SEARCH WITHIN CONTENT
Citation Information : Transport Problems. Volume 15, Issue 3, Pages 5-16, DOI: https://doi.org/10.21307/tp-2020-029
License : (CC BY 4.0)
Received Date : 05-February-2019 / Accepted: 25-August-2020 / Published Online: 05-September-2020
Absorption of impact energy by the passive safety elements of the vehicle body is the basic feature to ensure conditions of safety for the driver and passengers in transport. The parts especially designed for this objective in the self-supporting car body are longitudinals. Their energy-absorbing features are designed in different ways. Evaluation of the degree to which the vehicle (body) ensures safety during a collision is difficult and expensive. Usually, tests under impact conditions are required. The most advanced and costly are the tests carried out on a complete vehicle (whole real object for tests). Whole vehicle testing can be replaced by testing of individual car body elements (for example longitudinal). The main aim of this article is to present and compare the results of dynamic studies on model energy-consuming objects (new model longitudinals and model longitudinals repaired with welding methods). For the purpose of this study, models of vehicle passive safety elements (model longitudinals) were designed. On the basis of the conducted tests, it was found that it is worth considering the replacement of collision tests of the whole vehicle by tests of its individual components. This can be considered a new approach that is not widely used. Currently, most often, crash tests of entire vehicles are conducted (high costs) or computer simulations are performed (often with unsatisfactory accuracy).
1. Tobota, A. & Karliński, J. & Kopczyński, A. Axial crushing of monotubal and bitubal circular foamfilled sections. Journal of Achievements in Materials and Manufacturing Engineering. 2007. Vol. 22. No. 2. P. 71-74.
2. Song, H.W. & Wan, Z.M. & Xie, Z.M. & Du, X.W. Axial impact behavior and energy absorption efficiency of composite wrapped metal tubes. International Journal of Impact Engineering. 2000. Vol. 24. No. 4. P. 385-401.
3. Romaniszyn, K.M. Wpływ struktury przodu nadwozia na energochłonność. Zeszyty Naukowe Politechniki Świętokrzyskiej, Mechanika. 2006. Z. 84. Kielce. P. 287-292. [In Polish: Influence of the front body structure on energy consumption].
4. Shipway, P. & Wood, J. The hardness and sliding wear behaviour of a bainitic steel. Wear. 1997. Vols. 203-204. P. 196-205.
5. Leitner, M. & Pichler, P. & Steinwender, F. & Guster, Ch. Wear and fatigue resistance of mild steel components reinforced by arc welded hard layers. Surface and Coatings Technology. 2017. Vol. 330. P. 140-148.
6. Stanik, Z. & Peruń, G. & Matyja, T. Effective methods for the diagnosis of vehicles rolling bearings wear and damages. Archives of Metallurgy and Materials. 2015. Vol. 60. No. 3. P. 1718-1724.
7. Zhang, H. & Wu, Y. & Li, Q. & Hong, X. Mechanical properties and rolling-sliding wear performance of dual phase austempered ductile iron as potential metro wheel material. Wear. 2018. Vols. 406-407. P 156-165.
8. Krneta, M. & Samardžić, I & Ivandić, Ž & Marić, D. Joining materials by metalock repair method. Metalurgija. 2018. Vol. 57. No. 1-2. P. 142-144.
9. Bąkowski, H. Wear mechanism of spheroidal cast iron piston ring-aluminum matrix composite cylinder liner contact. Archives of Metallurgy and Materials. 2018. Vol. 63. No. 1. P. 481-490.
10. Zhang, N. & Zhang, J. & Lu, J. & Zhang, M. & Zeng, D. & Song, Q. Wear and friction behavior of austempered ductile iron as railway wheel material. Materials & Design. 2016. Vol. 89. P. 815-822.
11. Kozuba, J. & Mendala, J. Corrosion Resistance of Steel Sheets with Zn Protective Coatings. IEEE - Proceeding of the New Trends in Aviation Development (NTAD) – 14th International Scientific Conference. 26-29.09.2019. Chlumec nad Cidlinou. Czech Republic.
12. Dahil, L. Effect on the vibration of the suspension system. Metalurgija. 2017. Vol. 56. Nos. 3-4. P. 375-378.
13. Kozuba, J. & Wieszała, R. & Piątkowski, J. Mechanical properties of the AlSi10MnMg alloy with a different content of manganese and magnesium intended for light die-casting. IEEE – Proceeding of the New Trends in Aviation Development (NTAD) – 14th International Scientific Conference. 26- 29.09.2019. Chlumec nad Cidlinou. Czech Republic.
14. Baranowski, P. & Burdzik, R. & Piwnik, J. Measure and analysis of crash vehicle deformation. Research and Didactic Equipment. 2011. Vol. 16. No. 1. P. 11-16.
15. Matyja, T. & Łazarz, B. Modelling the coupled flexural and torsional vibrations in rotating machines in transient states. Journal of Vibroengineering. 2014. Vol. 16. No. 4. P. 1911-1924.
16. Celin, R. & Burja, J. Effect of cooling rates on the weld heat affected zone coarse grain microstructure. Metallurgical and Materials Engineering. 2018. Vol. 24. No. 1. P. 37-44.
17. Arai, Y. & Yamazaki, K. & Mizuno, K. & Kubota, H. Full-width tests to evaluate structural interaction. 20th International Technical Conference on the Enhanced Safety of Vehicles (ESV). Lyon. France. 18-21.06.2007. Paper No. 07-0195.
18. Szczucka-Lastoa, B. & Gajdzik, B. & Węgrzyn, T. & Wszołek, Ł. Steel weld metal deposit measured properties after immediate micro-jet cooling. METALS. 2017. Vol. 7. No. 9. P. 1-9.
19. Rajendran, R. & Prem Sai, K. & Chandrasekar, B. & Gokhale, A. & Basu, S. Impact energy absorption of aluminium foam fitted AISI 304L stainless steel tube. Materials and Design. 2009. Vol. 30. No. 5. P. 1777-1784.
20. Tarigopula, V. & Langseth, M. & Hopperstad, O.S. & Clausen, A.H. Axial crushing of thin-walled high-strength steel sections, International Journal of Impact Engineering. 2006. Vol. 32. No. 5. P. 847-882.
21. Czech, P. Diagnose car engine exhaust system damage using bispectral analysis and radial basic function. Proceedings of the International Conference on Computer, Networks and Communication Engineering. ICCNCE 2013. 23-24.05.2013. Beijing. Peoples Republic of China. P. 312-315.
22. Skrucany, T. & Sarkan, B. & Figlus, T. & Synak, F. & Vrabel, J. Measuring of noise emitted by moving vehicles. Dynamics ff Civil Engineering and Transport Structures and Wind Engineering (DYN-WIND'2017). 2017. Vol. 107. P. 1-8.
23. Gill A. Ocena skuteczności działania elementów bezpieczeństwa biernego samochodów osobowych na podstawie wyników badań zderzeniowych. Zeszyty Naukowe Politechniki Poznańskiej, Maszyny Robocze i Transport. 2001. No. 53. Poznań. P. 117-123. [In Polish: Assessment of the effectiveness of the passive safety components of passenger cars based on the results of crash tests].
24. Hadryś, D. & Miros, M. Coefficient of restitution of model repaired car body parts. Journal of Achievements in Materials and Manufacturing Engineering. 2008. Vol. 28. No. 1. P. 51-54.
25. Juntikka, R. & Hallstrom, S. Weight-balanced drop test method for characterization of dynamic propertiesof cellular materials. International Journal of Impact Engineering. 2004. Vol. 30. No. 5. P. 541-554.
26. Mizuno, K. & Tateishi, K. & Arai, Y. & Nishomoto, T. Research on vehicle compatibility in Japan. 18th International Technical Conference on the Enhanced Safety of Vehicles. NHTSA. 2003. Nagoya. Japan.
27. Hadryś, D. Mechanical properties of plug welds after micro-jet cooling. Archives of Metallurgy and Materials. 2016. Vol. 61. No. 4. P. 1771-1775.
28. Węgrzyn, T. & Piwnik, J. & Borek, A. & Kurc-Lisiecka, A. Impact toughness of WMD after MAG welding with micro-jet cooling. Materiali in Tehnologije. 2016. Vol. 50. No. 6. P. 1001-1004.
29. Peroni, L. & Avalle, M. & Belingardi, G. Comparison of the energy absorption capability of crash boxes assembled by spot-weld and continuous joining techniques. International Journal of Impact Engineering. 2008. Vol. 36. No. 3. P. 498-511.
30. He, L. & Lin, X. An improved mathematical model for vehicle crash against highway guardrails. Archives of Transport. 2018. Vol. 48. No. 4. P. 41-49.
31. Hadryś, D. & Węgrzyn, T. & Piwnik, J. & Wszołek, Ł. & Węgrzyn, D. Compressive strength of steel frames after welding with micro-jet cooling. Archives of Metallurgy and Materials. 2016. Vol. 61. No. 1. P. 123-126.
32. Technical data and training materials from - Manufacturer’s documentation for technology of postaccident repair of car body. 2008. Nissan. Japan Motors.