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Article

THE ROLE OF THE STRINGENT COMPONENTS IN THE REGULATION OF VIRULENCE

Klaudyna Krause, Klaudia Milewska, Agnieszka Szalewska-Pałasz

Postępy Mikrobiologii - Advancements of Microbiology , ISSUE 3, 247–258

Mini Review

Brucella – Virulence Factors, Pathogenesis and Treatment

feature of Brucella is the ability to survive and multiply within both phagocytic and non-phagocytic cells. Brucella does not produce classical virulence factors: exotoxin, cytolisins, exoenzymes, plasmids, fimbria, and drug resistant forms. Major virulence factors are: lipopolysaccharide (LPS), T4SS secretion system and BvrR/BvrS system, which allow interaction with host cell surface, formation of an early, late BCV (Brucella Containing Vacuole) and interaction with endoplasmic reticulum (ER) when

PATRYCJA GŁOWACKA, DOROTA ŻAKOWSKA, KATARZYNA NAYLOR, MARCIN NIEMCEWICZ, AGATA BIELAWSKA-DRÓZD

Polish Journal of Microbiology , ISSUE 2, 151–161

Mini Review

Bacteriological, Clinical and Virulence Aspects of Aeromonas-associated Diseases in Humans

scepticemia, skin, eye, wound and respiratory tract infections in humans. Several virulence and antibiotic resistance genes have been identified and isolated from this group, which if present in their mobile genetic elements, may be horizontally transferred to other naive environmental bacteria posing threat to the society. The extensive and indiscriminate use of antibiotics has given rise to many resistant varieties of bacteria. Multidrug resistance genes, such as NDM1, have been identified in this group

UTTARA DEY BHOWMICK, SOUMEN BHATTACHARJEE

Polish Journal of Microbiology , ISSUE 2, –

Original Paper

Prevalence of Biofilm Formation and Wide Distribution of Virulence Associated Genes among Vibrio spp. Strains Isolated from the Monastir Lagoon, Tunisia

In the current study, 65 Vibrio spp. were isolated from the Monastir lagoon water, were characterized phenotypically and genotypically. In addition, we looked for the presence of three Vibrio parahaemolyticus virulence genes (tlh, trh and tdh) and ten Vibrio cholerae virulence genes (ctxA, vpi, zot, ace, toxR, toxT, tosS, toxRS, tcpA and cpP). We also investigated the antibiotic susceptibilities and the adherence ability of the identified strains to abiotic material and to biotic surfaces. The

Badreddine Mechri, Amel Medhioub, Mohamed Nejib Medhioub, Mahjoub Aouni

Polish Journal of Microbiology , ISSUE 3, 307–318

original-paper

Diversity, Virulence Factors, and Antifungal Susceptibility Patterns of Pathogenic and Opportunistic Yeast Species in Rock Pigeon (Columba livia) Fecal Droppings in Western Saudi Arabia

the first time, the carriage of different genes encoding virulence factors among Cryptococcus and other yeast species found in pigeon feces in western Saudi Arabia. Experimental Materials and Methods Sampling. A total of 100 samples of dried pigeon fecal droppings were collected from various locations within the city of Makkah, western Saudi Arabia, between May and November 2018. Each fecal sample was collected in a sterile universal bottle, protected from direct sunlight and transported to the

HUSSEIN H. ABULREESH, SAMEER R. ORGANJI, KHALED ELBANNA, GAMAL E.H. OSMAN, MESHAL H.K. ALMALKI, AHMED Y. ABDEL-MALEK, ABDULLAH A.K. GHYATHUDDIN, IQBAL AHMAD

Polish Journal of Microbiology , ISSUE 4, 493–504

original-paper

Epidemiology, Drug Resistance, and Virulence of Staphylococcus aureus Isolated from Ocular Infections in Polish Patients

immunity to ocular infections can be reduced by underlying diseases, operative procedures, the use of corticosteroids, hospitalization, and the use of medical devices (Teweldemedhin et al. 2017). One of the main SA virulence factors that contribute to ocular infections is its ability to the formation of biofilms on the surface of biomedical implants or contact lenses (Cramton et al. 1999). Through this process, the bacteria become more resistant to various physicochemical stresses, e.g. antibiotics

MARTA KŁOS, MONIKA POMORSKA-WESOŁOWSKA, DOROTA ROMANISZYN, AGNIESZKA CHMIELARCZYK, JADWIGA WÓJKOWSKA-MACH

Polish Journal of Microbiology , ISSUE 4, 541–548

Original Paper

The Determination and Correlation of Various Virulence Genes, ESBL, Serum Bactericidal Effect and Biofilm Formation of Clinical Isolated Classical Klebsiella pneumoniae and Hypervirulent Klebsiella pneumoniae from Respiratory Tract Infected Patients

Klebsiella pneumoniae strains that are commonly recognized by clinicians and microbiologists are termed as classical K. pneumoniae (cKP). A strain with capsule-associated mucopolysaccharide web is known as hypervirulent K. pneumoniae (hvKP) as it enhances the serum resistant and biofilm production. Aim is to determine and correlate various virulence genes, ESBL, serum bactericidal effect and biofilm formation of clinical isolated cKP and hvKP from respiratory tract infected patients. A total of

Rambha K. Shah, Zhao H. Ni, Xiao Y. Sun, Guo Q. Wang, Fan Li

Polish Journal of Microbiology , ISSUE 4, 501–508

Original Paper

Relationship between ureB Sequence Diversity, Urease Activity and Genotypic Variations of Different Helicobacter pylori Strains in Patients with Gastric Disorders

Association of the severity of Helicobacter pylori induced diseases with virulence entity of the colonized strains was proven in some studies. Urease has been demonstrated as a potent virulence factor for H. pylori. The main aim of this study was investigation of the relationships of ureB sequence diversity, urease activity and virulence genotypes of different H. pylori strains with histopathological changes of gastric tissue in infected patients suffering from different gastric disorders

Hossein Ghalehnoei, Alireza Ahmadzadeh, Nastaran Farzi, Masoud Alebouyeh, Hamid Asadzadeh Aghdaei, Pedram Azimzadeh, Mahsa Molaei, Mohammad Reza Zali

Polish Journal of Microbiology , ISSUE 2, 153–159

Original Paper

Molecular Characterization of Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli Strains Isolated in Poland

distribution of various virulence determinants among STEC strains isolated in Poland from different sources. A total of 71 Shiga toxin-producing E. coli strains isolated from human, cattle and food over the years 1996–2010 were characterized by microarray and PCR detection of virulence genes. As stx1a subtype was present in all of the tested Shiga toxin 1 producing E. coli strains, a greater diversity of subtypes was found in the gene stx2, which occurred in five subtypes: stx2a, stx2b, stx2c, stx2d

Aleksandra Januszkiewicz, Waldemar Rastawicki

Polish Journal of Microbiology , ISSUE 3, 261–269

Research Article

FRANCISELLA TULARENSIS – A DECEITFUL PATHOGEN

Francisella tularensis is an intracellular bacterial pathogen which causes a potentially lethal disease named tularemia. Some studies have been conducted to describe and identify the virulence factors of F. tularensis. This pathogen is able to infect a variety of cells of various hosts, including wild animals, especially rabbits, hares and rodents, and humans. This may suggest that genes of F. tularensis must adapt to many different intraorganismal environments. Still, little is known about the

Kamila Formińska, Aleksandra Anna Zasada

Postępy Mikrobiologii - Advancements of Microbiology , ISSUE 2, 187–195

Research Article

An Agent-Based Metapopulation Model Simulating Virus-Based Biocontrol of Heterodera Glycines

With recently discovered soybean cyst nematode (SCN) viruses, biological control of the nematodes is a theoretical possibility. This study explores the question of what kinds of viruses would make useful biocontrol agents, taking into account evolutionary and population dynamics. An agent-based model, Soybean Cyst Nematode Simulation (SCNSim), was developed to simulate within-host virulence evolution in a virus-nematode-soybean ecosystem. SCNSim was used to predict nematode suppression under a

Safyre Anderson, Chinmay Soman, Sadia Bekal, Leslie Domier, Kris Lambert, Kaustubh Bhalerao

Journal of Nematology , ISSUE 2, 79–90

Original Paper

The Prevalence of Exoenzyme S Gene in Multidrug-Sensitive and Multidrug-Resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa Clinical Strains

Pseudomonas aeruginosa rods are one of the most commonly isolated microorganisms from clinical specimens, usually responsible for nosocomial infections. Antibiotic-resistant P. aeruginosa strains may present reduced expression of virulence factors. This fact may be caused by appropriate genome management to adapt to changing conditions of the hospital environment. Virulence factors genes maybe replaced by those crucial to survive, like antimicrobial resistance genes. The aim of this study was

Tomasz Bogiel, Aleksander Deptuła, Joanna Kwiecińska-Piróg, Małgorzata Prażyńska, Agnieszka Mikucka, Eugenia Gospodarek-Komkowska

Polish Journal of Microbiology , ISSUE 4, 427–431

Article

THE PREVALENCE OF SYMPTOMATIC DERMATOPHYTOSES IN DOGS AND CATS AND THE PATHOMECHANISM OF DERMATOPHYTE INFECTIONS

contact with soil containing arthrospores [11, 20, 78]. 3. Pathogenesis and dermatophyte virulence factors 3.1. Development of dermatophyte infection Arthrospores, which are propagules of asexual reproduction created as a result of the fermentation of a fungus’ hyphae, are believed to be an infectious form of dermatophytes [76, 77, 78]. Two routes of transmission have been described in the literature for arthrospores: the direct and the indirect one [42]. The former refers to the direct contact of

Dominik Łagowski, Sebastian Gnat, Aneta Nowakiewicz, Marcelina Osińska, Przemysław Zięba

Postępy Mikrobiologii - Advancements of Microbiology , ISSUE 2, 165–176

Research Article

TAXONOMY, VIRULENCE AND LIFE CYCLES OF BACILLUS CEREUS SENSU LATO

food-poisonings and spoilage of cold-stored products. Finally, recent finding indicate that B. cereus sensu lato toxicity plays an important role not only in their virulence, but also in social interactions with other bacteria.

Marek Bartoszewicz, Urszula Czyżewska

Postępy Mikrobiologii - Advancements of Microbiology , ISSUE 4, 440–450

Short Communication

Monitoring of Virulence Genes, Drug-Resistance in Campylobacter coli Isolated from Golden Retrievers

Marek Selwet, Mariola Galbas, Ryszard Słomski, Tomasz Cłapa, Filip Porzucek

Polish Journal of Microbiology , ISSUE 2, 237–240

Mini Review

The Functions of Effector Proteins in Yersinia Virulence

innate immune system and cell death such as apoptosis, pyroptosis, and autophagy. Among the Yersinia effector proteins, YopB and YopD assist the injection of other virulence effectors into the host cytoplasm, while YopE, YopH, YopJ, YopO, and YopT target on disrupting host cell signaling pathways in the host cytosols. Many efforts have been applied to reveal that intracellular proteins such as Rho-GTPase, and transmembrane receptors such as Toll-like receptors (TLRs) both play critical roles in

Linglin Zhang, Meng Mei, Chan Yu, Wenwen Shen, Lixin Ma, Jiewang He, Li Yi

Polish Journal of Microbiology , ISSUE 1, 5–12

research-article

Potential of entomopathogenic nematodes against the pupal stage of the apple maggot Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh) (Diptera: Tephritidae)

. Short-term exposure bioassay This experiment as well as the others described below were organized as completely randomized designs (CRD) and conducted at USDA-ARS research station in Byron, GA. Bioassay procedures were based on prior EPN virulence assays (Shapiro-Ilan et al., 2002). The experimental arena consisted of a lidded 30 ml plastic cup filled with 10 g of autoclaved sand with 0% soil moisture content. Each cup contained one pupa (recently pupated) at the bottom of the cup underneath the

Muhammad Usman, Sehrish Gulzar, Waqas Wakil, Jaime C. Piñero, Tracy C. Leskey, Laura J. Nixon, Camila Oliveira-Hofman, Shaohui Wu, David Shapiro-Ilan

Journal of Nematology , 1–9

Original Paper

Safety Evaluation of Enterocin Producer Enterococcus sp. Strains Isolated from Traditional Turkish Cheeses

The purpose of this study was to determine the antimicrobial activity and occurrence of bacteriocin structural genes in Enterococcus spp. isolated from different cheeses and also investigate some of their virulence factors. Enterococcus strains were isolated from 33 different cheeses. Enterococcus faecium (6 strains) and Enterococcus faecalis (5 strains) enterocin-producing strains were identified by 16S rDNA analyses. Structural genes entA, entB, entP and entX were detected in some isolates

Mine Avci, Banu Özden Tuncer

Polish Journal of Microbiology , ISSUE 2, 223–233

research-article

Reproduction and life history traits of a resistance breaking Globodera pallida population

structure. In this case, females are formed but their development is arrested and they fail to develop eggs (Bakker et al., 2006). When cultivars carrying similar resistance genes are grown repeatedly for several generations, they impose strong selection pressure which increases the frequency of virulent individuals within a nematode population (Turner, 1990; Turner and Fleming, 2002). There are reports for Germany and the Netherlands about G. pallida populations with the new virulence type due to

James M. Mwangi, Björn Niere, Maria R. Finckh, Stefan Krüssel, Sebastian Kiewnick

Journal Of Nematology , 1–13

original-paper

Characteristics of Listeria monocytogenes Strains Isolated from Milk and Humans and the Possibility of Milk-Borne Strains Transmission

strains are increasingly frequently isolated. This is mainly due to the overuse of antibiotics in animal husbandry (Jamali et al. 2013). Also, several virulence factors enable L. monocytogenes to infect and spread in the host (Park et al. 2012). L. monocytogenes possesses many virulence genes responsible for the invasion of host cells (inlA, inlB, and iap), phagosomal escape (hlyA, plcA, and plcB) and cell to cell spread (actA) (Hamon et al. 2006). This study aimed was to determine the multiple

KRZYSZTOF SKOWRON, EWA WAŁECKA-ZACHARKSA, KATARZYNA GRUDLEWSKA, NATALIA WIKTORCZYK, AGNIESZKA KACZMAREK, GRZEGORZ GRYŃ, JOANNA KWIECIŃSKA-PIRÓG, KLAUDIA JUSZCZUK, ZBIGNIEW PALUSZAK, KATARZYNA KOSEK-PASZKOWSKA, EUGENIA GOSPODAREK-KOMKOWSKA

Polish Journal of Microbiology , ISSUE 3, 353–369

Original Paper

Deletion of atoR from Streptococcus pyogenes Results in Hypervirulence in a Mouse Model of Sepsis and is LuxS Independent

Group A Streptococcus (GAS) is a Gram-positive human pathogen that causes a variety of diseases ranging from pharyngitis to life-threaten­ing streptococcal toxic shock syndrome. Recently, several global gene expression analyses have yielded extensive new information regarding the regulation of genes encoding known and putative virulence factors in GAS. A microarray analysis found that transcription of the GAS gene M5005_Spy_1343 was significantly increased in response to interaction with

Izabela Sitkiewicz, James M. Musser

Polish Journal of Microbiology , ISSUE 1, 17–24

original-paper

Campylobacter fetus is Internalized by Bovine Endometrial Epithelial Cells

has been studied regarding its pathogenicity mechanisms. However, considering the pathogenesis of infection by this organism, it must possess characteristics that allow it to colonize or invade tissues and evade the immune system response. Several virulence factors, such as adhesins, secretion systems, and anti-phagocytic layers, have been identified in the genome of C. fetus (Kienesberger et al. 2014). Nonetheless, it is still necessary to investigate C. fetus interactions with animal hosts. When

LIZETH GUADALUPE CAMPOS-MÚZQUIZ, ESTELA TERESITA MÉNDEZ-OLVERA, BEATRIZ ARELLANO-REYNOSO, DANIEL MARTÍNEZ-GÓMEZ

Polish Journal of Microbiology , ISSUE 2, 217–224

research-article

Oscheius myriophila (Nematoda: Rhabditida) isolated in sugar cane soils in Mexico with potential to be used as entomopathogenic nematode

cereal 300 g, yeast 75 g). The pathogenicity and the changes in the coloration of the cuticle were evaluated at 24 and 48 hr. The results were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the Tukey test at the 0.05 probability. The SAS statistical package was applied. Virulence of the bacteria The virulence bioassays of the bacteria isolated from the MC5-2014 strain were performed on 30 larvae of G. mellonella in the 5th instar, and the treatment was carried out in triplicate. Bacterial strains

Iveth del Rocio Castro-Ortega, Juan Manuel Caspeta-Mandujano, Ramón Suárez-Rodríguez, Guadalupe Peña-Chora, José Augusto Ramírez-Trujillo, Karina Cruz-Pérez, Iván Arenas Sosa, Víctor Manuel Hernández–Velázquez

Journal of Nematology , 1–8

Research Article

SECRETION OF OUTER MEMBRANE VESICLES AS A MECHANISM PROMOTING H. PYLORI INFECTIONS

during stressful conditions, among others. H. pylori OMV mediate transfer of virulence factors such as toxins and immunomodulatory compounds. They contribute to avoiding a response from the host immune system and inducing chronic gastritis. OMV secretion also affects the formation of cell aggregates, microcolonies and biofilm matrix. Enhanced OMV production is connected to maintenance of direct contact through cell-cell and cell-surface interactions. A key component of OMV, which determines their

Paweł Krzyżek

Postępy Mikrobiologii - Advancements of Microbiology , ISSUE 3, 316–325

original-paper

Salmonella-Infected Aortic Aneurysm: Investigating Pathogenesis Using Salmonella Serotypes

. enterica serovar Enteritidis OU7130, and S. enterica serovar Choleraesuis OU7085 carried 90-, 60-, and 50-kb virulence plasmids, respectively. We also used strains without a virulence plasmid: S. Typhimurium OU5046, S. Enteritidis OU7067, and S. Choleraesuis OU7266. All bacterial strains used in this study were routinely grown on xylose lysine deoxycholate agar plate, and every single black colony was later grown in Luria-Bertani (LB) broth at 37°C overnight. Table I Characteristics of S. Typhimurium

CHISHIH CHU, MIN YI WONG, CHENG-HSUN CHIU, YUAN-HSI TSENG, CHYI-LIANG CHEN, YAO-KUANG HUANG

Polish Journal of Microbiology , ISSUE 4, 439–447

Original Paper

Genetic Analysis Method for Staphylococcus chromogenes Associated with Goat Mastitis

study of several bacterial species. To develop a genotyping method, the genome sequence of Staphylococcus chromogenes MU970 was analysed. The analysis showed nine virulence genes described in Staphylococcus aureus. The MLVA was developed using four loci identified in the genome of S. chromogenes MU970. This genotyping method was examined in 23 strains of CNS isolated from goat mastitis. The rate of discrimination for MLVA was 0.8893, and the highest rates of discrimination per the index of Simpson

ROCÍO A. RUIZ-ROMERO, ROBERTO A. CERVANTES-OLIVARES, ANDRÉS E. DUCOING-WATTY, DANIEL MARTÍNEZ-GÓMEZ, EFRÉN DÍAZ-APARICIO, ESTELA T. MÉNDEZ-OLVERA

Polish Journal of Microbiology , ISSUE 2, –

Research Article

BACTEROIDES SPP. – CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE, ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE AND IDENTIFICATION METHODS

Anaerobic Bacteroides species are dominant microbiota of the digestive tract of mammals. Along with other symbiotic bacteria located in the gastrointestinal tract, they contribute to the proper functioning of the organism. Some Bacteroides species are highly pathogenic. Virulence of these bacteria is related to their polysaccharide capsule, lipopolysaccharide and a variety of enzymes and enterotoxin. In recent years, an increase of antibiotic resistance in Bacteroides spp. has been noted

Sebastian Niestępski, Monika Harnisz, Ewa Korzeniewska, Adriana Osińska, Bartłomiej Dziuba

Postępy Mikrobiologii - Advancements of Microbiology , ISSUE 1, 67–76

Research Article

Identification of HG Types of Soybean Cyst Nematode Heterodera glycines and Resistance Screening on Soybean Genotypes in Northeast China

Soybean cyst nematode (SCN, Heterodera glycines Ichinohe) is a serious soybean pathogen worldwide. HG Type 0 had been a predominant SCN in Heilongjiang province, the largest soybean (Glycine max L.) producing region in China. Recently, increased virulence on resistant cultivars originally developed for resistance to HG Type 0 was observed in fields. In order to identify new cultivars resistant to local SCN populations, two soil samples were collected from two counties (Anda and Wuchang) in

Cui Hua, Chunjie Li, Yanfeng Hu, Yanzhi Mao, Jia You, Mingze Wang, Jingsheng Chen, Zhongyan Tian, Congli Wang

Journal of Nematology , ISSUE 1, 41–50

Research Article

Enhanced entomopathogenic nematode yield and fitness via addition of pulverized insect powder to solid media

(Galleria mellonella, Tenebrio molitor, and Lucillia sericata) at three dose levels (1, 3, and 5%). The impact of insect powder was assessed on infective juvenile (IJ) yield in solid media. Additionally, IJs produced in solid culture were subsequently assessed for virulence, and progeny production in a target insect, Spodoptera litura. The dose level of larval powder had a significant effect on IJ yield in both trials, whereas insect type had significant effect on IJ yield in trial 1 but not in trial 2

Shiyu Zhen, Yang Li, Yanli Hou, Xinghui Gu, Limeng Zhang, Weibin Ruan, David Shapiro-Ilan

Journal of Nematology , ISSUE 4, 495–506

Short Communication

Clonal Analysis of Clinical and Environmental Pseudomonas aeruginosa Isolates from Meknes Region, Morocco

From 123 clinical and environmental Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates, 24 strains were selected for their similar antibioresistance, virulence and biofilm formation profiles, to examine their diversity and occurrence of clones within two hospitals and different natural sites in Meknes (Morocco). Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, using DraI enzyme, didn’t reveal a close relationship between clinical and environmentalisolates nor between strains of the two hospitals. 19 genotypes were

Itto Maroui, Abouddihaj Barguigua, Asmae Aboulkacem, Hanane Elhafa, Khadija Ouarrak, Mohammed Sbiti, Lhoussain Louzi, Mohammed Timinouni, Abdelhaq Belhaj

Polish Journal of Microbiology , ISSUE 3, 397–400

research-article

Activity of Steinernema colombiense in plant-based oils

target plant part (Brusselman et al., 2012; Shapiro-Ilan and Dolinski, 2015). Often aerial application approaches include adjuvants or surfactants to enhance IJ survival under stressing factors, such as desiccation and UV exposure (Schroer and Ehlers, 2005; Beck et al., 2013; De Waal et al., 2013; Hiltpold, 2015; Dito et al., 2016; Noosidum et al., 2016), but also to maintain virulence and reduce drippage from leaves. Polymers as Zeba and sprayable fire-gels are among the synthetic compounds tested

Gabriela Castruita-Esparza, Francisco Ángel Bueno-Pallero, Rubén Blanco-Pérez, Lídia Dionísio, Teodulfo Aquino-Bolaños, Raquel Campos-Herrera

Journal of Nematology , 1–12

Article

THE ROLE AND IMPORTANCE OF SELECTED VIRULENCE FACTORS DETERMINING THE PATHOGENICITY OF UROPATHOGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI STRAINS

Sylwia Joanna Chmielewska, Katarzyna Leszczyńska

Postępy Mikrobiologii - Advancements of Microbiology , ISSUE 1, 25–37

Research Article

Biological characterization of the entomopathogenic nematode, Steinernema innovationi: a South African isolate

Tshimangadzo Ramakuwela, Justin Hatting, Mark D. Laing, Nicolene Thiebaut, Selcuk Hazir

Journal of Nematology , ISSUE 4, 1–10

Research Article

BACTERIAL MOONLIGHTING PROTEINS

moonlighting proteins complicates the understanding of pathogenicity and virulence of many common bacteria as well as their role in commensal bacteria. Many of moonlighting proteins occurring in commensal bacteria appear to perform similar functions to proteins discovered in pathogenic bacteria, e.g. binding extracellular matrix. Moonlighting proteins found in bacteria are mostly housekeeping enzymes, especially from the glycolytic pathway, such as enolase, aldolase, dehydrogenase as well as heat-shock

Jagoda Płaczkiewicz

Postępy Mikrobiologii - Advancements of Microbiology , ISSUE 2, 226–232

Article

DIFFUSELY ADHERING ESCHERICHIA COLI

virulence factors they generate: enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC), Shiga toxinproducing E. coli (STEC) along with the subgroup of enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC), enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC), enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC), enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC), adherent-invasive E. coli (AIEC) and diffusely-adherent E. coli (DAEC). Those E. coli strains that cause extraintestinal infections (ExPEC; Extraintestinal Pathogenic Escherichia coli), comprise uropathogenic E. coli strains (UPEC; Uropathogenic

Michał Turniak, Beata Sobieszczańska

Postępy Mikrobiologii - Advancements of Microbiology , ISSUE 2, 143–152

Research Article

STRATEGIES FOR THE ANALYSIS OF THIOLOXIDORDUCTASES

details, the mechanism of the Dsb systems functioning in other bacteria are rather poorly understood. Herein, we present the current methodology, both in vivo and in vitro experimental techniques, which allow us to understand the functioning of the Dsb proteins and has broaden our knowledge in the field of biochemistry and microbiology of this posttranslational protein modification. Many bacterial virulence factors are extracytoplasmic Dsb-dependent proteins. Thus, this system plays an important role

Elżbieta Katarzyna Jagusztyn-Krynicka, Anna Marta Banaś, Magdalena Joanna Grzeszczuk

Postępy Mikrobiologii - Advancements of Microbiology , ISSUE 3, 326–334

original-paper

Influence of Environmental and Genetic Factors on Proteomic Profiling of Outer Membrane Vesicles from Campylobacter jejuni

). At present, we can propose neither causes nor consequences of up- or downregulation of certain proteins (coproporphyrinogen-III oxidase (hemN Cj0992c) or unknown putative lipoprotein), indicating that further research in this field is needed. Further investigation of the regulation of C. jejuni OMVs’ composition combined with their role in virulence will allow us to better understand the pathomechanisms of the infection.

RENATA GODLEWSKA, JOANNA KLIM, JANUSZ DĘBSKI, AGNIESZKA WYSZYŃSKA, ANNA ŁASICA

Polish Journal of Microbiology , ISSUE 2, 255–261

research-article

Active and inactive forms of biotin synthase occur in Heterodera glycines

biochemistry, development, and defenses (Hussey, 1989; Smant et al., 1998; Lambert et al., 1999; Davis et al., 2000). Not all nematode secretory proteins, however, originate from the esophageal glands and some of the genes that encode secretory proteins can act as either virulence or avirulence genes. An esophageal gland-secreted protein/enzyme chorismate mutase (CM) is thought to suppress host defense by lowering the levels of chorismate-derived compounds required for plant defense (Lambert et al., 1999

Khee Man Kwon, Sadia Bekal, Leslie L. Domier, Kris N. Lambert

Journal of Nematology , 1–12

Article

Are Entomopathogenic Nematodes Effective Biological Control Agents Against the Carob Moth, Ectomyelois ceratoniae?

, H. bacteriophora demonstrated low virulence on the pest larvae in petri tests with a LC50 = 426.92 IJ/larva. Hence, both Steinernema species were selected for subsequent experiments. The penetration rate for S. feltiae and S. carpocapsae into the hemocoel of the pest was 43% and 31%, respectively, and the corresponding reproduction rate was 15,452 IJ/larva for S. feltiae and 18,456 IJ/larva for S. carpocapsae. The gathered data from those in vitro tests were used for a field assay

ZAHRA MEMARI, JAVAD KARIMI, SHOKOOFEH KAMALI, SEYED HOSSEIN GOLDANSAZ, MOJTABA HOSSEINI

Journal of Nematology , ISSUE 4, 261–267

Article

First Report and Comparative Study of Steinernema surkhetense (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae) and its Symbiont Bacteria from Subcontinental India

. These data, together with the finding of X. stockiae, suggest that this bacterium is widespread among South Asian nematodes from the ‘‘carpocapsae’’ group. Virulence of both isolates was tested on Spodoptera litura. The strain CS19 was capable to kill the larvae with 31.78 IJs at 72 hr, whereas CS20 needed 67.7 IJs.

AASHIQ HUSSAIN BHAT, I STKHAR, ASHOK KUMAR CHAUBEY, VLADIMIR PUZA, ERNESTO SAN-BLAS

Journal of Nematology , ISSUE 1, 92–102

Article

A New Race (X12) of Soybean Cyst Nematode in China

. Morphological and molecular studies of J2 and cysts confirmed the population as the SCN H. glycines. This is a new SCN race with stronger virulence than that of race 4 and is a potential threat to soybean production in China.

YUN LIAN, JIANQIU GUO, HAICHAO LI, YONGKANG WU, HE WEI, JINSHE WANG, JINYING LI, WEIGUO LU

Journal of Nematology , ISSUE 3, 321–326

original-paper

New Insight into Genotypic and Phenotypic Relatedness of Staphylococcus aureus Strains from Human Infections or Animal Reservoirs

species, especially household or livestock animals, with clear evidence of the intra-species transmission of staphylococci (Angen et al. 2017; Kmet et al. 2018). Under particular conditions, S. aureus causes infections, and become high-risk pathogens due to several virulence determinants such as toxins and enzymes combined with other survival strategies of bacteria like antibiotic resistance and biofilm production (Goldmann and Medina 2017). An important staphylococcal strategy is to damage host cell

KLAUDIA LISOWSKA-ŁYSIAK, MAJA KOSECKA-STROJEK, JOANNA BIAŁECKA, ANDRZEJ KASPROWICZ, KATARZYNA GARBACZ, LIDIA PIECHOWICZ, VLADIMIR KMET, VINCENZO SAVINI, JACEK MIĘDZOBRODZKI

Polish Journal of Microbiology , ISSUE 1, 93–104

Research Article

GENETIC DIVERSITY OF BOVINE DIARRHEA AND MUCOSAL DISEASE VIRUS

cultures. The phylogenetic analysis of the 5’UTR and Npro region has revealed at least 21 distinct subtypes of BVDV-1 and 4 subtypes of BVDV-2. Genetic diversity of BVD viruses has serious clinical implications such as immune evasion, increase of virulence, host range alteration and also affects the efficacy of vaccination programmes and diagnostic methods.

Paweł Mirosław, Aleksandra Antos, Mirosław Polak

Postępy Mikrobiologii - Advancements of Microbiology , ISSUE 4, 389–394

Research Article

BACTERIAL METALLOTHIONEINS

involved in zinc homeostasis, while in Pseudomonas they are linked to cadmium detoxification. In Mycobacterium, MTs bind copper ions and may play a pivotal role in the virulence of these bacteria. The presence of MTs in other groups of bacteria remains questionable. Problems with identification of new bacterial MTs are mainly associated with low level of homology between MT amino acid sequences of different bacterial groups. Further research is needed to evaluate the physiological functions of

Agnieszka Mierek-Adamska, Wioleta Tylman-Mojżeszek, Zuzanna Znajewska, Grażyna B. Dąbrowska

Postępy Mikrobiologii - Advancements of Microbiology , ISSUE 2, 171–179

Research Article

DEADLY MICROBES – MICROBES USED AS A BIOLOGICAL WEAPON

and Francisella tularensis. They are characterized by high virulence, ease of spread and the possibility to obtain and use them at low cost. The aim of this paper is to characterize, based on the available literature, the most dangerous microorganisms which pose a potential threat to humans as biological warfare. The article also provides basic information on the diagnosis and treatment of diseases caused by pathogens which can be used in a bioterrorist attack.

Karol Abramczyk, Anna Gałązka

Postępy Mikrobiologii - Advancements of Microbiology , ISSUE 4, 395–404

Original Paper

Temperature, pH and Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole Are Potent Inhibitors of Biofilm Formation by Stenotrophomonas maltophilia Clinical Isolates

Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, an opportunistic pathogen usually connected with healthcare-associated infections, is an environmental bacterium. Intrinsic resistance to multiple antibiotics, with different virulence determinants in the last decade classified this bacterium in the group of global multiple drug resistant (MDR) organism. S. maltophilia clinical isolates, were collected from tertiary care pediatric hospital in Belgrade, Serbia to investigate influence of different factors on biofilm

Marjan Biočanin, Haowa Madi, Zorica Vasiljević, Milan Kojić, Branko Jovčić, Jelena Lozo

Polish Journal of Microbiology , ISSUE 4, 433–438

Research Article

THE ROLE OF STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS IN THE CLINICAL DIAGNOSIS OF DIABETIC PATIENTS

diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2). However, the colonization by S. aureus is a probable risk factor for infection. Among S. aureus virulence factors, superantigens (SAgs) are essential for pathogenicity. The long-term effect of the superantigen toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 (TSST-1) might be glucose intolerance. This toxin also induces systemic inflammation as a result of the increased exotoxin concentration in blood, and, therefore, may be the causative factor of diabetes. Chronic exposure to

Renata Barbara Klekotka, Elżbieta Mizgała-Izworska, Witold Drzastwa2, Bogdan Mazur

Postępy Mikrobiologii - Advancements of Microbiology , ISSUE 2, 166–178

research-article

Control of the tomato leaf miner, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) larvae in laboratory using entomopathogenic nematodes from subtropical environment

species is not yet known to farmers in the Kingdom of Eswatini. In this study, we tested the virulence of two sub-tropical EPN species on T. absoluta larvae. Materials and methods Source of insects Tuta absoluta larvae were collected from infested tomato fields around Mankayane (26 °44’58”S 31°02’56”E), kept in Perspex boxes measuring 15 × 20 cm and transported to the Entomology laboratory, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Eswatini. Tuta absoluta was mass-reared in rearing cages (50 × 50 × 50

Bonginkhosi E. Dlamini, Nelisiwe Dlamini, Michael T. Masarirambi, Nxumalo Kwanele A.

Journal of Nematology , 1–8

Research Article

Effector gene vap1 based DGGE fingerprinting to assess variation within and among Heterodera schachtii populations

Populations of beet cyst nematodes Heterodera schachtii vary in aggressiveness and virulence toward sugar beet varieties, but also in traits like host range, or decline rate in the field. Diversity of their essential pathogenicity gene vap1 is shaped by diversifying selection and gene flow. The authors developed a technique to study inter-population variation and intra-population diversity and dynamics of H. schachtii based on the gene vap1. Degenerate primers were designed to amplify, clone

Rasha Haj Nuaima, Johannes Roeb, Johannes Hallmann, Matthias Daub, Sandra Otte, Holger Heuer

Journal of Nematology , ISSUE 4, 517–528

Article

NEW SPECIES OF BACTERIA IN HUMAN INFECTIONS

colonies do not induce haemolysis, produce β-glucuronidase and do not ferment sucrose and trehalose. Strains with smooth colonies are more likely to cause skin infections, while the rough ones, in most cases of infections, are isolated from the material originating from the respiratory tract [46, 57]. Little is known about the virulence factors of these bacteria. A. haemolyticum produces phospholipase D and neuraminidase. Phospholipase D breaks down sphingomyelin by causing necrosis of the skin and

Alicja Sękowska, Eugenia Gospodarek-Komkowska

Postępy Mikrobiologii - Advancements of Microbiology , ISSUE 1, 29–34

original-paper

Cytokine Levels in the In Vitro Response of T Cells to Planktonic and Biofilm Corynebacterium amycolatum

al. 2017; Kang et al. 2018). The potential association between coryneforms and clinical infections can be attributed to immunosuppression, severe underlying medical disorders or invasive procedures (Nhan et al. 2012; Cacopardo et al. 2013; Kimura et al. 2017; Qin et al. 2017). In order to shed more light on the role of diptheroids as medically relevant microorganisms, their inherent low virulence should be confronted to the increasingly reported multidrug resistance (Yoon et al. 2011; Bernard

ALINA OLENDER, AGNIESZKA BOGUT, AGNIESZKA MAGRYŚ, JACEK TABARKIEWICZ

Polish Journal of Microbiology , ISSUE 4, 457–464

Research Article

Molecular Identification of Entomopathogenic Nematode Isolates from the Philippines and their Biological Control Potential Against Lepidopteran Pests of Corn

Heterorhabditis indica. The pathogenicity of these EPN was tested in Ostrinia furnacalis, Spodoptera litura, and Helicoverpa armigera larvae under laboratory conditions. All the EPN isolates were pathogenic to the lepidopteran species with, H. indica PBCB and S. abbasi MBLB exhibiting the highest virulence (88%–99.33% and 90%–100% mortality, respectively) at 48 hr post infection (HPI) and thus, further studies were done on these two EPN. The highest penetration rate at 48 HPI was observed in H. armigera

Barbara L. Caoili, Romnick A. Latina, Regina Faye C. Sandoval, Joey I. Orajay

Journal of Nematology , ISSUE 2, 99–110

Research Article

Broad-based root-knot nematode resistance identified in cowpea gene-pool two

cowpea germplasm collection of 48 genotypes representing the cowpea gene-pool from Eastern and Southern Africa (cowpea has two major pools of genetic resources – Western Africa and Eastern/Southern Africa) was screened in replicated experiments under field, greenhouse and controlled-growth conditions to identify resistance to RKN, to determine the spectrum of resistance to RKN, the relative virulence (VI) among RKN species and isolates, and the relationship between root-galling (RG) and egg-mass

Arsenio D. Ndeve, William C. Matthews, Jansen R. P. Santos, Bao Lam Huynh, Philip A. Roberts

Journal of Nematology , ISSUE 4, 545–558

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