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  • Journal Of Ultrasonography



Standards for musculoskeletal ultrasound

Ultrasound has become the primary diagnostic tool in traumatic, inflammatory and degenera­tive soft tissue conditions. It is also used to monitor the condition of joints, ligaments, cartilage and muscles. Its widespread availability as well as cases of unsatisfactory quality of equipment and the lack of appropriate training of ultrasound examiners are reasons why standards need to be set for equipment requirements, the scope of ultrasound assessment and examiner’s experience. The

Zbigniew Czyrny

Journal of Ultrasonography, Volume 17 , ISSUE 70, 182–187


Wrist ultrasound examination – scanning technique and ultrasound anatomy. Part 2: Ventral wrist

Ultrasound imaging of the musculoskeletal system is an important element of the diagnostic and therapeutic protocol. Clinical decisions, including those regarding surgical procedures, are often based solely on ultrasound imaging. However, detailed knowledge on the anatomy and a correct scanning technique are crucial for an accurate diagnosis. Modern ultrasonographic equipment allows obtaining detailed anatomical images of muscle tendons, ligaments, nerves and vessels of the carpal area. Ventral

Cyprian Olchowy, Daniel Soliński, Mateusz Łasecki, Paweł Dąbrowski, Szymon Urban, Urszula Zaleska-Dorobisz

Journal of Ultrasonography, Volume 17 , ISSUE 69, 123–128


Wrist ultrasound examination – scanning technique and ultrasound anatomy. Part 1: Dorsal wrist

Ultrasound imaging of the musculoskeletal system is superior to other imaging methods in many aspects, such as multidimensional character of imaging, possibility of dynamic evaluation and precise assessment of soft tissues. Moreover, it is a safe and relatively inexpensive method, broadly available and well-tolerated by patients. A correctly conducted ultrasound examination of the wrist delivers detailed information concerning the conditionof tendons, muscles, ligaments, nerves and vessels

Cyprian Olchowy, Mateusz Łasecki, Urszula Zaleska-Dorobisz

Journal of Ultrasonography, Volume 15 , ISSUE 61, 172–188


Standards of ultrasound imaging of the adrenal glands

Adrenal glands are paired endocrine glands located over the upper renal poles. Adrenal pathologies have various clinical presentations. They can coexist with the hyperfunction of individual cortical zones or the medulla, insuffi ciency of the adrenal cortex or retained normal hormonal function. The most common adrenal masses are tumors incidentally detected in imaging examinations (ultrasound, tomography, magnetic resonance imaging), referred to as incidentalomas. They include a range of

Rafał Z. Słapa, Wiesław S. Jakubowski, Katarzyna Dobruch-Sobczak, Anna A. Kasperlik-Załuska

Journal of Ultrasonography, Volume 15 , ISSUE 63, 377–387


Breast ultrasound scans – surgeons’ expectations

Recent years have witnessed a dynamic development of mammary gland imaging techniques,particularly ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging. A challengerelated to these studies is the increase in the precision of the anatomical assessment of breast, particularly for early detection of subclinical lesions, performance of ultrasound-guided biopsy procedures, and accurate preoperative location of pathological lesions so as to optimize the surgical treatment. Ultrasound imaging is a primary

Piotr Bednarski, Katarzyna Dobruch-Sobczak, Eryk Chrapowicki, Wiesław Jakubowski

Journal of Ultrasonography, Volume 15 , ISSUE 61, 164–171

Review Article

Mistakes in ultrasound diagnosis of superficial lymph nodes

The article discusses basic mistakes that can occur during ultrasound imaging of superficial lymph nodes. Ultrasound is the first imaging method used in the diseases of superficial organs and tissues, including lymph nodes. The causes of mistakes can be either dependent or independent of the performing physician. The first group of mistakes includes inappropriate interpretation of images of anatomical structures, while the latter group includes, among other things, similar ultrasound images of

Ewa J. Białek, Wiesław Jakubowski

Journal of Ultrasonography, Volume 17 , ISSUE 68, 59–65


Diagnostic imaging of gastrointestinal neuroendocrine neoplasms with a focus on ultrasound

functional. Morphological imaging (transabdominal ultrasound, contrast-enhanced ultrasound, [CEUS]; elastography; endoscopic ultrasound [EUS]; computed tomography [CT]; magnetic resonance imaging [MRI]; endoscopy, including video capsule endoscopy [VCE]) is usually used to detect a tumour and assess the stage of the disease. Functional imaging techniques (scintigraphy with 99mTc-labelled somatostatin analogues [99mTc-SPECT]; positron emission tomography with 68Ga-labelled peptides [68Ga-PET/CT] and with

Joanna Walczyk, Anna Sowa-Staszczak

Journal of Ultrasonography, Volume 19 , ISSUE 78, 228–235


Role of intrapartum ultrasound in modern obstetrics – current perspectives and literature review

Introduction More than half a century has passed since Ian Donald began his pioneering research into the use of ultrasound in pregnant women(1,2). Since then, ultrasonography has systematically grown in relevance in gynaecological and obstetric practice, acquiring the status of an effective diagnostic method. The role of ultrasound examinations in various gynaecological and obstetric applications has been consistently growing, which naturally entails an improved experience in the use of the

Małgorzata Siergiej, Iwona Sudoł-Szopińska, Jerzy Zwoliński, Anna Maria Śladowska-Zwolińska

Journal of Ultrasonography, Volume 19 , ISSUE 79, 295–301


Polish recommendations for lung ultrasound in internal medicine (POLLUS-IM)

Objective: The aim of this study was to establish recommendations for the use of lung ultrasound in internal medicine, based on reliable data and expert opinions. Methods: The bibliography from the databases (Pubmed, Medline, OVID, Embase) has been fully reviewed up to August 2017. Members of the expert group assessed the credibility of the literature data. Then, in three rounds, a discussion was held on individual recommendations (in accordance with the Delphi procedure) followed by secret

Natalia Buda, Wojciech Kosiak, Elżbieta Radzikowska, Robert Olszewski, Ewa Jassem, Elżbieta Magdalena Grabczak, Andrzej Pomiecko, Jakub Piotrkowski, Maciej Piskunowicz, Malwina Sołtysiak, Szymon Skoczyński, Grzegorz Jaczewski, Jolanta Odrowska, Agnieszka Skoczylas, Marcin Wełnicki, Jakub Wiśniewski, Anna Zamojska

Journal of Ultrasonography, Volume 18 , ISSUE 74, 198–206


Kidney ultrasound – what is important for a urologist?

Kidney ultrasound is one of the basic procedures in the practice of a urologist. Apart from the location and the size, description of renal morphology should contain the thickness of the anterior lip parenchyma in a transverse section and the location of possible narrowings. Uneven outline of the kidney is a sign of past inflammatory conditions. In the case of the pelvicalyceal system dilation, it is advised to specify the dimensions of the pelvis and calyces. Convex

Tomasz Szopiński, Elżbieta Keller, František Záťura

Journal of Ultrasonography, Volume 16 , ISSUE 67, 371–377


Ultrasound methods of imaging atherosclerotic plaque in carotid arteries: examinations using contrast agents

Introduction The sheer number of methods currently used to image the precranial segments of carotid arteries (vessel walls, blood flow and atherosclerotic plaque itself) proves that it has not been possible yet to establish definitively which of them should be the gold standard for both determining the presence and assessing the severity of atherosclerosis, a disease that is one of the main causes of death and disability in Europe(1). Over the last 20 years B-mode ultrasound combined with

Andrzej Fedak, Robert Chrzan, Ositadima Chukwu, Andrzej Urbanik

Journal of Ultrasonography, Volume 20 , ISSUE 82, 191–200

Original Paper

Inter-rater reliability in the classification of supraspinatus tendon tears using 3D ultrasound – a question of experience?

BackgroundThree-dimensional (3D) ultrasound of the shoulder is characterized by a comparable accuracy to two-dimensional (2D) ultrasound. No studies investigating 2D versus 3D inter-rater reliability in the detection of supraspinatus tendon tears taking into account the level of experience of the raters have been carried out so far.ObjectivesThe aim of this study was to determine the inter-rater reliability in the analysis of 3D ultrasound image sets of the supraspinatus tendon between

Giorgio Tamborrini, Christian Marx, Raphael Micheroli

Journal of Ultrasonography, Volume 16 , ISSUE 66, 252–259

Original Paper

Evaluation of musculoskeletal symptoms among physicians performing ultrasound

Aim of the study: Owing to its wide availability, relatively low cost and lack of negative effect on the patient, ultrasound has become the most commonly and readily used imag­ing modality. However, scanning for increasingly long periods of time on a given day and in a given week tends to negatively affect sonographers’ health, primarily resulting with the overuse of the musculoskeletal system, as multiple muscles and joints are engaged during scanning. This research has been aimed at

Paweł Wareluk, Wiesław Jakubowski

Journal of Ultrasonography, Volume 17 , ISSUE 70, 154–159


Ultrasound image of healthy skin in newborns in the first 24 hours of life

skin is covered with vernix caseosa, which is removed during birth and through mechanical hygienic procedures performed in newborns. The first physical examination in neonates often reveals congenital skin pathologies (haemangiomas, skin moles, discolorations)(3). High-frequency ultrasound imaging (HF-US) is a non-invasive and safe technique allowing quick and repeatable assessment of observed pathologies(4). However, the majority of literature reports and scientific studies describing the

Paulina Przybysz, Teresa Jackowska, Maria Wilińska, Sylwia Malinowska, Joanna Wójtowicz, Robert Krzysztof Mlosek

Journal of Ultrasonography, Volume 20 , ISSUE 83, 242–247

Research Article

Ultrasound comparison of external and internal neck anatomy with the LMA Unique

IntroductionInternal neck anatomy landmarks and their relation after placement of an extraglottic airway devices have not been studied extensively by the use of ultrasound. Based on our group experience with external landmarks as well as internal landmarks evaluation with other techniques, we aimed use ultrasound to analyze the internal neck anatomy landmarks and the related changes due to the placement of the Laryngeal Mask Airway Unique.MethodsObservational pilot investigation. Non-obese

Steven M. Lee, Jacek A. Wojtczak, Davide Cattano

Journal of Ultrasonography, Volume 17 , ISSUE 71, 229–234


Validity of measurements of testicular volume obtained by a built-in software of ultrasound systems: with formula recommended by updated guidelines as reference

several methods available for the measurement of testicular volume, such as caliper, various orchidometers, medical imaging; among them, ultrasound examination is considered the most accurate(4–16). Currently, ultrasound imaging becomes widely accessible and available, with other methods of measurement of testicular volume being almost replaced by ultrasound(7–16). In clinical practice, the value of testicular volume is usually worked out immediately by a built-in software of an ultrasound system

Dongyan Cai, Size Wu, Ya Li, Qingfang Chen

Journal of Ultrasonography, Volume 20 , ISSUE 82, 181–184


Chest wall – underappreciated structure in sonography. Part I: Examination methodology and ultrasound anatomy

Chest wall ultrasound has been awarded little interest in the literature, with chest wall anatomy described only in limited extent. The objective of this study has been to discuss the methodology of chest wall ultrasound and the sonographic anatomy of the region to facilitate professional evaluation of this complex structure. The primarily used transducer is a 7–12 MHz linear one. A 3–5 MHz convex (curvilinear) transducer may also be helpful, especially in obese and very muscular

Andrzej Smereczyński, Katarzyna Kołaczyk, Elżbieta Bernatowicz

Journal of Ultrasonography, Volume 17 , ISSUE 70, 197–205


Minimally invasive ultrasound-guided parotid gland biopsy in cadavers performed by rheumatologists

submandibular glands are limited, a comparison of sonographic and histological results is only possible for the parotid gland. Aim The aim of this study was twofold: to assess the feasibility of minimally invasive ultrasound-guided parotid gland biopsies performed by rheumatologists in cadavers and to determine the presence of parotid gland tissue in the taken samples. Material and method Two senior rheumatologists and trained sonographers (GT and CM) obtained, under direct ultrasound visualization

Raphael Micheroli, Ulrich Wagner, Magdalena Mueller-Gerbl, Mireille Toranelli, Christian Marx, George A.W. Bruyn, Sandrine Jousse-Joulin, Giorgio Tamborrini

Journal of Ultrasonography, Volume 19 , ISSUE 77, 125–127



One of the most profound use of ultrasound imaging is fetal growth monitoring. Conventionally, physicians will perform manual measurements of several parameters of the ultrasound images to draw some conclusion of the fetal condition by manually annotating the fetal images on the ultrasound device interface. However, performing manual annotation of fetal images will require significant amount of time considering the number of patients an obstetrician can have. In this paper, an integrated

Wisnu Jatmiko, Ikhsanul Habibie, M. Anwar Ma’sum, Robeth Rahmatullah, I Putu Satwika

International Journal on Smart Sensing and Intelligent Systems, Volume 8 , ISSUE 1, 697–719


Diagnostic errors in musculoskeletal ultrasound imaging and how to avoid them

The article reviews the major challenges related to the principles of the correct tech­nique of musculoskeletal ultrasound (MSK US). All the crucial aspects of correct MSK soft tissue diagnosis have been discussed, including equipment settings, use of recent image software innovations and ultrasound standoff pads, and correct transducer po­sitioning. The importance of the fundamental principles of MSK US, facilitating good quality image and limiting the occurrence of artifacts, has been

Małgorzata Serafin-Król, Artur Maliborski

Journal of Ultrasonography, Volume 17 , ISSUE 70, 188–196


High-resolution ultrasound of spigelian and groin hernias: a closer look at fascial architecture and aponeurotic passageways

etiologies(3). In this clinical context, ultrasound (US) has been regarded as a low-cost, rapid and very effective technique which is able to identify and categorize different types of herniations in exquisite anatomical detail(4–6). The main advantage of US over computed tomography or MR imaging relies on the ability of this technique to provide a dynamic evaluation which may help to detect intermittent extrusions during the application of provocative maneuvers (i.e. Valsalva) and/or different patient

Riccardo Picasso, Federico Pistoia, Federico Zaottini, Sonia Airaldi, Maribel Miguel Perez, Michelle Pansecchi, Luca Tovt, Sara Sanguinetti, Ingrid Möller, Alessandra Bruns, Carlo Martinoli

Journal of Ultrasonography, Volume 21 , ISSUE 84, 53–62


Ultrasound of the elbow with emphasis on the sonoanatomy of the distal biceps tendon and its importance for the surgical treatment of tendon lesions

Ultrasound of the distal biceps tendon The distal biceps tendon (dBT) is an elbow flexor, and it is involved in supination. The biceps muscle is innervated by the musculocutaneous nerve (C5, C6). Performing ultrasound diagnostics of the dBT, the patient ideally lies in the supine position on an examination couch with padding of the arm, if necessary. Alternatively, the examination can be performed in the sitting position. The arm is initially positioned in extension for static side comparison

Giorgio Tamborrini, Magdalena Müller-Gerbl, Nicole Vogel, David Haeni

Journal of Ultrasonography, Volume 20 , ISSUE 81, e129–e134

Case report

Fetal ultrasound: Early diagnosis and natural evolution of proximal femoral focal deficiency

Proximal femoral focal deficiency is an extremely rare congenital anomaly with only a few case reports in the literature. This case illustrates one diagnosed by prenatal ultrasound. The diagnosis may be isolated or associated with other abnormalities and syndromes. This report describes the early obstetrical ultrasound diagnosis, its evolution and associated findings throughout pregnancy. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first report associating this diagnosis with sickle cell trait

Eugenio O. Gerscovich, Simran Sekhon, Thomas W. Loehfelm, Adam Greenspan

Journal of Ultrasonography, Volume 17 , ISSUE 71, 294–298


Ultrasound imaging in the general practitioner's office – a literature review

AimThe aim of this paper is to review the Polish medical literature pertaining to the usage of ultrasound imaging in general practice as well as to present advantages, disadvantages and utility associated with conducting ultrasound examinations by general practitioners based on selected publications.Material and methodsThe analysis involved 15 articles found in Polish medical literature published in 1994–2013 in 9 medical journals. These publications were obtained using various data bases, such

Alicja Genc, Małgorzata Ryk, Magdalena Suwała, Tatiana Żurakowska, Wojciech Kosiak

Journal of Ultrasonography, Volume 16 , ISSUE 64, 78–86

Case report

Spontaneous resolution of unifocal Langerhans cell histiocytosis of the skull: potential role of ultrasound in detection and imaging follow-up

characterization of the lesion. The use of ultrasound is less known, although it may be a valuable technique in detection and follow-up of superficially located lesions such as calvarial lesions. This case report describes an 8-year-old girl, in whom the lesion was initially detected by ultrasound. Furthermore, ultrasound was used to evaluate spontaneous resolution of the lesion. The knowledge of ultrasound characteristics may be important to avoid unnecessary radiation and gadolinium administration

Filip M. Vanhoenacker, Joris Verlooy, Mania De Praeter

Journal of Ultrasonography, Volume 18 , ISSUE 74, 265–270


The use of high-frequency skin ultrasound in the diagnosis of lipodermatosclerosis

examination of full-thickness sections of the skin and subcutaneous tissue would be important for the diagnosis, but unfortunately, this is associated with a high risk of hard-to-heal ulcers, which is why it is rarely performed in clinical practice(3,4). Therefore, minimally invasive methods, such as high-frequency ultrasound (HFU) of the tibial skin or radiology of the tibial soft tissues have become increasingly important. Precise assessment of radiological and ultrasonographic manifestations typical of

Witold Woźniak, Anna Danowska, Robert K. Mlosek

Journal of Ultrasonography, Volume 20 , ISSUE 83, 284–290


Usefulness of high-frequency ultrasound to assess the healing progress of shin ulcers

healing progress using these scales is time consuming and has a low level of objectivity due to their imperfection: most importantly, they are examiner-dependent. In recent years, high-frequency ultrasound has become increasingly common and is widely used in dermatology. It is primarily used to differentiate between skin marks and to monitor the course of chronic diseases, e.g. scleroderma, atopic dermatitis, psoriasis and similar conditions(7). Single reports focus on skin assessment in CVI; however

Agnieszka Krauze, Witold Woźniak, Robert Krzysztof Mlosek

Journal of Ultrasonography, Volume 20 , ISSUE 83, 254–260


Comparing intrapartum ultrasound and clinical examination in the assessment of fetal head position in African women

(9), a context-specific study on ultrasound versus digital VE was needed on the assessment of the occiput posterior position. Again, existing studies mainly assessed the overall agreement between ultrasound and digital VE which considered all fetal head positions, without being specific about statistical agreement on the occiput posterior position, which is the most important reason for the examination. In addition, while existing studies have shown that there is significant agreement between

Yaw A. Wiafe, Bill Whitehead, Heather Venables, Edward T. Dassah

Journal of Ultrasonography, Volume 19 , ISSUE 79, 249–254

Research Article

Comparison of scintigraphy and ultrasound imaging in patients with primary, secondary and tertiary hyperparathyroidism – own experience

Background Background The imaging techniques most commonly used in the diagnosis of hyperparathyroidisms are ultrasound and scintigraphy. The diagnostic algorithms vary, depending mainly on the population, and experience of physicians. Aim Aim Aim of the present research was to determine the usefulness of parathyroid scintigraphy and ultrasonography in patients diagnosed for hyperparathyroidism in own material. Material and method Material and method In the present research, 96 operated

Małgorzata Kobylecka, Maria Teresa Płazińska, Witold Chudziński, Katarzyna Fronczewska-Wieniawska, Joanna Mączewska, Adam Bajera, Maria Karlińska, Leszek Królicki

Journal of Ultrasonography, Volume 17 , ISSUE 68, 17–22

Review Article

Mistakes in the ultrasound diagnostics of the abdominal cavity in pediatrics

The diagnostics of the abdominal cavity in children, especially in the neonatal-infantile period, requires knowledge in the field of anatomical and physiopathological differences as well as clinical symptomatology and pathology at every stage of the child’s development. Errors and mistakes in ultrasound diagnostics of the abdominal cavity in children result from many factors, including lack of experience in examining children and the knowledge concerning most frequent ailments and pathologies

Agnieszka Brodzisz

Journal of Ultrasonography, Volume 17 , ISSUE 68, 66–72

Original Paper

Doppler ultrasound appearance of neck tumors

flow. Venous malformations presented as irregular, hypoechoic spaces with venous blood flow, easily compressed by the probe. Extracranial carotid artery aneurysms were hypoechoic, well-defined spaces, which presented with slow internal, turbulent flow on Doppler study, and showed continuity with the carotid artery. Conclusions: Doppler ultrasound allows to visualize features characteristic for certain neck tumors. Solid or cystic structure, echogenicity, localization, as well as internal flow

Anna Szymańska, Marcin Szymański, Wiesław Gołąbek, Anna Drelich-Zbroja, Tomasz Jargiełło

Journal of Ultrasonography, Volume 18 , ISSUE 73, 96–102


Can ultrasound be helpful in selecting optimal management methods for pregnancies complicated by placental non-trophpblastic tumors?

Placental chorioangioma is the most common subtype of non-trophoblastic placental tumors. Other subtypes are very rare and usually associated with an uneventful course of pregnancy. Most chorioangiomas are small and of no clinical significance. Giant chorioangiomas may be associated with serious fetal and maternal complications. So far, no established ultrasound guidelines are available for the management of placental non-trophoblastic tumors. This may be attributed to the rarity of the disease

Nabil Abdalla, Robert Piórkowski, Paweł Stanirowski, Monika Pazura, Krzysztof Cendrowski, Włodzimierz Sawicki

Journal of Ultrasonography, Volume 17 , ISSUE 69, 116–122


Pitfalls in ultrasound imaging of the stomach and the intestines

The gastrointestinal tract is an extraordinary human organ in terms of its morphology and function. Its complex structure and enormous length as well as frequent presence of gas discourage many doctors performing ultrasound examination from its exploration. Moreover, there are anatomical structures in multiple locations which can mimic certain abnormalities. It is difficult to present an exhaustive account of the problem of gastrointestinal tract ultrasound imaging errors in a single work

Andrzej Smereczyński, Katarzyna Kołaczyk

Journal of Ultrasonography, Volume 18 , ISSUE 74, 207–211


Mistakes in ultrasound examination of salivary glands

Ultrasonography is the first imaging method applied in the case of diseases of the salivary glands. The article discusses basic mistakes that can be made during an ultrasound examination of these structures. The reasons for these mistakes may be examiner-dependent or may be beyond their control. The latter may include, inter alia, difficult conditions during examination (technical or patient-related), similarity of ultrasound images in different diseases, the lack of clinical and laboratory

Ewa J. Białek, Wiesław Jakubowski

Journal of Ultrasonography, Volume 16 , ISSUE 65, 191–203

Original Paper

Echogenicity of benign adrenal focal lesions on imaging with new ultrasound techniques – report with pictorial presentation

Aim:The aim of the research was to assess the echogenicity of benign adrenal focal lesions using new ultrasound techniques.Material and method:34 benign adrenal masses in 29 patients were analyzed retrospectively. The examinations were conducted using Aplio XG (Toshiba, Japan) ultrasound scanner with a convex probe 1–6 MHz in the B-mode presentation with the combined use of new ultrasound techniques: harmonic imaging and spatial compound sonography. The size of the adrenal tumors, their

Rafał Z. Słapa, Anna A. Kasperlik-Załuska, Bartosz Migda, Maciej Otto, Katarzyna Dobruch-Sobczak, Wiesław S. Jakubowski

Journal of Ultrasonography, Volume 15 , ISSUE 63, 368–376



This paper proposed a system for detecting and approximating of a fetus in an ultrasound image. The fetal organs in the ultrasound image are detected using Multi Boundary Classifier based Adaboost.MH. The results of the fetal detection is then approximated Randomized Hough Transform and the whole showed a mean accuracy of 95.80%. The mean of the Hamming Error 0.019 and the Kappa coefficient value reaches 0.890.The proposed method has the best performancefor fetal organ detection. This is proven

M. Anwar Ma’sum, Wisnu Jatmiko, Budi Wiweko, Anom Bowolaksono

International Journal on Smart Sensing and Intelligent Systems, Volume 8 , ISSUE 1, 720–748


Ultrasound guided injection of the rotator interval – Gaurav-Botchu technique

Introduction Ultrasound-guided injection of the rotator interval is a well-established technique for arthrogram, intra-articular glenohumeral joint injection, and hydrodilatation(1–3). Successful placement of the needle in the target zone between the coracohumeral ligament (CHL) and the long head of the biceps tendon (LHB) can be challenging. This is performed via lateral to medial approach (Fig. 1, Fig. 2). We describe a new method to access the target zone (Gaurav-Botchu technique). Fig. 1

Gaurav Kant Sharma, Rajesh Botchu

Journal of Ultrasonography, Volume 21 , ISSUE 84, 77–79

Original Paper

Comparison of lung ultrasound and chest X-ray findings in children with bronchiolitis

Aim: Respiratory syncytial virus is the main pathogen responsible for bronchiolitis. Usually, there is no indication to perform diagnostic imaging or run laboratory tests in patients with bronchiolitis since the diagnosis is based on the clinical presentation. Chest radiogram can be useful in severe cases. So far, lung ultrasound has not been considered as an alternative in guidelines for imaging diagnosis of bronchiolitis. The aim of the study was to compare lung ultrasound and chest X-ray

Sławomir Jaszczołt, Tomasz Polewczyk, Marta Dołęga-Kozierowska, Mariusz Woźniak, Zbigniew Doniec

Journal of Ultrasonography, Volume 18 , ISSUE 74, 193–197

Research Article

The importance of community screening of asymptomatic elderly for peripheral arterial disease by Doppler ultrasound and ankle-brachial index

BackgroundPeripheral arterial disease is an atherosclerotic disease characterized by an increase in morbidity and mortality. For these reasons early diagnosis of peripheral arterial disease is important. Ankle-brachial systolic pressure index measurement is frequently used in screening studies. Evaluating waveforms of distal lower extremities with Doppler ultrasound can be used as a screening program and provides more accurate information on peripheral arterial disease.AimWe investigate the

Ayşe Keven, Mehmet Sedat Durmaz

Journal of Ultrasonography, Volume 17 , ISSUE 71, 235–240

Research Article

Efficacy of high frequency ultrasound in postoperative evaluation of carpal tunnel syndrome treatment

AimThe aim of the study is to assess the usefulness of high frequency ultrasound in the postoperative evaluation of CTS treatment efficacy.Material and methodsSixty-two patients (50 women and 12 men aged 28–70, mean age 55.2) underwent surgical treatment of CTS. Ultrasound examinations of the wrist in all carpal tunnel sufferers were performed 3 months after the procedure with the use of a high frequency broadband linear array transducer (6–18 MHz, using 18 MHz band) of MyLab 70/Esaote. On the

Katarzyna Kapuścińska, Andrzej Urbanik

Journal of Ultrasonography, Volume 16 , ISSUE 64, 16–24


Prospective analysis of inter-observer and intra-observer variability in multi ultrasound descriptor assessment of thyroid nodules

). Although thyroid nodules are a common occurrence, it is usually difficult to detect them without imaging techniques (only 4–7% can be palpated)(5). Thus, ultrasound (US) examinations play an important role in detection. US is a non-invasive, cost-effective, and widely available technique used to discern specific features of nodules and guide fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB)(5). Published studies, including the ATA Management Guidelines, have demonstrated that hypoechogenicity, irregular margins

Katarzyna Dobruch-Sobczak, Bartosz Migda, Agnieszka Krauze, Krzysztof Mlosek, Rafał Z. Słapa, Paweł Wareluk, Elwira Bakuła-Zalewska, Zbigniew Adamczewski, Andrzej Lewiński, Wiesław Jakubowski, Marek Dedecjus

Journal of Ultrasonography, Volume 19 , ISSUE 78, 198–206


The diagnostic value of ultrasound-guided percutaneous core needle biopsy of musculoskeletal soft tissue lesions

Introduction The advantages of ultrasound-guided biopsy for the diagnosis of musculoskeletal tissue lesions are well-known(1–3). A modern approach to diagnosis and the importance of the multidisciplinary tumor board in patient survival have been emphasized(4–6). Diagnostic imaging with radiography, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT), and ultrasonography is helpful in the process of differential diagnosis. It is, however, difficult in most cases to sufficiently narrow the

Paweł Szaro, Andrew Wong, Elena Blain, Khaldun Ghali Gataa, Mats Geijer

Journal of Ultrasonography, Volume 21 , ISSUE 84, 22–33

Pictorial Review

Acrania-exencephaly-anencephaly sequence phenotypic characterization using two- and three-dimensional ultrasound between 11 and 13 weeks and 6 days of gestation

The study presents a pictorial essay of acrania-exencephaly-anencephaly sequence using two-(2D) and three-dimensional (3D) ultrasonography, documenting the different phenotypic characterization of this rare disease. Normal and abnormal fetuses were evaluated during the first trimester scan. The International Society of Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology practice guidelines were adopted to standardize first trimester anatomical ultrasound screening. The guidelines outline the importance of

Eduardo Félix Martins Santana, Edward Araujo Júnior, Gabriele Tonni, Fabricio Da Silva Costa, Simon Meagher

Journal of Ultrasonography, Volume 18 , ISSUE 74, 240–246

Original Paper

High-frequency ultrasound in carpal tunnel syndrome:assessment of patient eligibility for surgical treatment

Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is the most common entrapment neuropathy and a frequent cause of sick leaves because of work-related hand overload. That is why an early diagnosis and adequate treatment (conservative or surgical) are essential for optimal patient management. Aim: The aim of the study is to assess the usefulness of high-frequency ultrasound in CTS for the assessment of patient eligibility for surgical treatment. Material and methods: The study involved 62 patients (50 women and 12

Katarzyna Kapuścińska, Andrzej Urbanik

Journal of Ultrasonography, Volume 15 , ISSUE 62, 283–291


Ultrasound assessment of extensor pollicis longus tendon rupture following distal radius fracture: a sonographic and surgical correlation

extensor indicis to replace a non-salvageable EPL tendon usually confers a predictable outcome(13,14). Ultrasound evaluation of the EPL tendon can be technically challenging for the sonographer due to the complex anatomy of the EPL within the extensor compartment and the importance of getting the diagnosis right for the patient and surgeon. In this paper, we describe the sonographic features of EPL rupture that can be identified, through a series of eleven cases which were correlated with surgical

Louy Ghazal, Mohammed Nabi, Christopher Little, James Teh

Journal of Ultrasonography, Volume 20 , ISSUE 80, e1–e5


The efficacy of high-frequency ultrasound-guided injection lipolysis in reducing fat deposits located on the inside of the knees

complications is not justified in patients with local fat deposits. Considering the risk of complications and limitations of this method, it seems important to seek techniques that will allow for non-invasive reduction of the subcutaneous tissue. Injection lipolysis is an effective method for local fat pads(3,4). Although it has been used for more than 30 years, it requires further research due to previous mistakes. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of high-frequency ultrasound-guided

Robert Krzysztof Mlosek, Ewa Skrzypek, Bartosz Migda, Michał Migda, Witold Woźniak

Journal of Ultrasonography, Volume 20 , ISSUE 83, 273–278


Cervical stenosis and pregnancy rate after ultrasound guided cervical dilation in women undergoing saline infusion sonography

frequently cited cause of decreased clinical pregnancy rates in in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles(6). It has been suggested that trial transfers under ultrasound guidance improve conception rates. Saline infusion sonography involves the use of soft tip Foley’s catheter for the introduction of saline used for cavity distension and checking for free spill(7). Cervical dilation with a Hegar’s dilator may be needed prior to introduction of this Foley’s catheter in cases of stenosis. Since a stenosis that

Journal of Ultrasonography, Volume 20 , ISSUE 81, e116–e121


The usefulness of respiratory ultrasound assessment for modifying the physiotherapeutic algorithm in children after congenital heart defect surgeries

of fluid in pleural spaces, found in 11–39% of pediatric patients in the early postoperative period(3,4) (Fig. 1). Fig. 1. An ultrasound image of: A – diaphragm; B – pleural fluid; C – consolidated pulmonary parenchyma within the pulmonary tissue Despite a number of therapeutic concepts, there are no effective methods for setting therapeutic goals or tools for measurable assessment of treatment outcomes in respiratory physiotherapy after pediatric cardiac surgery(5). Currently, standard chest

Marcin Myszkowski

Journal of Ultrasonography, Volume 19 , ISSUE 76, 17–23


Do ankle, hindfoot, and heel ultrasound findings predict the symptomatology and quality of life in rheumatoid arthritis patients?

heel (MH), and lateral heel (LH). For the purpose of the study, we only used the pressure results obtained at the MF, MH and LH levels. Ultrasonography The US evaluation was performed using GE Logiq S7 ultrasound machine (GE Healthcare, Chicago, USA) with ML6-15 linear transducer (at a frequency adapted to the examined region). In the Power Doppler (PD) mode, the frequency was 9 MHz, the gain was set at a minimal level to avoid noise artifacts, and the Pulse Repetition Frequency (PRF) was set at

Oana Șerban, Iulia Papp, Corina Delia Bocșa, Mihaela Cosmina Micu, Maria Bădărînză, Adriana Albu, Daniela Fodor

Journal of Ultrasonography, Volume 20 , ISSUE 81, e70–e82


High frequency ultrasound assessment of labial glands simulating small nodules or granulomas after lip augmentation

a very limited range of tools for diagnosing complications. High frequency ultrasound (HFUS) turns out to be the only effective and non-invasive method for diagnosing complications of lip filling procedures. It currently makes it possible to differentiate between deposits and granulomas, as well as any other doubtful cases in which diagnosis based on exclusively clinical evidence is simply impossible(3). The aim of this paper is to assess the utility of high-frequency ultrasound in the

Ewa Skrzypek, Robert Krzysztof Mlosek

Journal of Ultrasonography, Volume 20 , ISSUE 83, 261–267


Lung ultrasound in a Singapore COVID-19 intensive care unit patient and a review of its potential clinical utility in pandemic

Background On 31 December 2019, China informed the World Health Organization (WHO) of a novel viral pneumonia in the city of Wuhan (Hubei). The WHO declared the COVID-19 outbreak a public health emergency of international concern (PHEIC) on 30 January 2020. Subsequently, on 12 March 2020, the World Health Organization declared COVID-19 a pandemic(1). Point-of-care lung ultrasound is performed at the patient’s bedside, and offers the trained clinician a rapid imaging adjunct to the chest X-ray

Wee Ming Peh, Steffi Kang Ting Chan, Yi Lin Lee, Pravin Shivaji Gare, Vui Kian Ho

Journal of Ultrasonography, Volume 20 , ISSUE 81, e154–e158


Monitoring the response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in patients with breast cancer using ultrasound scattering coefficient: A preliminary report

(depending on the results presented in the literature) in 10–31% of patients, while pPR is seen in 69% to 100% of patients(6–8). (In our study G1 was adopted as non-responding patients). Currently, in the monitoring of patients treated with NAC, clinical breast examination (CBE), mammography (MMG), traditional B-mode ultrasound imaging (US), magnetic resonance imaging with a contrast agent (CA-MRI), or diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI) can be used(9). CBE has been shown to be a

Katarzyna Dobruch-Sobczak, Hanna Piotrzkowska-Wróblewska, Ziemowit Klimoda, Wojciech Secomski, Piotr Karwat, Ewa Markiewicz-Grodzicka, Agnieszka Kolasińska-Ćwikła, Katarzyna Roszkowska-Purska, Jerzy Litniewski

Journal of Ultrasonography, Volume 19 , ISSUE 77, 89–97


Standards of the Polish Ultrasound Society. Ultrasound examination of the portal system and hepatic vessels

a correct examination and, above all, for the correct interpretation of results. The authors also present requirements regarding the equipment. Moreover,various technical aspects of the examination are presented and the normal morphological picture and hemodynamic parameters of healthy individuals are described. The authors discuss the most common clinical situations and rare cases during ultrasound examinations.The paper is based on the experience of the author who works in the largest center

Robert Lechowicz, Michał Elwertowski

Journal of Ultrasonography, Volume 15 , ISSUE 61, 208–226


Ultrasound anatomy of the fingers: flexor and extensor system with emphasis on variations and anatomical detail

Introduction Many variations can be observed in the anatomy of the extensor and flexor tendon system of the hand(1–4). These variations may involve the extensor tendons at the wrist and midhand level. Variations also occur in the tendons and pulleys at the flexor side. These variations present potential pitfalls at ultrasound (US) and radiologists should be aware of them to avoid misdiagnosis. The finger extensor and tendon system is complex and many details are not well known by radiologists

Michel De Maeseneer, Jie Meng, Stefaan Marcelis, Tjeerd Jager, Steven Provyn, Maryam Shahabpour

Journal of Ultrasonography, Volume 20 , ISSUE 81, e122–e128

Original Paper

Ultrasound assessment of the jugular and vertebral veins in healthy individuals: selected physiological aspects and morphological parameters

Aim: Ultrasound assessment of morphological parameters of the internal jugular veins and vertebral veins in healthy individuals as well as their dependence on the patient’s position. Material: The examinations were conducted in 185 healthy individuals (101 females and 84 males) aged 18–89. Ultrasound examinations were conducted with the use of a linear probe with the frequency of 5–9 MHz in the supine (0°) and sitting position (90°). Results: In 154 cases (83.2%) on the

Dorota Czyżewska, Kamil Krysiuk, Konrad Dobrzycki, Andrzej Ustymowicz

Journal of Ultrasonography, Volume 15 , ISSUE 62, 267–273


Inter-rater reliability of an ultrasound protocol to evaluate the anterolateral ligament of the knee

visualize the ALL with US(20). It is hypothesized that point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) of the ALL may be useful if an ACL tear is suspected. However, a standardized protocol in how to reliably visualize the ALL with US is needed. The purpose of this study is to present a standardized protocol to visualize the ALL with US and to determine interrater reliability. Materials and methods Neri et al.(21) reported that the maximum length of the ALL was reached in 30° flexion with internal rotation. More

Michel Kandel, Erik Cattrysse, Michel De Maeseneer, Leon Lenchik, Marc Paantjens, Marco Leeuw

Journal of Ultrasonography, Volume 19 , ISSUE 78, 181–186


The use of ultrasound-guided platelet-rich plasma injections in the treatment of hip osteoarthritis: a systematic review of the literature

Abstract Purpose: This review aims to determine whether ultrasound-guided platelet-rich plasma injection has any role in improving clinical outcomes in patients with hip osteoarthritis. Methods: A search of the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence database using the Healthcare Databases Advanced Search tool was conducted. The PubMed database was also utilised to search the Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online, Excerpta Medica database, Cumulative Index of Nursing

Mohammed Ali, Ahmed Mohamed, Hussam Elamin Ahmed, Ajay Malviya, Ismael Atchia

Journal of Ultrasonography, Volume 18 , ISSUE 75, 332–337

Original Paper

Grayscale ultrasound characteristics of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease severity – an adult and pediatric cohort study

Introduction: The most common hereditary kidney condition is autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease. It is the cause of 5–10% of end-stage renal disease. Its symptoms are generally late-onset, typically leading to development of hypertension and chronic kidney disease. Ultrasonography is the imaging modality of choice in its diagnosis and management. The aim of this study is to determine the diagnostic value of grayscale ultrasound imaging in evaluating disease severity. Materials and

Marcin Strzelczyk, Michał Podgórski, Susan Afshari, Marcin Tkaczyk, Monika Pawlak-Bratkowska, Piotr Grzelak

Journal of Ultrasonography, Volume 17 , ISSUE 69, 85–90


Recommendations for ultrasound examination in ophthalmology. Part I: Ultrabiomicroscopic examination

Abstract Range of ultrasounds used in medical imaging is between 2 and 80 MHz. The highest frequencies are applied in medical imaging of an anterior segment of an eyeball. This paper covers the newest method of ultrasound imaging – an ultrabiomicroscopic examination. Its name reflects resolution which has so far been unavailable, and which allows for imaging a structure of the examined tissues. The article includes basic information about the structure and principles of operation of

Jacek Kosmala, Iwona Grabska-Liberek, Rimvydas Stanislovas Ašoklis

Journal of Ultrasonography, Volume 18 , ISSUE 75, 344–348


The primary role of radiological imaging in the diagnosis of rare musculoskeletal diseases. Emphasis on ultrasound

early diagnosis of a disease may improve the prognosis and overall quality of life due to timely and appropriate therapies. Diagnostic imaging is usually performed and could be the most important diagnostic tool for several rare diseases. Medical imaging is crucial not only for the diagnosis, but also for therapy monitoring and even outcome prediction. Recent advances in several medical imaging techniques, such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT) and ultrasound (US

Federica Rossi, Carlo Martinoli, Giovanni Murialdo, Angelo Schenone, Marina Grandis, Diego Ferone, Alberto Stefano Tagliafico

Journal of Ultrasonography, Volume 19 , ISSUE 78, 187–192

Original Paper

Mesenteric changes in an ultrasound examination can facilitate the diagnosis of neuroendocrine tumors of the small intestine

enteroclysis supplemented the ultrasound result by providing information about the stage of the disease in 7 cases. In most of the 17 patients with a euroendocrine tumor diagnosed by ultrasound (n = 11, 64.7%), changes in the mesentery were prevailing pathological signs that raised suspicion and, consequently, helped localize the primary lesion. The hypoechoic mesenteric lymph nodes were the greatest (9–18 mm), well-circumscribed, and the largest of them showed signs of vascularization. The size of

Andrzej Smereczyński, Teresa Starzyńska, Katarzyna Kołaczyk

Journal of Ultrasonography, Volume 15 , ISSUE 62, 274–282


Recommendations for ultrasound examination in ophthalmology. Part II: Orbital ultrasound

Abstract Pathological processes within the orbits are a heterogeneous group of diseases of various etiologies, clinical pictures and therapy models. Due to poor access to the orbits in a clinical examination, imaging plays a significant role in both diagnosis and treatment monitoring in patients with an orbital pathology. One of such imaging modalities is ultrasonography. It is relatively well-available, rapid and safe for the patient. This paper enumerates indications for an orbital ultrasound

Małgorzata Karolczak-Kulesza, Małgorzata Rudyk, Magdalena Niestrata-Ortiz

Journal of Ultrasonography, Volume 18 , ISSUE 75, 349–354


Fetal cardiac function by three-dimensional ultrasound using 4D-STIC and VOCAL – an update

displacement of the valve ring (tricuspid or mitral), myocardial performance index (MPI), and myocardial strain parameters(8 –13). Cardiac function, including SF, CO, and CV, can be analyzed by one-dimensional (M-mode), 2D, and 3D/4D ultrasound. The measurement of ventricular volumes during diastole and systole by 3D/4D ultrasound combined with virtual organ computer-aided analysis (VOCAL) allows calculating the EF and CO of each ventricle (left ventricle and right ventricle) and both (combined CO)(14,15

Nathalie Jeanne Bravo-Valenzuela, Alberto Borges Peixoto, Milene Carvalho Carrilho, Ana Letícia Siqueira Pontes, Caroline Cevante Chagas, Christiane Simioni, Edward Araujo Júnior

Journal of Ultrasonography, Volume 19 , ISSUE 79, 287–294

Research Article

Usefulness of ultrasound examination in the evaluation of a neonate's body fluid status

Material and methodsThe study included 50 neonates from two hospitals in the Lower Silesia region of Poland; 25 of them were healthy patients (full-term newborns with no perinatal complications) and 25 were sick patients (newborns with heart defects such as ostium secundum atrial septal defect, ventricular septal defect, permanent foramen ovale and patent ductus arteriosus as well as newborns with neonatal jaundice or pneumonia that occurred during the first days of life). The ultrasound scans

Joanna Kieliszczyk, Wojciech Baranowski, Wojciech Kosiak

Journal of Ultrasonography, Volume 16 , ISSUE 65, 125–134


The ultrasound of subcutaneous extrapelvic endometriosis

optimal preoperative surgical planning. Ultrasonography can help in detecting the site of ectopic endometrium and its anatomical relationship to the surrounding vital structures(2,3). Objectives The purpose of the present study is to highlight the rare ectopic sites and explain the pathogenesis of extrapelvic endometriosis. Another goal is to evaluate the diagnostic significance of clinical findings, serum CA 125 level, and ultrasound imaging. Methodology A retrospective study included 24 female

Ashraf Talaat Youssef

Journal of Ultrasonography, Volume 20 , ISSUE 82, 176–180

Original Paper

Repeatability and reproducibility of measurements of the suburethral tape location obtained in pelvic floor ultrasound performed with a transvaginal probe

be excellent or good. Conclusions: Excellent and good repeatability and reproducibility of the measurements of the suburethral tape location obtained in a pelvic ultrasound performed with a transvaginal probe confirm the test’s validity and usefulness for clinical and academic purposes.

Maria Magdalena Dresler, Jacek Kociszewski, Edyta Wlaźlak, Piotr Pędraszewski, Agnieszka Trzeciak, Grzegorz Surkont

Journal of Ultrasonography, Volume 17 , ISSUE 69, 101–105


The role of ultrasound and lymphoscintigraphy in the assessment of axillary lymph nodes in patients with breast cancer

node biopsy preceded by lymphoscintigraphy is used in breast cancer patients with no clinical signs of lymph node metastasis. Due to the limited sensitivity and specificity of physical examination in detecting metastatic lesions, developing an appropriate diagnostic algorithm for the preoperative assessment of axillary lymph nodes seems to be a challenge. The importance of ultrasound in patient qualification for sentinel lymph-node biopsy has been discussed in a number of works. Furthermore

Michał Nieciecki, Katarzyna Dobruch-Sobczak, Paweł Wareluk, Anna Gumińska, Ewa Białek, Marek Cacko, Leszek Królicki

Journal of Ultrasonography, Volume 16 , ISSUE 64, 5–15

Case report

Ultrasound findings in extragenital endometriosis

We present a report on ultrasound findings in extragenital endometriosis and a literature review accompanied by illustrations. Intestinal endometriosis should be considered in female patients of reproductive age who present with constipation, gastrointestinal bleeding, nausea, vomiting, cramp-like abdominal pain, diarrhoea and pelvic pain. Although definitive preoperative diagnosis of endometriosis is difficult, clinical suspicion and appropriate imaging might prevent extensive surgical

Yi Dong, Barbara Braden, Christoph Klinger, Tomás Ripolles, Christoph F. Dietrich

Journal of Ultrasonography, Volume 18 , ISSUE 74, 247–254


A rare complication of cholecystolithiasis: perforation of the gallbladder

Introduction (Acute) cholecystitis is a common reason for reporting to an Emergency Ward. Despite high sensitivity of ultrasound in this disease, the possibility of other complications should be kept in mind in the case of persisting inflammation (especially not treated one). Particular vigilance is needed in oligosymptomatic patients. Case report A 67-year-old patient was referred to an Ultrasound Diagnostic Unit for abdominal examination. She complained of yellowing of the skin of the

Bartosz Migda, Marlena Alicja Gabryelczak, Anna Migda, Katarzyna Prostacka

Journal of Ultrasonography, Volume 21 , ISSUE 84, 63–66


intra-abdominal fat, reflection patterns, localization, ultrasound, diagnostic criteria

attention of research institutes owing to being a rich source of stem cells. This review, however, does not include these issues. The identifi cation of fat is relatively easy using computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. It can be more diffi cult in an ultrasound examination for several reasons. The aim of this paper is to present various problems associated with US imaging of unaltered intra-abdominal fat located beyond organs. Based on the literature and

Andrzej Smereczyński, Katarzyna Kołaczyk, Elżbieta Bernatowicz

Journal of Ultrasonography, Volume 15 , ISSUE 62, 318–325


Ultrasound features of sole of foot pathology: a review

Introduction This review aims to provide an overview of common pathologies affecting the sole and their ultrasound and MRI correlates. Specifically, it will consider abnormalities of the plantar fascia, including plantar fasciitis, plantar fascia tears and plantar fibromatosis, in addition to Baxter’s neuropathy, epidermal inclusion cysts, foreign bodies and adventitial bursitis. Together, these encompass significant sources of foot pain(1). Familiarity with these pathologies and their

Claire Filippini, James Teh

Journal of Ultrasonography, Volume 19 , ISSUE 77, 145–151


Recommendations for ultrasonographic assessment of renal arteries

Abstract The present clinical practice recommendations are addressed to physicians of all specialties, who perform Doppler ultrasound examinations of the kidneys on a daily basis, and in particular to specialists in radiology and imaging diagnostics. The recommendations were based on the Ultrasonography Standards of the Polish Ultrasound Society and current scientific reports consistent with Evidence Based Medicine. The paper discusses patient preparation protocol, examinat ion technique with

Anna Drelich-Zbroja, Maryla Kuczyńska, Łukasz Światłowski, Anna Szymańska, Michał Elwertowski, Agnieszka Marianowska

Journal of Ultrasonography, Volume 18 , ISSUE 75, 338–343


Perianal lesions as an unusual first manifestation of Crohn’s disease in pediatric patients – case series

ultrasound using Canon Aplio i700 with a high frequency 7–12 MHz linear probe, using B-mode presentation and Dopper options and transperineal ultrasound approach to assess the anal canal and the surrounding soft tissues. In each case, the echogenicity of the bowel wall was assessed for mural stratification and possible thickening. Peri-intestinal fat was evaluated as well – for signs of inflammatory infiltration and lymphadenopathy. All abdominal structures were screened for the possible presence of

Monika Zbroja, Weronika Cyranka, Maryla Kuczyńska, Agnieszka Brodzisz, Magdalena Maria Woźniak

Journal of Ultrasonography, Volume 20 , ISSUE 82, 222–225

Research Article

A comparison of the ultrasound measurement of the inferior vena cava obtained with cardiac and convex transducers

inferior vena cava collapsibility index calculation made with two different probes.Methods20 experienced clinicians blinded to the purpose of the study analysed forty anonymized digital clips of images obtained during ultrasound examination of 20 patients. For each patient, one digital loop was recorded with a cardiac and the second with a convex probe. The participants were asked to determine the maximal and minimal diameters of the inferior vena cava in all presented films. An independent researcher

Paweł Andruszkiewicz, Dorota Sobczyk, Krzysztof Nycz, Izabela Górkiewicz-Kot, Mirosław Ziętkiewicz, Karol Wierzbicki, Jacek Wojtczak, Ilona Kowalik

Journal of Ultrasonography, Volume 17 , ISSUE 71, 241–245


High-frequency ultrasound in the 21st century

anatomy and the use of a microscope to investigate body tissues. Along with the development of this field, dermatological diagnostic possibilities have also expanded. Currently, dermatology and the related fields use advanced methods of skin diagnosis, with skin ultrasound playing an important role(1). The beginnings of skin ultrasound may be sought in the 1970s. A paper on ultrasound measurement of skin thickness using a 15 MHz mechanical ultrasound transducer published by Alexander and Miller in

Robert Krzysztof Mlosek, Bartosz Migda, Michał Migda

Journal of Ultrasonography, Volume 20 , ISSUE 83, 233–241


The use of high-frequency ultrasonography for the diagnosis of palpable nodules after the administration of dermal fillers

resulted in the emergence of diagnostic methods that enable one to assess complications. These techniques include magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or ultrasound. However, taking into account the possibilities and limitations of the novel methods, it can be stated that only the latter has a chance to enter widespread use in the field of esthetic medicine. The aim of this article is to present the authors’ experience in using high-frequency ultrasound in the diagnosis of palpable skin nodules after the

Robert Krzysztof Mlosek, Bartosz Migda, Ewa Skrzypek, Katarzyna Słoboda, Michał Migda

Journal of Ultrasonography, Volume 20 , ISSUE 83, 248–253

Review Article

Bacterial meningitis in neonates and infants – the sonographic picture

availability of magnetic resonance imaging, cranial ultrasound is the first imaging procedure to be performed (if the anterior fontanelle is preserved providing an adequate acoustic window). The safety and reliability of ultrasound examination, possibility to perform the examination at bedside without the need for sedation make cranial ultrasound a useful tool both for preliminary diagnostic investigation and for the monitoring of both treatment and long-term complications. Sonographic findings in patients

Błażej Littwin, Andrzej Pomiećko, Monika Stępień-Roman, Zeno Spârchez, Wojciech Kosiak

Journal of Ultrasonography, Volume 18 , ISSUE 72, 63–70

Review Article

The standards of an ultrasound examination of the prostate gland. Part 2

The paper discusses the rules of the proper performing of the ultrasound examination of the prostate gland. It has been divided into two parts: the general part and the detailed part. The first part presents the necessary requirements related to the ultrasound equipment needed for performing transabdominal and transrectal examinations of the prostate gland. The second part presents the application of the ultrasound examination in benign prostatic hyperplasia, in cases of prostate inflammation

Janusz F. Tyloch, Andrzej Paweł Wieczorek

Journal of Ultrasonography, Volume 17 , ISSUE 68, 43–58

Review Article

Current standards in abdominal cavity ultrasound examination in children

Technological progress forces us to present after several years the updated standards in ultrasound examination of newborns, infants and older children. It should be emphasized that the examination of the youngest patients requires one to use high-class equipment. Lack of cooperation on the part of the child and imaging small structures constitute a huge challenge for the examiner. The work presents equipment requirements, the technology of examining the abdominal cavity in children and the

Michał Brzewski

Journal of Ultrasonography, Volume 17 , ISSUE 68, 41–42


The diagnosis and management of shoulder pain

Diagnosis is crucial in decision-making when treating a patient with shoulder pain. Ultrasound is also very important in the diagnostic and therapeutic pathway, especially when surgery is being considered. This article outlines the diagnostic pathway using the patient’s history, physical examination and ultrasound examination. It is important to correlate the clinical assessment with the imaging signs. It is also important to treat the patient and not the images as there may be abnormalities

Gina M. Allen

Journal of Ultrasonography, Volume 18 , ISSUE 74, 234–239

Case report

Ultrasound imaging as the basis of a clinical diagnosis of systemic bartonellosis in a patient after bone marrow transplantation. A case report

targeted treatment to be implemented. Fever subsided and organ lesions regressed. In this case, repeated ultrasound imaging was the basic diagnostic tool that helped arrive at a correct diagnosis and implement effective treatment of this life-threatening complication after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.Zakażenia w warunkach upośledzonej odporności po transplantacji komórek krwiotwórczych mogą mieć ciężki, nietypowy przebieg. Niektóre patogeny oportunistyczne są trudne w detekcji

Aleksandra Krasowska-Kwiecień, Jolanta Goździk, Magdalena Woźniak, Wojciech Czogała

Journal of Ultrasonography, Volume 16 , ISSUE 65, 204–209

Case report

Is a linear probe helpful in diagnosing diseases of pulmonary interstitial spaces?

In a lung ultrasound examination, interstitial lung lesions are visible as numerous B-line artifacts, and are best recorded with the use of a convex probe. Interstitial lung lesions may result from many conditions, including cardiogenic pulmonary oedema, non-cardiogenic pulmonary oedema, or interstitial lung disease. Hence difficulties in the differential diagnostics of the above clinical conditions. This article presents cases of patients suffering from interstitial lung lesions discovered in

Natalia Buda, Wojciech Kosiak

Journal of Ultrasonography, Volume 17 , ISSUE 69, 136–141


Standards of the Polish Ultrasound Society – update. Ultrasound examination of the visceral arteries

Ultrasound examination is a valuable method in diagnosing visceral vasoconstriction of atherosclerotic origin, as well as constriction related to the compression of the celiactrunk. Given the standard stenosis recognition criteria of >70%, the increase in peak systolic velocity (PSV) over 200 cm/s in the celiac trunk; of PSV > 275 cm/s in the superior mesenteric artery, and of PSV > 250 cm/s in the inferior mesenteric artery, thelikelihood of correct diagnosis is above 90%. In the case of

Michał Elwertowski, Robert Lechowicz

Journal of Ultrasonography, Volume 15 , ISSUE 60, 85–95

Case report

A reminder of peristalsis as a useful tool in the prenatal differential diagnosis of abdominal cystic masses

With routine antenatal ultrasound and recent advances in ultrasound technology, fetal intraabdominal cystic masses are recognized more often and are better characterized than in the past. They may be classified as solid and cystic, and may originate from multiple structures. When considering the extensive differential diagnosis of cystic masses, the observation of peristalsis narrows the possibilities to the gastrointestinal tract. To find this feature on ultrasound, the examiner must expressly

Eugenio O. Gerscovich, Simran Sekhon, Thomas W. Loehfelm, Sandra L. Wootton-Gorges, Adam Greenspan

Journal of Ultrasonography, Volume 17 , ISSUE 69, 129–132


Detailed EFSUM recommendations on the scope of ultrasound assessment in patients with portal hypertension considering the diagnostic reference level

An important paper describing the Standards of the Polish Ultrasound Society regarding the assessment of portal and hepatic vasculature was published in the Journal of Ultrasonography. Due to the multiplicity of morphological and hemodynamic data required, the time needed to obtain these data and the legal responsibility of doctors for the results, there seems to be a need to determine a clear range of the assessed parameters depending on the reference level of a given healthcare facility

Andrzej Smereczyński, Katarzyna Kołaczyk

Journal of Ultrasonography, Volume 17 , ISSUE 69, 113–115

Case report

Diagnosis and treatment of posttraumatic arteriovenous fistula in the lower leg – a case report

External injuries are one of the common reasons for reporting to hospital emergency departments. Peripheral vascular injuries occur in up to about 25% of upper and lower extremity injury cases. Arteriovenous fistula is a type of arterial injury. Doppler ultrasound is currently the primary diagnostic method for vascular injuries as it allows for the implementation of appropriately targeted treatment, indicating the potential need for extended diagnosis or patient qualification for endovascular

Jan Sobstyl, Maryla Kuczyńska, Ewa Kuklik, Łukasz Światłowski, Maria Tsitskari, Tomasz Jargiełło

Journal of Ultrasonography, Volume 18 , ISSUE 73, 166–169

Research Article

The sonoanatomy of lumbar erector spinae and its iliac attachment – the potential substrate of the iliac crest pain syndrome, an ultrasound study in healthy subjects

entheses could be assessed in detail by ultrasound, thus their pathological transformation associated with iliac crest pain syndrome could be identified.

Plamen Todorov, Rodina Nestorova, Anastas Batalov

Journal of Ultrasonography, Volume 18 , ISSUE 72, 16–21


Imaging in dermatomyositis in adults and children

(3,4). In this paper, we review the available literature on the clinical presentation of adults and juveniles with dermatomyositis and describe imaging features of the disease in conventional radiography, ultrasound, magnetic resonance and computed tomography. Tab. 1. Rheumatic entities belonging to the group of connective tissue diseases, including dermatomyositis Diffuse connective tissue diseases 1 Rheumatoid arthritis 2 Juvenile idiopathic arthritis 3 Systemic lupus

Iwona Sudoł-Szopińska, Thibaut Jacques, Piotr Gietka, Anne Cotten

Journal of Ultrasonography, Volume 20 , ISSUE 80, 36–42

Review Article

Double aorta artifact in sonography – a diagnostic challenge

dissection seems to be of greater significance. The double aorta image occurs when ultrasound waves encounter prismatic fat tissue of the anterior abdominal wall. This artifact is more frequently observed in children and athletic young adults since the structure of this anatomic region in these individuals is conductive to the occurrence of this phenomenon. Moreover, it can be observed more often when curved transducers are used. Due to all these factors, an ultrasound beam undergoes greater refraction

Robert Hadzik, Przemysław Bombiński, Michał Brzewski

Journal of Ultrasonography, Volume 17 , ISSUE 68, 36–40


Indications for abdominal imaging: When and what to choose?

Introduction Ultrasound (US), computed-tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) all have important roles in evaluating abdominal pathology, with each technique having specific strengths and weaknesses. Table 1 provides a list of indications of imaging in abdominal pathology. Tab. 1. Indications for a given imaging modality as per the category of abdominal pathology Ultrasound CEUS CT MRI Abdominal emergencies (non-traumatic) First-line imaging technique Technique

Cosmin Caraiani, Dong Yi, Bianca Petresc, Christoph Dietrich

Journal of Ultrasonography, Volume 20 , ISSUE 80, 43–54


High-resolution ultrasound of the ankles in Lofgren syndrome: attention to detail may be the key to diagnosis

Case report A 40-year-old man presented with recent painless asymmetric soft tissue swelling at the ankles and feet predominantly affecting the medial side of the left foot (Fig. 1). The clinical examination was otherwise unremarkable, and there was no fever, signs of infection or heart failure. Fig. 1. Clinical photograph at presentation showing soft tissue edema of the left ankle and foot He was referred to the radiology department for an ultrasound (US) examination of the ankles and foot

Eleni E. Drakonaki, Emmanouil K. Symvoulakis, John Gliatis

Journal of Ultrasonography, Volume 20 , ISSUE 82, 210–213


Standards for the assessment of salivary glands – an update

The paper is an update of 2011 Standards for Ultrasound Assessment of Salivary Glands, which were developed by the Polish Ultrasound Society. We have described current ultrasound technical requirements, assessment and measurement techniques as well as guidelines for ultrasound description. We have also discussed an ultrasound image of normal salivary glands as well as the most important pathologies, such as inflammation, sialosis, collagenosis, injuries and proliferative processes, with

Piotr Zajkowski, Aleksandra Ochal-Choińska

Journal of Ultrasonography, Volume 16 , ISSUE 65, 175–190

Case report

Fortuitous diagnosis of “full stomach” made by using ultrasonographic examination of the antrum in two elective patients

We report two cases of patients presenting for elective surgery, in whom significant gastric contents were identified by performing fortuitous ultrasound examination of their antral area. The first patient presented for a day-case surgery scheduled under regional anesthesia. With his consent, ultrasound examination of the antral area was by chance performed within the context of training for this technique, showing significant solid contents in the stomach. The patient admitted that he had not

Lionel Bouvet, Caroline Augris, Clémence Aubergy, Dominique Chassard

Journal of Ultrasonography, Volume 16 , ISSUE 66, 317–321


Ultrasonographic criteria of cesarean scar defect evaluation

myometrial tear at the wound site. Such an ultrasound appearance is referred to as a niche, and it forms after a cesarean section at the site of the hysterotomy of the anterior uterine wall, most commonly within the uterine isthmus. Currently, the exact cause of niche formation remains unexplained, yet the risk factors for its development are universally acknowledged. They include the site of hysterotomy, multiple previous cesarean section deliveries, suturing technique and maternal diabetes or smoking

Andrzej Woźniak, Krzysztof Pyra, Hugo Rio Tinto, Sławomir Woźniak

Journal of Ultrasonography, Volume 18 , ISSUE 73, 162–165


Shear wave elastography detects novel imaging biomarkers of aromatase inhibitor–induced joint pain: a pilot study

anastrozole (defined as <80% of drug coverage days) after 3 years(9). Given that low adherence to AIs has been directly related to increased risk of breast cancer-specific mortality(10), it is key to identify those at risk of developing AIA. However, there are no biomarkers to indicate targetable pathways of AIA. Current standard clinical practice is to administer nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) to manage symptoms or to switch AIs(11). Imaging studies using ultrasound (US) and magnetic

Jessica A. Martinez, Mihra S. Taljanovic, Russell S. Witte, Andres A. Nuncio Zuniga, Betsy C. Wertheim, C. Kent Kwoh, Brian A. Goldstein, Denise J. Roe, Pavani Chalasani

Journal of Ultrasonography, Volume 21 , ISSUE 84, 1–6


High resolution ultrasound for imaging complications of muscle injury: Is there an additional role for elastography?

and the possibility of recurrent injury(1–3). High-resolution ultrasound imaging is extensively used in the workup of muscle injuries. With the advent of the latest generation high-resolution ultrasound scanners equipped with high-frequency probes and advanced B-mode and Doppler technology, muscle tissue can be imaged in exquisite detail allowing the depiction of subtle abnormalities. The sensitivity of high-resolution ultrasound can be comparable to that of MRI in the acute setting (between 2–48

Eleni E. Drakonaki, Iwona Sudoł-Szopińska, Christos Sinopidis, Panagiotis Givissis

Journal of Ultrasonography, Volume 19 , ISSUE 77, 137–144


The standards of an ultrasound examination of the prostate gland. Part 1

The article discusses the principles of the proper performance of the ultrasound examination of the prostate gland. The paper has been divided into two parts: the general one and the detailed one. The first part presents the necessary requirements referring to the ultrasound apparatus for performing transabdominal examinations of the urinary bladder and the prostate gland as well as for transrectal examinations of the prostate gland. The paper also describes the techniques of performing both

Janusz F. Tyloch, Andrzej Paweł Wieczorek

Journal of Ultrasonography, Volume 16 , ISSUE 67, 378–390


Value of ultrasonography in the diagnosis of polycystic ovary syndrome – literature review

(2003) and Androgen Excess & PCOS Society (2006). This criterion is determined by the presence of ≥12 follicles within the ovary with a diameter of 2–9 mm and/or ovarian volume ≥10 cm3. Such an ultrasound image in one gonad only is suffi cient to defi ne polycystic ovaries. The coexistence of polycystic ovaries with polycystic ovary syndrome is confi rmed in over 90% of cases irrespective of ethnic factors or race. However, because of the commonness of ultrasound features of polycystic ovaries in

Michał Bachanek, Nebil Abdalla, Krzysztof Cendrowski, Włodzimierz Sawicki

Journal of Ultrasonography, Volume 15 , ISSUE 63, 410–422


Ultrasonographic inferior vena cava collapsibility and distensibility indices for detecting the volume status of critically ill pediatric patients

Introduction A point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) is a type of bedside ultrasonographic assessment that is applied by the clinician in charge(1). It provides rapid and real-time answers about patients’ clinical problems. The use of POCUS by clinicians has become common in recent years, especially in emergency and intensive care departments(2). Around the world, the number of POCUS training courses intended for pediatric intensive care and emergency care specialists is increasing, and the newest

Dincer Yildizdas, Nagehan Aslan

Journal of Ultrasonography, Volume 20 , ISSUE 82, 205–209

Original Paper

Ultrasound-guided thrombin injection in the management of pseudoaneurysm after percutaneous arterial access

Aim: The purpose of this paper was to evaluate the efficacy of ultrasound-guided percutaneous thrombin injection as a treatment method for arterial access site pseudoaneurysm. Materials and methods: A total of 148 patients with iatrogenic arterial access site pseudoaneurysms were treated in the Department of Interventional Radiology and Neuroradiology, Medical University of Lublin. Of those, 142 pseudoaneurysms were located in the common femoral artery, 3 in the brachial artery and the

Tomasz Jargiełło, Jan Sobstyl, Łukasz Światłowski, Maryla Kuczyńska, Ewa Kuklik, Michał Sojka, Anna Drelich-Zbroja, Maciej Pech, Maciej Powerski

Journal of Ultrasonography, Volume 18 , ISSUE 73, 85–89

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