007). Normally, the first administered AEDs leads to freedom from seizures in 50% of patients, the second in around 11%, the third in around 3%, whereas all subsequent AEDs work in only 0.8% of patients (Mohanraj, Brodie

Magdalena Dudzińska

Journal of Epileptology, Volume 26 , ISSUE 1-2, 27–47

Case report | 31-March-2016

Successful treatment of epilepsia partialis continua due to Rassmussen encephalitis with perampanel

present a case where PER was the last AED introduced in the treatment of a patient with EPC and individual seizures due to Rasmussen encephalitis before his seizure frequency could be reduced significantly. Results. A 44 years old male patient, who had been on a combination therapy of at least 4 AEDs since the age of 24, was admitted to our hospital presenting with an EPC. After the introduction of PER in the therapy EPC stopped and he remained seizure free for more than a year. Two of his other AEDs

Katja Göde, Annette Grossmann, Johannes Rösche

Journal of Epileptology, Volume 24 , ISSUE 1, 67–70

research-article | 30-November-2018

The Brain on Fire: A Case Study on Anti-NMDA Receptor Encephalitis

hippocampus results in changes in synaptic plasticity affecting learning and memory (Day, High, Cot, & Tang-Wai, 2011). Due to the pathology, patients may develop psychiatric symptoms, seizures, memory deficits and abnormal movements (Ding, et al., 2015). Focal neurological signs of the condition include decreased level of consciousness, weakness in limbs, seizures, altered behavioural patterns, memory loss and confusion (Dalmau et al., 2007). Patients present with psychiatric symptoms such as changes in

Grissel B Crasto

Australasian Journal of Neuroscience, Volume 29 , ISSUE 1, 1–8

Case report | 05-May-2015

Cognitive functions in myoclonic epilepsy with ragged red fibres – a case report

Introduction. Myoclonic epilepsy with ragged red fibers (MERRF) is a rare, progressive mitochondrial disease affecting multiple systems, including the central nervous system. Typical MERRF symptoms include: myoclonus, epileptic seizures, ataxia and cognitive decline. In mitochondrial diseases selective cognitive impairment or generalized decline, called mitochondrial dementia, is usually diagnosed. Description of case. We present the case of an 18-year-old patient with progressive neurological

Martyna Domańska, Emilia J. Sitek, Michał Schinwelski, Maria Mazurkiewicz-Bełdzińska, Agnieszka Matheisel, Jarosław Sławek

Journal of Epileptology, Volume 23 , ISSUE 1, 69–74

Review Paper | 06-December-2013

Corpus callosum and epilepsies

brain imaging methods. Agenesis or dysgenesis of corpus callosum (AgCC) might be considered an accidental finding. Epileptic seizures occur in up to 89% of patients with AgCC. The causal relationship correctly is questioned. However, additional causative malformations of midline and/or telencephalic structures can be demonstrated in most seizure patients. The interruption of bilateral spread of seizure activities acts as the concept for callosotomy as epilepsy surgery. Indications are drug-resistant

Gerhard Bauer, Elżbieta Płonka-Półtorak, Richard Bauer, Iris Unterberger, Giorgi Kuchukhidze

Journal of Epileptology, Volume 21 , ISSUE 2, 89–104

Review Paper | 26-March-2014

Selected classical and novel antiepileptic drugs – mechanisms of action, neuroprotection, and effectiveness in epileptic and non-epileptic conditions

Introduction. One of the most common neurological disorders is epilepsy, characterised by recurrent spontaneus seizures. Although not fully efficient in ca 30% of patients, pharmacologic treatment of epilepsy plays an important therapeutic approach not only against epilepsy. Aim. To provide data on the mechanism of action, activity and neuroprotective efficacy in experimental conditions, clinical efficacy against epilepsy and non-epileptic diseases of major, classical and newer antiepileptic

Magdalena Chrościńska-Krawczyk, Magdalena Wałek, Bożydar Tylus, Stanisław J. Czuczwar

Journal of Epileptology, Volume 22 , ISSUE 1, 37–50

Case report | 11-March-2014

Successful treatment with adjunctive lacosamide in a patient with long term “drug resistant” focal epilepsy

lamotrigine, followed by 550 mg and 250 mg, respectively. Discussion and conclusion. This case report highlights that there is always a chance that modifying the medication can result in a drug-resistant epilepsy patient experiencing a significant reduction of seizures and becoming seizure-free. The decisive step in this example was the off-label prescription of a high dose of lacosamide which the patient tolerated well.

Walter Fröscher, Alois Rauber

Journal of Epileptology, Volume 22 , ISSUE 1, 51–55

research-paper | 12-August-2019

The effects of moderate running exercise and L-tyrosine on penicillin-induced epileptiform activity in rats

INTRODUCTION Experimental research using animal models plays an important role in the investigation of the pathogenesis of epilepsy, where epileptic seizures are stimulated in the models. One frequently used experimental epilepsy model is induced by penicillin (Erfanparast and Tamaddonfard 2015; Zhu et al., 2018; Tokiwa et al., 2018). Penicillin administration causes acute and focal epileptic activity similar to the epileptic activity associated with an imbalance between inhibitory and

Yildirim Kayacan, Emin Can Kisa, Babak Elmi Ghojebeigloo, Suleyman Emre Kocacan, Mustafa Ayyildiz, Erdal Agar

Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis, Volume 79 , ISSUE 2, 148–154

research-article | 30-November-2020

Deep brain stimulation effects on learning, memory and glutamate and GABAA receptor subunit gene expression in kindled rats

INTRODUCTION Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is the most common form of focal epilepsy. TLE is characterized by recurrent, spontaneous seizures that originate from the temporal lobe (Falconer et al., 1964). The main therapeutic intervention for epileptic patients is antiepileptic drugs, but 20–30% of epileptic patients are drug resistant (Schmidt and Schachter, 2014). Therefore, more research has been dedicated to finding new therapies for epilepsy. Over the last decade, deep brain stimulation has

Mona Faraz, Nastaran Kosarmadar, Mahmoud Rezaei, Meysam Zare, Mohammad Javan, Victoria Barkley, Amir Shojaei, Javad Mirnajafi-Zadeh

Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis, Volume 81 , ISSUE 1, 43–57

Review Paper | 18-December-2014

Failure of a first regimen of monotherapy to control the newly diagnosed epilepsies. What to do next?

Background. Monotherapy is the choice regimen to treat newly diagnosed epilepsies. However, if it fails, several strategies may be followed. Aim. To discuss the treatment options when an initial monotherapy regimen fails. Methods. We reviewed the relevant literature on the topic by using PubMed. Review and Discussion. Approximately 64% of people with epilepsy (PWE) de novo are free of seizures with the first appropriate antiepileptic drug (AED) in monotherapy. The type (first versus second

José Pimentel

Journal of Epileptology, Volume 22 , ISSUE 2, 109–112

Original Paper | 15-April-2013

EEG characteristics of déjà vu phenomenon

volunteers (n = 139) and epilepsy patients (n = 27). The subjects participated in a survey concerning déjà vu characteristics and in a long-time ambulatory EEG monitoring (12–16 h). Results. In epilepsy patients, DV episodes were equally frequent in cryptogenic and symptomatic focal epilepsy, occurred in combination with nearly all types of seizures, and could occur both as an aura and as an individual seizure. The major clinical features distinguishing DV in healthy subjects from DV

Alexander V. Chervyakov, Victor V. Gnezditskii, Pavel N. Vlasov, Galina V. Kalmykova

Journal of Epileptology, Volume 21 , ISSUE 1, 27–35

Review Paper | 22-February-2013

Sudden Unexpected Death In Epilepsy (SUDEP) – an update

risk. Method. A literature review, up to Nov. 2012, was conducted using PubMed-Medline for SUDEP, no indexed citation and relevant papers. Review. Interactions between the central and peripheral origin of cardiac and respiratory dysfunctions, triggered by epileptiform discharges in the cortical representation of the autonomic functions, may lead to SUDEP during simple partial autonomic seizures - even without other components of a seizure. A number of potential biomarkers of autonomic dysfunctions

Jerzy Majkowski

Journal of Epileptology, Volume 21 , ISSUE 1, 37–54

review-article | 02-July-2019

Rational polytherapy: Myth or reality?

and Brodie (2000a), in 2000, 64% of the patients with epilepsy de novo were achieving freedom from seizures with an appropriate monotherapy regimen. Nine years later, this percentage increased by 4.4% (68.4%) through the use of and at the expense of polytherapy regimen (3, 4, and even 5 AEDs) with SGAEDs that had new or different MoAs (Brodie and Bamagous, 2009). Although small, this amount should not be disregarded when addressing RE, and it seems worthwhile considering polytherapy always using

José Pimentel, José Manuel Lopes Lima

Journal of Epileptology, Volume 27 , 27–34

research-article | 30-November-2020

Experimental chronic sleep fragmentation alters seizure susceptibility and brain levels of interleukins 1β and 6

roles through multiple pathways and mediate complex connections between the immune system and epilepsy (Li et al., 2011). Since epilepsy nowadays presents a major society burden, with the prevalence of 0.5–1.0% (Hauser et al., 1991) and 30% of affected individuals having continuous seizures despite antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) (Sander, 1993). The reduction of factors which may promote seizures, such as sleep fragmentation (Rajna and Veres, 1993; Frucht et al., 2000), could lead to new and more

Željko Grubač, Nikola Šutulović, Djudja Jerotić, Sonja Šuvakov, Aleksandra Rašić-Marković, Djuro Macut, Tatjana Simić, Olivera Stanojlović, Dragan Hrnčić

Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis, Volume 81 , ISSUE 1, 96–109

research-paper | 30-November-2020

Effects of scopolamine treatment and consequent convulsion development in c–fos expression in fed, fasted, and refed mice

group. Other studies observed changes in c–fos expression caused by the convulsant agent and in the different brain regions (Szyndler et al., 2009). In pentylenetetrazole–induced seizures, c–fos expression as shown to vary in different brain regions (Del Bel et al., 1998). Additionally, different c–fos expression patterns were observed during separate seizure circuits (Eels et al., 2004). Convulsions developed in refed animals treated with scopolamine after 12, 24, and 48 h of fasting. Convulsions

Asli Zengin Turkmen, Asiye Nurten, Mine Erguven, Emine Bilge

Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis, Volume 81 , ISSUE 3, 264–270

Review Paper | 10-December-2015

Antiepileptic drugs as a new therapeutic concept for the prevention of cognitive impairment and Alzheimer’s disease. Recent advances

authors describe A_-induced hyperexcitability of hippocampal nerve cells as the cause of cognitive deficits, the connection of such activity with an increased risk of seizures and epilepsy in patients with MCI/AD, and finally the efficacy of AEDs: valproic acid (VPA), phenytoin (PHT), topiramate (TPM), lamotrigine (LTG), ethosuximide (ESM) and levetiracetam (LEV) in the prevention of cognitive impairment in experimental models and patients with MCI/AD. Conclusions. The majority of the studied AEDs

Krzysztof Sendrowski, Wojciech Sobaniec

Journal of Epileptology, Volume 23 , ISSUE 2, 139–147

Review Paper | 30-November-2015

The role of cannabinoids and endocannabinoid system in the treatment of epilepsy

many biochemical and physiological processes. By affecting glutamate and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) neurotransmission cannabinoids have the ability to affect seizure threshold. The best known cannabinoid is cannabidiol, which inhibits the occurrence of seizures without causing significant side effects in humans and animals. However, only a small number of double blind, randomized and placebo controlled studies have been published to date. Conclusions. The role of cannabinoids in the treatment

Monika Pędracka, Jacek Gawłowicz

Journal of Epileptology, Volume 23 , ISSUE 2, 131–138

Original Paper | 20-October-2015

Diagnosis of epilepsy – consequences for work and professional activities

Introduction. The correct diagnosis of epileptic seizures and non-epileptic attacks has a decisive influence on treatment, counseling and duration of possible work limitations. Diagnostic efforts should aim towards classifying the seizure as precisely as possible. For risk assessments, e.g. at the workplace, a close cooperation and networking of all professionals involved in the epilepsy treatment, care and consultation processes is required. Aim. To present guidelines for assessment of

Tobias Knieß, Hermann Stefan, Peter Brodisch

Journal of Epileptology, Volume 23 , ISSUE 2, 103–112

Case report | 08-August-2017

Clinical report: a rare co-occurrence of tuberous sclerosis complex and Rett syndrome in a girl with mental retardation, epilepsy and autism

delivery after a non-complicated pregnancy. Family history was negative for epilepsy and mental retardation. The neonatal period was uneventful and psychomotor development was normal before the child became 1.5 years old. At the age of 18 months the girl developed hand-wringing stereotypes, facial hypotonia, ataxia and gait apraxia. She lost eye-to-eye contact and verbal contact with relatives, and became indifferent to the surrounding environment. When she was 2 years old, focal adversive seizures

Elena Belousova, Vladimir Sukhorukov, Marina Dorofeeva, Lev Shagam, Dmitrii V. Vlodavetz

Journal of Epileptology, Volume 25 , ISSUE 1-2, 47–51

review-paper | 11-February-2020

Clinical characteristics of forced normalization and alternative psychosis with special consideration of the new anticonvulsants

passed away two months later. Since the 18th century the phenomenon of the alternation of seizures and psychiatric disturbances has been recognised in some patients. This phenomenon was characterized as “forced normalization“ (of the EEG) by Landolt (1955). Landolt was an expert in epileptology and electroencephalography (EEG) and focused more on the changes of the EEG than on the clinical presentation. Ten years later Tellenbach (1965), a psychiatrist, coined the term “Alternativpsychose“, in

Walter Fröscher, Volker Faust, Tilman Steinert

Journal of Epileptology, Volume 28 , 35–41

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